How to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer

How to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer

Construction, repair and improvement of surrounding areas - all these processes are associated with the inevitable costs for work performed. And if some costs can not be avoided, the other can be saved by taking some of the work themselves. The former include, first of all, the use of a variety of construction tools and machinery: cranes, excavators, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and other. And also requires a qualified expenditure calculation and design houses, engineering systems, installation of windows, installation of roof construction and other works, which are either very hard to do it yourself, or impossible.

What can save you always - it's the designers. The authors did not wish to "throw a stone in the garden," the representatives of this wonderful profession. Of course, what they need, and many specialists in this field can help immensely. Just want to say that one should not underestimate their own ability to visualize the desired interior or landscape. And if a person does not know how to draw, then the computer it can be done easily. In this article, we propose to consider the question of how to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer. Moreover, the authors insist that the dear readers of our portal is made by ourselves, with us.

How to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer

How to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer

What software can be used to visualize the layout of paving stones?

There are so many programs with which you can make the visualization layout pavers both professional and amateur. Among all their diversity, we offer the program Microsoft Publisher, which is included in the Microsoft Office package. Find this program is very easy, very easy to install. Why Publisher?

  • Firstly, the interface is almost the same as that of the most used Microsoft Word editor. It is simple and intuitive.
  • Secondly, despite the ease of development, this program has a pretty impressive set of tools to create complex graphics.
  • Third, traditional for the Microsoft Office suite, all file formats created by other programs, are easy to read and apply.
  • Fourth, in the Publisher Program can create a set of templates, which can then easily be used in the future.
  • And finally, Microsoft Office Publisher lets you save files in their format and in others, which are easy to export, read or use in other programs.

Of course, Microsoft Office Publisher can not create a 3D model, as in the professional programs. The Publisher will not be able to see how it will sparkle with dew covered cobbles in the gentle rays of the morning sun, you will not be virtually wander around the winding paths of their future garden or make a video about it. To do this, it will be necessary to spend a lot of time to learn any program, then spend even as much time lovingly placing stones on the tracks indicate the points of the compass, the sun's position, the location of buildings and other objects, and so on. Or you can turn to designers who possess professional visualization programs, however, have to pay for a lot of money. Yes, and practice shows that it is not always even the most complicated and detailed visualization helps.

One example of imaging coverage of the pavers in the professional program

One example of imaging coverage of the pavers in the professional program

We encourage our readers to connect their own imagination, which everyone has. We assert that after 30-40 minutes of the readers will choose the color of stones in their future paths, and they shall arrange them. At the same time they will provide good tools - calculators that will help to calculate the right amount of the right color pavers. After a short time readers of our portal who had never used a computer for imaging, will be a good way to wonder how it is that simple.

Where to begin?

First of all, you need to install Microsoft Office Publisher program or to check whether it is not installed on the computer. Very often, together with Microsoft Office, this program is the default simply do not use it and it is unfairly forgotten somewhere in the depths of your hard drive. In this article, we will not describe the process of finding and installing this program, especially because of the fact that it's very simple. Also for the reason that our portal is called the building, rather than a computer.

Once the program is installed or clarified the fact of its presence can begin to take action. What should we do?

  • First, decide which pavers will be used.
  • Second, create templates in Microsoft Office Publisher Program, which reflect the size and color of the pavers.
  • Third, find out the number of pavers required for the desired color scheme. To do this, we will provide calculators.
  • And, finally, begin the creative process - to make their own layout. And no one on this issue to rush or demand money for it.

What we choose as an example?

Sett is completely different. Of course, natural granite preferably all, but we will be realistic and accept the fact that in most cases, use an artificial stone. If you follow the impartial statistics, the most popular is vibropressed concrete blocks. Therefore, we consider it is her, although with the same success it is possible to lay the paving stones on the computer and other materials. Here are its main types and sizes in the table. In addition to its natural size, give a size that should be used in an image editor that it looked more or less realistic, and would reflect the real proportions.

IzobrazhenieRazmery, short opisanieRekomenduemye dimensions of the template in the graphical editor
1"Brick" pavers vibropressed. Dimensions 100 * 200 mm, thickness 40, 60, 80 or 100 mm.10 * 20 mm (1 * 2 cm). The thickness of the layout is not important.
2Vibropressed pavers "small square". Dimensions 100 x 100 mm. Thickness 40, 60, 80 or 100 mm.10 * 10 mm (1 * 1 cm).
3"Square big" vibropressed pavers. The dimensions of 200 * 200 mm. Thickness 40, 60, 80 or 100 mm.20 * 20 mm (2 * 2 cm).
4"Old Town" vibropressed pavers. A set of three elements, dimensions 240 * 160 mm, 120 * 160 * 160 mm and 160 mm. Thickness 40, 60, 80 mm.24 * 16 mm (2.4 * 1.6 cm); 12 * 16 mm (1.2 * 1.6 cm); 16 * 16 mm (1.6 x 1.6 cm).
5Vibropressed pavers "Old Town" of the four elements. Dimensions 60 * 120 mm, 90 * 120 mm, 120 * 120 mm, 180 * 120 mm. Thickness 40, 60, 80 mm.6 * 12 mm (0.6 * 1.2 cm); 9 * 12 mm (0.9 * 1.2 cm); 12 * 12 mm (1.2 * 1.2 cm); 18 * 12 mm (1.8 * 1.2 cm).
6"Old Town" vibropressed pavers. A set of three elements, dimensions 260 * 160 mm, 100 * 160 * 160 mm and 160 mm. The thickness of 50 or 80 mm.26 * 16 mm (2.6 * 1.6 cm); 10 * 16 mm (1 * 1.6 cm); 16 * 16 mm (1.6 x 1.6 cm).
7Vibropressed pavers "European Brook" of the three elements. Dimensions: 240 * 240mm, 240 * 120mm, 120 * 120 mm. Thickness 60 mm.24 * 24 mm (2.4 * 2.4 cm); 24 * 12 mm (2.4 * 1.2 cm); 12 * 12 mm (1.2 * 1.2 cm).

Vibropressed pavers can be made of completely different colors. As an example, we present the main ones, but that does not mean that these are the colors will be closest to the readers DIY stores and markets. You always have to start from the real possibilities, and we are in his article will explain how to use layout with exactly those colors that are available within walking distance. Delivery of heavy and bulk pavers are very expensive, which it is necessary to save.

Create templates in the program Microsoft Office Publisher

Any owner when making dumplings or dumplings will never be out of the dough with a knife to cut each blank separately. To do this, use any special forms, templates, or just a glass. That's when the layout of the pavers is proposed to create simple patterns, with which you can get what you want. It's very simple. First you need to run the Publisher program. A window will appear to create a new file, where you can select a blank A4 page in landscape orientation.

Work with templates in Publisher pavers program more convenient to A4 page in landscape orientation

Work with templates in Publisher pavers program more convenient to A4 page in landscape orientation

Will appear on the window, which is very much like all the famous text editor Microsoft Word, but in fact it is not. If the Word «all dancing" goes around the text, which you can insert a variety of objects in Publisher can be randomly inserted anywhere on any objects as graphics and text, giving complete freedom of action. Now it's look at an example of creating templates.

Publisher Program working window

Publisher Program working window

Top working Publisher window are tabs: "File", "Home", "Insert", "Page Layout", "News", "Review", "view", and in the presence of a selected object in the working field appears more tab and the "Format". Each tab has its own set of tools, submit button. In the manual, we will indicate the tab and button. Let's start creating templates pavers. We represent the process as a table.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie actions
1First, create Templates sett on an example given in the table previously provided. To do this, go to the tab "Insert" and find her button "Figures".
2After clicking on this button is in the drop-down "Rounded Rectangle" list and click on it.
3In the working area of ​​the program by pressing the left mouse button, draw a small rectangle with rounded corners. With the help of the blue marker, you can change its linear dimensions, using a green marker it can be rotated, and yellow can change the radius of curvature. Even in such a form of default, this box may well serve as the basis for creating a template.
4Now it's time to give the desired size of the template. For this we look at their earlier published table. The first is "brick", size 100 * 200 mm, and a scale 10 * 20 mm. To make a rectangle the size you want, you can select it and on the Format tab on the right side of the toolbar to find the button "Measure" and press it.
6Small toolbar displays, where X and Y indicate the position of the figures in the workspace, and the following three fields define the geometrical dimensions and the angle of rotation. By changing the value in the cells can be easily resized. We introduce a width of 2 cm and a height of 1 cm, the rotation angle can be left in the same - 0 °. We obtain a scaled image of paving stone "bricks".
7By default, the contour of the figure has a black color and line thickness of 0.75 points. If necessary, change the color and line width. To do this, select the shape and the tab "Format" click "Contour shape" and the drop-down list to select the line color, type, thickness. In this example we have chosen the gray color of the outline, but you can choose any other that will seem clearer.
8If necessary, you can easily change the scale of the work area in Publisher editor. For this purpose there is a slider in the lower right part of the window with the characters "+" and "-". Moving it to the left or right, you can make a convenient scale for the job.
9For further convenience, the orientation in the templates, you can make a signature for each type of paving stone. To do this on the tab "Home" or "Insert" button is pressed, "Draw the inscription."
10Then position the cursor at the location where you want to place the label and do click the left mouse button. There is a text entry field. In our example, this pavers "bricks" that is typed in the field.
elevenField size is easy to adjust by using markers, as this field can be moved anywhere on the page. This is done in exactly the same way as in Microsoft Word, and a graphics editor.
12It is also very convenient to make the sign of the size of paving stones, then to easily navigate through the templates. This is done in the same way as in the previous case. In our example, we placed the inscription on the pattern of paving stones "bricks".
13To draw a rectangle is not necessarily re-apply to the "Shapes" button. Just copy an existing "bricks" and insert it, and then resize. To copy the need to select the shape, and then click the right mouse button. In the shortcut menu, it is necessary to select the item. This action can be replaced by pressing «Ctrl + C» after separation.
14Then, in the right place, you can right-click on the shortcut menu, select "Paste".
15You can also press the key combination «Ctrl + V», and then drag the figure to the right place. When you drag a line will appear pink, which will give a hint that the edges are aligned figures.
16Then the figure is given the desired size using the "Measure" button on the "Format" tab. In our case it is 1 * 1 cm.
17Similarly, as has been done before, you can sign the name and size of the pavers. You can create a new label, and easier to copy, paste and edit previously made.
18Just as in the previous case is a pattern of paving stones "large square", which also made a signature.
20The following table there are three kinds of sets pavers "Old Town" of three or four elements of varying size. Denote their sequence numbers 1, 2 and 3 and is located in the right side of the workspace (sheet). Initially, the figures of the corresponding size. We do exactly the same as the previous examples, only in the panel "Measure" are putting the right size. Similarly, made a signature to all items individually and as a whole set.
21For a better view of all the templates you want to align. This can be done manually by selecting and dragging the items you want. This will prompt a pink lines that appear when you drag.
22After aligning the elements, you can check the correct size and save the template file. To do this, go to "File" tab and click "Save As." In the dialog box, you must choose a location and specify a file name, such as "Patterns of paving stones."

When all these steps are completed, you can congratulate the artist that created templates. But a reasonable question arises - because apart from the geometrical sizes of pavers for the layout and color is also important. It's just, you can set the color fill shapes by clicking on the tab "Format" button "Fill shapes" and select a color. But much better to make a texture fill vibropressed pavers. Where you can take a texture?

  • Firstly, you can visit the site pavers manufacturers or vendors, which can be color samples.
  • Secondly, it is also possible to download from the Internet image bruschatyh coating and from "get" color patterns and textures.
  • Finally, you can visit the place where will be purchased pavers and independently to photograph specimens that are usually put on the stands. And then "get" the right texture.

Consider, as an editor in Publisher is very easy to make color patterns pavers. For this we take the Internet and find an appropriate photo, where the main color of paving stones. Naturally, this can be simply and Photo pavers made independently. Cameras in the form of smart phones are now equipped with almost everything and there is no trouble to make one or more images. The figure shows an example of images found on the Internet at the website of the manufacturer, which has been stored on the computer.

Image with samples of stone blocks of color, which is found on the Internet

Image with samples of stone blocks of color, which is found on the Internet

Next, open the Publisher program, and it is better to open a new file, rather than the one that was previously saved as a template. Whereas previously lined templates will not be affected when editing images. On the "Insert" it is necessary to click on "Figure" in the Explorer window that opens, specify the location of the photos and click "Paste." As a result of these actions in the working area of ​​the program (on the sheet) will be selected photo.

File patterns paving stone color, is inserted into the workspace Publiher

File patterns paving stone color, is inserted into the workspace Publiher

 

Further process can be represented as a table.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie actions
1Select photo and click "Trim" (marked by the red arrow) on the Format tab. Around the photos there are special markers (indicated by the blue arrow).
2What follows is cut, or as they say photographers - crop, the desired portion of the image. To do this, use the mouse drag markers in a position to inside the frame was only a necessary portion.
3Then press the button again, "Trim" or click with the mouse on any free part of the work area. As a result, there will be only one rectangle, which is limited to the markers. In this example, it is gray. To save it as a separate file click on the right mouse button and choose the option "Save as Picture".
4In the resulting "Save As" you must first specify a location to save the dialog box. A special folder "Colors pavers" has been created in this case.
5Then enter a file name, in this case the name of the color "Gray".
6Specify the file type. In most cases, it is best to choose the "Picture in JPEG format," since most of the photos downloaded from the Internet or captured with a digital camera are in this format. If there is another format, you have to open the drop-down list and select.
7Then press "Save". The desired file by the name of the color will be saved in the selected folder.
8To preserve the color of the other is not necessary to re-open the image editor in Publisher. To do this, select the image enough that was saved earlier, and then on the "Format" tab, again click "Trim." After these steps, the original image appears on the field, which will trim markers highlighted saved pattern.
9These markers can be moved left or right, up or down to select another desired portion. In our example, we move the right handle to the right to indicate the right border of the neighboring sample pavers - dark brown.
10Then, the mouse is taken left trimming mark.
elevenAnd drag the left edge of the dark brown area. Thus, the next sample is selected.
12Saving a file is exactly the same as in the previous case: Press the "Cut", then on the shortcut menu, select "Save as Picture" indicating storage location, enter a file name, format and click "Save."
13Similarly, everything is repeated for each of the paving stones of colors. The result should be a directory with several image files that will be used later.

In this example, 12 samples shown pavers colors. In real life, they are usually smaller, since not every manufacturer will produce and sell paving stones in a wide range. But this does not affect the aesthetic qualities of the finished coating, because for a good and harmonious pavers enough to use two, three or four colors. More of them - it is already too much, because the coverage areas and walkways should not resemble a bright quilt, but must be in harmony, especially with the landscape, and then with the surrounding buildings.

The next step is to create color patterns using "extracted" bruchatki image. For this we need to find and open a previously created document in which the paving stones are made templates.

At the bottom is enough space to accommodate color patterns, but it is better not to do pictures, and samples of the pavers, which are painted in different colors, the ones that will be used in the virtual layout. In the example described above, we have kept 12 different colors, so it will be necessary to create 12 samples. The template is the smallest model pavers "small square". That it is most convenient to use as a template.

should be at the bottom of the workspace to place the pavers 12 templates "small square" to create color patterns. To do this, copy the template using the context menu that appears when you click the right mouse button or the selected object is copied and inserted shortcut keys «Ctrl + C» and «Ctrl + V». Move the objects from the lower portion of the sheet.

For color patterns suitable element

For color patterns suitable element "Square small»

These templates are desirable to align. This can be done by hand and by eye, but it is better to use special tools. To do this, select all of them. This can be done in two ways:

  • Select one object by clicking the left mouse button, and then hold down the «Ctrl», click on all other objects that should be allocated.
  • Place the cursor over all the objects in the upper left corner, and then when you click on the left mouse button to move the cursor to the right and down. Appears rectangle bounded by the dotted line. All objects that should be allocated to these contours of the rectangle. Then, when released the left mouse button - all objects are highlighted.

Next, you can select these objects vertically. To do this, go to the tab "Format" and then click "Align". In the resulting number of points, you can select the list. We choose the "Align Bottom".

Alignment patterns on the bottom edge

Alignment patterns on the bottom edge

All objects are aligned along the bottom edge, but horizontally distributed ugly. Extreme object can move to the right, defining the right border of a group of objects, and align it along the bottom edge to the other. The fact that it is on one line, suggest the pink lines that appear when you move.

Tips in the form of pink lines

Tips in the form of pink lines

But then again, all of the objects you want to select on the "Format" tab, click "Align". From the list it is necessary to select "Distribute Horizontally". The result of this action will please anyone, because all objects will be distributed evenly between the extreme left and the extreme right, and this process together with the pressing will take more than a few seconds.

The result of the alignment

The result of the alignment

Now it's time to give all the necessary patterns of color that had previously been stored previously. This is done very simply. Provided one object on the "Format" tab, press the "Fill the figures." A list in which it is necessary to select "Picture".

Selecting the way to fill

Selecting the way to fill "Figure"

A dialog box appears in which to specify the location where the previously saved color samples of paving stones, and then select the desired file and click "Paste." Dedicated earlier this object will fill color, and there will be visually resemble Planking stone. In this example, a white color is applied. For convenience, you can sign the sample in the same way as we did with the Patterns of paving stones.

Selecting the picture to fill

Selecting the picture to fill

The result of casting a single figure

The result of casting a single figure

Similarly, the filling is made of all the objects that will represent samples of paving stone colors and made them a signature. The result is visible in the picture, and it is already starting to look pleasing. After that, the pattern file can be saved and go directly to the process layout of paving stones on a computer.

Color templates ready

Color templates ready

How to make your own layout of paving stones on a computer

Selecting the layout scheme pavers

Before embarking on the layout of paving stones on a computer is to determine what kind of pavers will be used, as well as decide on the circuit. There are so many options. More information can be found in the corresponding article on our site, but here we present a table which describes the basic scheme.

IzobrazhenieNazvanie raskladkiRazmery pavers or tiles, mmOpisanie
1"Seam in seam"50 * 50 or 100 * 100Paving stones or tiles square-shaped stacked so that all the joints are aligned.
2"The Extension"50 * 50 or 100 * 100One seam square tile falls exactly in the middle of another tile width.
3"The wave of Extension"50 * 50 or 100 * 100Sutures tiles next horizontal row are shifted by a quarter of the width of rings. After three rows in the same direction, the shift changes direction.
4"The Extension diagonal"50 * 50 or 100 * 100The displacement occurs in one direction at a quarter width of the tile.
5"Seam in seam"100 * 200All seam lines coincide.
6"The Extension"100 * 200The seams of tiles of each one falls exactly in the middle of the last row of tiles.
7"Herringbone"100 * 200This layout resembles the layout of parquet. It can be performed as a parallel track paving edges zones and at 45 ° thereto.
8"Network"100 * 200two blocks tiles are laid in mutually perpendicular directions.
9"The Dutch"100 * 200 and 100 * 100One row is a tile 100 * 100 mm, and the other - the alternation of 100 * 100 * 100 mm with 200 mm. Ligation joints as the figure
10"Herringbone"100 * 200 and 100 * 100Each row comprises alternating rectangular and square tiles. Ligation shown in Fig.
eleven"The Extension"100 * 200 and 100 * 100Each series - is the alternation of rectangular and square tiles. Ligation in the Extension is between the square tiles.
12"Well"100 * 200 and 100 * 100Each square tiles around the rectangular obkladyvaetsya the well.

After selecting a scheme, of course, will rise a reasonable question - how many pavers need for paving a particular area of ​​the chosen scheme? In this issue should be guided by a few simple principles.

Enter the number used in the paving stone pattern, "brick"2Cobblestones "small square" 100 * 100 mmEnter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "small square"3Cobblestones "Square big" 200 * 200 mmEnter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "large square"

Calculators for calculating the area of ​​a pattern of pavers "Old Town"

Cobblestones "Old Town" has many varieties as the size of its elements, and by color. In the table we show the main three of its kind, which often can be found in Russia and in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Conventionally, we call it the way it should be in the table. "Old Town -1", "-2 Old Town" and "Old Town -3"

Very often sets paving stone blocks are combined with the standard "building blocks", "Square small" and "large square" of which can give all border zone, the boundary zone and separators between sections. That is why in all the calculators there is an opportunity to consider and standard paving.

A calculator for calculating the area of ​​a pattern of pavers "Old Town &# 8212; 1"

1 CalculatorCalculator for cell area (pattern) of the paving stones "Old Town - 1"
The set consists of three elements: 240 * 160 mm, 160 * 160 * 120 mm and 160 mm. Consistently indicate what pavers and quantities used in the pattern, and then click "Calculate the area of ​​the pattern"OLD TOWN 1 item 1
Enter the number of elements pavers size 240 * 160 mmitem2
Enter the number of elements of paving stone size of 160 * 160 mmelement 3
Enter the number of paving elements measuring 120 * 160 mm If the standard types of pavers are used in the pattern, enter the number1
Enter the number used in the paving stone pattern, "brick"2Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "small square"3Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "large square"

A calculator for calculating the area of ​​a pattern of pavers "Old Town &# 8212; 2 »

stargor2Calculator for cell area (pattern) of the paving stones "Old Town - 2"
The set consists of four elements: 180 * 120 mm, 120 mm, 120 * 90 * 120 * 60 mm and 120 mm. Consistently indicate what pavers and quantities used in the pattern, and then click "Calculate the area of ​​the pattern"21
Enter the number of paving elements measuring 180 * 120 mm22
Enter the number of paving elements measuring 120 * 120 mm23
Enter the number of paving elements measuring 90 * 120 mm24
Enter the number of elements pavers size 60 * 120 mm If the standard types of pavers are used in the pattern, enter the number1
Enter the number used in the paving stone pattern, "brick"2Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "small square"3Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "large square"

A calculator for calculating the area of ​​a pattern of pavers "Old Town &# 8212; 3 '

3Calculator for cell area (pattern) of the paving stones "Old Town - 3"
The set consists of three elements: 260 * 160 mm, 160 * 160 * 100 mm and 160 mm. Consistently indicate what pavers and quantities used in the pattern, and then click "Calculate the area of ​​the pattern"31
Enter the number of elements of paving stone size 260 * 160 mm32
Enter the number of elements of paving stone size of 160 * 160 mm33
Enter the number of elements of paving stones of size 100 * 160 mm If the standard types of pavers are used in the pattern, enter the number1
Enter the number used in the paving stone pattern, "brick"2Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "small square"3Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "large square"

A calculator for calculating the area of ​​a pattern of pavers "European Brook"

63Calculator for cell area (pattern) of the paving stones "European Brook"
The set consists of three elements: 240 * 240 mm, 240 * 120 * 120 mm and 120 mm. Consistently indicate what pavers and quantities used in the pattern, and then click "Calculate the area of ​​the pattern"41
Enter the number of elements pavers size 240 * 240 mm42
Enter the number of elements pavers size 240 * 120 mm43
Enter the number of paving elements measuring 120 * 120 mm If the standard types of pavers are used in the pattern, enter the number1
Enter the number used in the paving stone pattern, "brick"2Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "small square"3Enter the number of employed in the pattern of paving stones "large square"

The pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions

The pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions

Residents of apartments in high-rise building to gain access to the water is sufficient to open the valve on the mixer. And the water flow at any time, wherein the desired temperature and in the right quantity. And almost no one will be interested in where the water appears as it prepares as both heated and enters the apartment. The right of access is written in the contract, this service simply need to pay monthly bills.

When the same residents of cities wishing to be closer to the earth and become ourselves plots for construction or finished homes, they are in completely different conditions. Not always rural property boasts running water, so care of the water extraction, its preparation and heating to the desired temperature borne by the newly minted owners. The old fashioned way to carry water with buckets of well few people want, so worth thinking about where to take the water, and then deliver the house to the procedure of its receipt does not differ from the usual - just opened the tap and everything. And for this there is special equipment that can be purchased at any time. In this article we consider in detail the question of how to find the right device based on the conditions and needs. Readers will learn what a pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions will also be discussed in detail.

The pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions

The pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions

About water

If you look at the world map of population density, and then look at the other, where the sources of fresh water will be shown, it is possible to be "surprised" that the person prefers to live where there is water. Explain this law does not make sense, as any living organism, which is the people and the needs on a daily basis in a certain amount of water. It does not depend on region of residence, nationality, political opinion or religion. Water is a must to all! Well-known among philosophers philosopher Gay Pliny Secundus, whose better known under the name of Pliniy Starshy, said: "to acquire the land, look closely, first of all, to water, road, neighbor." Very precise and succinct expression that was uttered at the very beginning of our era, but still has not lost its relevance. Have access to water has always been the most important.

With groundwater reserves in Russia everything is in order

With groundwater reserves in Russia everything is in order

Water reserves in the country, though very large, but are not inexhaustible. All the water that has been taken, madly spent and contaminated with any chemicals, getting into the soil, it is still included in the cycle. And after a while it again enters the water supply, well or spring. But do not think that the whole current generation of "lucky" because the pure water will be enough for a lot of years. Hard facts tell a different story. Now in those regions where in Soviet times farmland "ironed" aircraft sprayed agrochemicals, in the wells and the wells are observed traces of these substances, and in such quantities that may be harmful to health.

Surprisingly, the fact that only 2.5-3% of all water on Earth is fresh water. From this small number of 85-90% &# 8212; this ice. Currently, about 2 billion people are affected by shortage of fresh water, and to the middle of the XXI century, such people will have more than 4 billion. That's why we want to tell our readers that opening the valve or pump in the well including the need to consider yourself a happy person. Just due to the fact that fresh water is available to us! And in any quantity! But at the same time never forget that the water should not be used carelessly, and return it back into the natural cycle should be at the highest possible purity.

According to estimates of political scientists in the XXI century

According to estimates of political scientists in the XXI century "export of democracy" will not take place in the country, who have more oil, and in those with a lot of fresh water

How to get water on the site?

In the absence of any plumbing master will try to extract the water. And before you get, it is necessary to determine exactly where it is most advantageous to do so. There are many ways to find water: both scientific and popular, and even the esoteric. Our advice is clear - should be used to search for water on the site is only scientific methods and to attract those professionals who know how to do it. Only they will be able to help in the search for water, and proper placement of the well or wells, and the drilling of wells, and in the selection of the right equipment.

A bit of water to access the legal side

Besides competent approach and the availability of the necessary equipment, all organizations that are legally engaged in drilling, should have licensed the right to it. This applies, above all, artesian wells, which give the water of the highest quality. All these wells must necessarily register with the government, and before the start of drilling required permission. The process of obtaining the necessary documents associated with a "firm" Russian bureaucracy, accompanied by partial loss of nerve cells, and sometimes forced parting with money, which have a "magic" effect to accelerate the movement of documents from one office to another. site owners will be deprived himself "headache" if the care of the water supply company will shift onto the shoulders of specialized organizations, who know how to quickly go through all the "hell". And the owners finally get a well or borehole made by all the rules. In addition, the water will be carried out laboratory analysis and issued a passport well or well, which will include all technical parameters for further operation of properly. It will also guarantee was issued, which is very helpful. If the well will not satisfy those needs in the water, which are set out in documents, the elimination of the defects will be free for the hosts.

EXAMPLE German

EXAMPLE German "bourgeois" drilling. The plant operator is not even got dirty

Land owners, of course, may resent the fact that for the production of artesian water on its territory require some negotiation. However, in any country that wants to grow and be convenient for all of its citizens have laws concerning sharing of mineral resources. There and in the Russian Federation "Subsoil Law" adopted in 1992. It spelled out strict rules including apply to water. Violation of this law provides for liability, which may be associated with high fines. Unfortunately, in our country it has long been operating an unwritten rule that "the severity of laws is offset by not having their performance." But such an attitude in the end to anything good does not. The evidence suggests that the uncontrolled and improper use of water resources leading to their pollution. Around large cities, where drilled a very large number of uncontrolled artesian wells, there is a clear deterioration of water quality and a significant reduction in its reserves. If you leave and then everything "to chance", it will only get worse and the damage will be caused to both those who are already using water from the depths, and are going to do.

A good example of how the company is professionally engaged in drilling keeps statistics on its website

A good example of how the company is professionally engaged in drilling keeps statistics on its website

Therefore, our recommendations regarding water search on the site and its production in the required quantities are reduced to one: it is better to entrust the procedures for those who do it right. In any region of Russia, there are organizations that are professionally and within the framework of providing services such laws. Of course - it's a lot of costs, but independent drilling in 80% of cases, it is simply impossible due to lack of necessary equipment. Few people have the farm "stray" rigs and powerful pumps for washing.

Learn about the kinds of aquifer wells, drilling technologies they can be of a detailed article on our website. It reads: "Drilling wells with their own hands."

What type of wells for water supply area choose?

Water extracted from the ground, can occur at very different depths. Naturally, the chemical composition it can be completely different and the degree of fitness for a particular purpose may also vary. And the depth of the well depends on the right choice of pump equipment. Place of occurrence of the water in the ground is called aquifers, which are:

  • At a depth of about 4-5 meters above the ground can often lie the so-called perched. Such water can still be called "podshkurnoy". The extent of its presence varies greatly depending on the season and on the amount of precipitation. This water can not "boast" a good chemical composition and purity as well as the filtering of the ground failed. It can be used only for technical purposes, but it is better not to use at all. To collect this water will be sufficiently surface pump.
The approximate layout of aquifers

The approximate layout of aquifers

  • If you fall below - 7-10 meters from the ground, then these layers often occur so-called sand water horizon. From sandy topsoil horizons often separated by a layer of clay that are waterproof. And also on the depth may be slightly water-bearing sand bodies which are separated from each other by "spacers" of clay. This water has passed a solid layer of soil and therefore the degree of its cleaning head is higher than the vadose. Most often this water is suitable for technical purposes and for internal use, but treatment is necessary in any case. When digging wells, that they are oriented mostly on these layers. Wells, which are intended for the abstraction of water with these layers, referred to as Abyssinian or sandy. The depth of such water may be from 7-10 meters and 50 meters. Delivering water to the house from such wells, or wells can pump both surface and submerged.
  • If you continue to drill even at great depth, then, in the end, the drill reaches the limestone layer, which had inherited since very ancient times, when the Earth was covered by oceans. This layer typically are cavity where the water is pressurized, and such that sometimes it can gush from the well. Such water is called artesian, on behalf of the French province of Artois, where they began to produce in the XII century. Artesian water is very clean, has a rich mineral composition (sometimes too rich), they belong to the minerals. Extraction of artesian water have to be licensed. Such water after filtration, can be safely used for drinking and cooking, but for technical purposes or watering - it will be a waste of valuable natural resources. Artesian wells should be used not for one house, and for a few, as their life is often more than needs. Given the considerable depth of the artesian water, usually water are pumped by submersible pumps. But in this question a lot depends on how under pressure into the well fed artesian water. And the choice of the right equipment is best left to professionals.

Most often, it is advisable to use it for water sand well, as they give the normal water quality and in the required quantity. How to evaluate the possibility of a well or wells we describe below.

How well equipped?

The pump wells station consists of a plurality of elements, each of which performs its function. To understand how to properly mount, you should find out from which the main parts of the well is how the withdrawals from it. Then it will be easier to understand where best to place equipment and how to organize the uninterrupted water supply.

What is the casing and well head?

After the well has been drilled, it is placed casing. This is a required element for any well. Most often in wells, especially deep, do not single casing, and at least two nested. The outer tube is designed to resist shifting of the soil, which can occur for various reasons, especially in the upper layers. It is most often made of steel. Inner same must be stretched "in the chord" inside the steel tube under the protection of "big brother". Its task is to take the water and in the right quantity, and delivered to the consumer. The inner tube is advantageous to use polyethylene, and since it is durable and does not enter into any chemical reaction with water. Any curvature of the borehole under the action of ground motions often leads to the fact that expensive submersible pumps are doomed to "life imprisonment". If the Earth could give a written report on how much useless implanted in her body well and pump, then no one would did not have any doubt that water extraction should be dealt with professionals only.

In dense deep soils, which are unusual for some movements, you can have a steel outer tube is not used, since the desired strength and tightness provide pipes made of polyethylene. What do casings?

  • First of all, the casing prevents collapse of the borehole wall, as soil at different depths may be either dense or quicksand. Its mechanical strength must be such as to ensure the invariability of the geometric dimensions of the well for a long time. Casing made of metal or various types of plastics. The most popular are now tube HDPE (high density polyethylene). The wall thickness of this pipe starts from 8 mm and the diameters can be from 89 mm to 133 mm. With such dimensions, which corresponds to high mechanical strength, the pipe can last 50 years or more.
  • At the bottom of the casing make perforations (number of holes) in its wall, which allows water to penetrate into the aquifer pipe. Thus except for the openings on the tube makes a mechanical filter mesh stainless or special synthetic filtered fabrics which prevent the penetration of sludge into the tube and different particles. This part of the pipe is also called a filter area.
Casing for a filter zone

Casing for a filter zone

  • Inside the casing located equipment that delivers water to the top. This can be either a submersible pump or reception pipe with an ejector (or without it). The diameter of the casing must be greater than the diameter of the equipment is not less than 10 mm.
  • The casing may extend through different aquifers. In this case, it should ensure tightness to water from one layer are not mixed with the waters of another layer. Water intake should only go with her to this dedicated layer, and other pipe must be insulated. Knee Joints casing necessarily sealed. The most reliable connection - this thread. Ensure these conditions will afford only to specialists and only with the use intended for these purposes pipes.
Threaded casing pipes made of HDPE are among the most reliable

Threaded casing pipes made of HDPE are among the most reliable

  • In the casing must be headroom, which closes the hole from getting any objects, dust and dirt. In addition, it passes through the pipe and the pump power cord. The pump itself is also suspended at the desired depth in the borehole by a cable fixed to the well head. Integrity, which should provide headroom contributes to the well production, since decreasing the water creates a vacuum in the casing.
well headroom

well headroom

But the casing and well head on it too little to the well to fulfill all of its functions. To her yet to be sum and the pipe through which water will flow into the house, and it must be done so that in the winter it will not freeze. Exit here one - it is necessary to lay the pipe in the insulation and below the depth of soil freezing and no harm will be more "just fire" to equip the pipe heating cable. That's why you rarely see "lonely sticking out" from the ground casing wells headroom. To implement all the features of the well equipped or adapter, or caisson.

What is the well adapter?

hole adapter - a special device which is intended to output water pipe through a wall of the well casing. Place it at a level which should be below the depth of soil freezing. Usually it is 1.2-2 meter from the surface.

The downhole adapter in unassembled

The downhole adapter in unassembled

The adapter consists of two detachable parts - one fixed and one movable. A fixed part mounted on a side surface of the casing. For this purpose it is cut a circular hole corresponding to the diameter of the crown, and then inserted into the inside tube through the rubber gasket outwardly threaded portion. To apply inch adapter crown diameter 44 mm ¼ inch to 1 - 54 mm, and for the two-inch - 73 mm. Outside of the casing is also a fixed part of the rubber gasket seal, and then put on the crimp ring which is fixed with a nut. Thus, this part of the adapter, the first, is secured on the side surface of the casing, and secondly - a connection is securely sealed by gaskets. Itself fixed part has a curvature surface with a certain radius, which allows the inner part tightly against the pipe. The compression ring also has a surface curvature that allows it to "arm around" tube outside. The threads of the stationary part of the package is wound after an appropriate transition fitting with internal thread. Most often used for connecting pipes of high density polyethylene (HDPE, HDPE), which due to the characteristics of production technology called low-pressure polyethylene (HDPE). But sometimes used to connect and polypropylene pipes, which is quite acceptable.

The movable part of the adapter is inserted into the fixed through special grooves on it. On the movable part there is a special emphasis, the locking connection. On the inside of this part there is an annular groove into which fits the seal - rubber ring. When joining two pieces adapter ring seals this joint. Connecting two adapter parts is carried out very tightly and with considerable force. The lower threaded portion movable part is designed to connect via the bushing to the pipe extending to the pump or ejector. The upper portion also has the same thread, but a dead-end, not connected with a lateral passage for the water. The purpose of the upper opening with internal thread - installation details. From the pipe segment made a key that helps to connect or disconnect the adapter.

It is so located within the casing adapter

It is so located within the casing adapter

Adapters are made of different materials:

  • Most often, the sale can be found in the brass adapters. Their price is relatively lower, however, they are not recommended for household well as brass may leach zinc, included in its composition, water-resistant. This can lead to "kick is" moving and stationary parts, resulting in difficulties or impossibility of separation. The service life of the brass adapters no more than 8-10 years.
  • Bronze adapters are much better, but they cost more. Their term of distinguished service can already be 25 years or more.
  • Adapters of a special alloy DZR (also called AMETAL®), which is very similar to brass, but in the introduced special components prepyatstvuyushie zinc leaching. According to the strict European nomam, well adapters of this alloy is allowed without any restrictions in the use for drinking water pipes. The service life of these products by an average of 25 years.
  • stainless steel adapters are very rare. These products can boast a very well-known manufacturers from the United States: Harvard Baker and service life have a very large range 25-50 years, but the price is much higher for very understandable reasons.
stainless steel adapter

stainless steel adapter

When you purchase an adapter in any case do not have to strive for a low price, as in this case, the probability is high that comes cheap fake from China. Advantages and disadvantages of downhole adapters will be discussed below in comparison with other means well arrangement - caissons. A mounting technology will be discussed in a separate section of the article.

What is the caisson well?

Caisson - a special tool, which is intended to arrange exit well casing below the depth of soil freezing. It is often a container of cylindrical shape than lives up to its name, which in French means box. Caisson has a number of important functions:

2Mixer with ensuite shower No One Two3Whirlpool (Jacuzzi) No one twounitaz_178_1Toilet One Two Threeeleven
Bidet No one Two5Mixer kitchen sink One Two6shower cabin No one two7Shower with massage jets No one two8Washing machine No one two9Dishwasher No one two10
Crane for household needs One Two Three

This result is further useful in the selection of the pumping station. In particular, it thereon selected pump.

How to measure the production rate?

After the well is drilled, washed and defend, professionals should measure its output. We insist that the production rate should be measured, not just fit into the wells passport. Of course, all the organizations that are drilling, accumulating statistics on the production rate of wells in different areas and at different depths. They know in advance that can give well and often these expectations are confirmed. But the owners must strictly track to test the process has been performed not only on paper, but in reality, so to speak - "in real life". That is why we intend to tell our readers how to perform these same tests. If desired, they can be and to hold their own.

Static and dynamic water level in the well

Static and dynamic water level in the well "for dummies"

Water in the well after drilling and washing performed, is set at a predetermined level. It depends on the in situ water pressure. This level will rise as long as the water column pressure in the well plus atmospheric pressure balances the pressure in-situ. This level of water in the well, which is not "bother" pumps called static level. This level does not depend on the diameter of the well, as all readers probably know from school physics course, that the pressure of the water column does not depend on the diameter of this column, but only on its height. It turns out that in the well 1 meter in diameter, drilled, for example, to a depth of 25 meters will have the same static level as that in well diameter of 15 cm, the same depth and in the same place. Measure the static level is very simple: take the cord with a weight and lower it to the bottom of the well. Then pull and measure its dry part length. You can also lower the power cord to the surge, but do not succeed in deep wells. Specialists drillers used for this purpose special sensors, well as in the home to use them makes no sense.

The best way to measure household water level in the well is a cord with the load and the float. As the load you can use an ordinary nut, a float can serve as a common champagne cork. But not plastic, namely of cork. Bob is necessary to choose such a mass that it is not drowned plug. Omitting such a measurement tool in the well is very easy to keep track of time when the cord tension will weaken. This indicates that the plug has reached the water surface. Along the length of the cord can be determined level. To do this, you can first apply colored labels, on which you can judge the level of not pulling out the measuring tool from the well.

Simple life hacking of the

Simple life hacking of the "Society of Friends of level measurements in wells"

Despite its name, the static level is not constant. It depends on many factors: the characteristics of the aquifer, the pressure therein on season, rainfall, which fell in a certain period, from the atmospheric pressure even from the moon phases. Also static level depends on how extensively with this layer of water is selected. For example, if drilled, and it measured the static level, and then a short distance from the neighbors drilled and actively use the well on the same aquifer. It may well be that the distance between the ground and the water level in the well will increase, which in fact would mean a reduction of the same amount of water column. Experts recommend to measure the static level at the end of the warm season, when dropped low rainfall.

Pump performance is lowered with a known flow rate in order to calculate the borehole. Of course, it should be no less than the demand for water, which we calculated using the calculator. The pump is hung at a height so that it is at least 3-6 meters away from the bottom of the well, as the turbulence created by the pump can lift from the date of the sand particles. This leads to a very rapid deterioration of the equipment.

After the pump the water from the well to be pumped, which naturally will lower levels. But then the balance is disturbed as little height column of water would no longer counterbalance the pressure aquifer. This will lead to the fact that filtered through the zone in the well water will actively act. And if the possibility of a well (flow rate) is not less than the capacity of the pump, the water in it is established at a certain level, which is, of course, will be lower than the static. He is called dynamic level. It is understood that this figure is highly dependent on the pump capacity and the well production rate. The more efficient the pump, and the smaller the flow rate, the dynamic level is lower. Measure the dynamic level in the same way as static, but only do so when the pump is running.

Enter the static water level hw in meters (from the ground to the water level)Enter the position of the casing a filter zone Hf in meters (distance from the ground prior to a filter zone)1Data Pump performance measurementSelect the volume of the reference capacitance Vet in liters 10 liters 20 litersEnter how long in seconds t₁ Reference filled container during pump operation at reduced performanceEnter how long in seconds t₂ filled reference capacity of the pump with higher performance4Well test dataEnter a dynamic level established in meters Hdin1 if the pump with smaller capacityEnter a dynamic level established in meters Hdin2 if the pump with higher performance

What are the elements is a pumping station for the well?

Now we have learned to identify the need for houses in the water, know what and how well is determined by its ability to give water in the right quantity, learned to count the actual flow rate. It is time to go to the pumping station. To learn how to choose the right for their specific needs, we must learn from what, in fact, it often is.

At the word pump station, many readers there proof association with compact units that combine several devices. This is largely due to the huge choice of pump stations "all in one", which can be observed in any decent store that sells plumbing. This approach is justified in most cases, but sometimes for the purpose of uninterrupted water supply is more profitable to have a separate placement of various devices. Let us consider some of the basic elements is the pumping station, and then in each case, you can decide what you need.

pumps for wells

Pumps for wells, primarily related to a large class of water-lifting pumps, and they, in turn, are divided into two main types:

  • surface pumps. Their name has many speaks for itself. The undoubted advantage is the fact that they are established or in the caisson, or in the room, and therefore are softer conditions. This equipment is easy to control and maintain. Most pump stations equipped with pumps just superficial. They have a high efficiency, create the desired pressure. Their main disadvantage is the difficulty of raising the water even with small depths of 8-10 meters. Therefore, they are equipped with special devices - ejectors, which allow "suck" water from great depths (up to 40 meters when using an external ejector). However, such schemes have low efficiency and high power consumption.
  • Submersible pumps They have been operating in the water in a well or borehole. They unlike surface not "suck" the water and push it from the bottom. Therefore, they are quite capable of lift water from wells, and 50, and even 100 meters. These pumps have the highest efficiency, good pressure and performance. Dimensions of them are such that they can even fit into the narrow hole. A wide range of submersible pumps from different manufacturers allows to pick up the pump for any need and any wells.
All pumps are wanting to know alluring, deep wells and wet the world are forced to follow a strict dress code

All pumps are wanting to know alluring, deep wells and wet the world are forced to follow a strict dress code

More detailed account of the pumps in this article we do not see any sense, since on our portal there is a very good material for pumping equipment for water supply at home and the site where you can get detailed and complete information. In addition to these articles posted a handy calculator that can facilitate the readers' choice of flour "the necessary equipment. We offer to the reading:

  1. Submersible pumps for wells. Specifications and prices.

  2. How to choose a pump station.

  3. How to choose a pump for the well.

Accumulator water system

Any modern system of independent water supply of private homes is simply obliged to be equipped with a pressure accumulator. And the compact pumping stations are always in your kit is a useful device at least a minimum amount of 5 liters (not enough). Why do you need it?

hydraulic accumulator often called gidroresiverom, discharge, or a membrane expansion tank, that "gives" his features and purposes:

  • Accumulators are needed to maintain a constant pressure in the water system.
  • The accumulator accumulates a certain supply of water, which allows plumbing fixtures without frequent switching of pumps. This is especially true for downhole submersible pumps. As always "it insures" the amount of water, which he currently holds the accumulator during a power outage.
  • Accumulator makes the water supply from the water hammer that may arise from the inclusion of pumps, mixers of abrupt closure (especially lever), valves and electromagnetic valves, plumbing fixtures. This prolongs the life of all equipment.

Arranged accumulator is very simple, just like the expansion tank heating system (ekspanzomat). The sealed container is divided into two chambers: air and water. The separation membrane is made of EPDM - butyl rubber, which is different and the strength and elasticity. It mostly accumulators can be changed through the movable flange, which is a significant advantage as the most expensive item - a sealed metal housing enameled or stainless steel.

A good guide to the study of technical English the example accumulator

A good guide to the study of technical English the example accumulator

The main body has an air accumulator nipple, through which the usual pump motor air is pumped into it with a preset pressure which is recommended to 10% less than the pressure of the pump. Water enters the system through a flange on which there is a threaded joint for connecting piping. As long as the water pressure will be greater, the membrane will be run in its tank, simultaneously stretching and compressing the air. Once the system pressure reaches a certain level, the pressure switch (it was slightly more below) shut down the pump. The tank will be a supply of water, and under pressure. When draw-off points with any water from the tank decreases, the pressure therein drops and when it reaches the lower limit, the pressure switch switches on the pump again. These cycles are repeated.

Obviously, the greater the volume of the accumulator, the greater the amount of water will be a working pressure in the reserve, and the pump is switched on less often. This greatly extends the life of the pumps not cheap, especially downhole. These passports usually indicates the maximum number of on-off cycles of the pump manufacturer recommends. Exceed this figure is not recommended, as it would condemn the hosts to become frequent and frequency of the customer pumps sellers. The pump will be switched on less often - the better.

Calculation of the accumulator pumping station

It often happens that this important question the owners of suburban real estate are trying to delete, relying on the fact that in the final pumping station everything is provided and the accumulator in its complete enough. We do not argue, is often the case, but often have to sacrifice some important characteristics in favor of compactness. This is justified when the pump station is used only in the summer cottage, and only in the warm season. Then the compact is very handy, because at the right time the station is switched off and taken away in a car trunk.

And now imagine the situation if the compact unit with accumulator volume of 5 liters is installed in the house where there is a shower, washing machine, kitchen sink and other water users, which can operate simultaneously. And in the evening we decided to start washing, and someone decided to still go to the shower. Accumulator quickly emptied as shower consumes about 0.25 l / s of water per minute that is 15 l / min. Triggered pressure switch and the pump is activated. From this light in the house for a moment, blinking as asynchronous motors in the pump start-up time to consume several times higher currents than the workers. The pump very quickly bring the pressure in the tank to the desired, and then again after a short time is included, which again leads to a flicker of light. Stator winding of the pump does not have time to cool down and in the end - in a very short time, the pump simply burned, although the load on it in terms of performance was small. And in this case is not to blame "bad" pump and accumulator incorrectly selected. That is, it is necessary to calculate the volume.

Calculate the required capacity of the accumulator can by two main factors: on the pump capacity and peak flow. Since in the previous sections, we have learned to calculate the peak flow, and even have a handy calculator for this, then why not take advantage of them.

The volume of the accumulator to the water supply system is calculated by the following formula:

Vb = 16.5 * (qmax *pmax *Pmin) / (N * (Pmax&# 8212;Pmin) *Pprec), Where:

  • Vb - the volume of the accumulator tank in liters.
  • Qmax - peak water consumption in liters per minute. If the calculation is carried out on the pump, then the figure for taking the pump.
  • Pmax - pump down pressure. It is determined by the pressure switch settings.
  • Pmin - pressure pump ON. As determined by the pressure switch settings.
  • N - the number permitted by the manufacturer of the pump switch on and off cycles. Usually specified in the device data sheet.
  • Pprec - air pressure in the accumulator tank is empty. It is recommended to do 10% less than the pump cut-in pressure Pmin.
The pressure in the air accumulator chamber is checked only when there is no water in the tank. this is done by means of a conventional bicycle gauge

The pressure in the air accumulator chamber is checked only when there is no water in the tank. this is done by means of a conventional bicycle gauge

Here is an example calculation. Assume that Qmax = 32 l / min, Pmax = 3,5 bar, Pmin = 2,2 bar, N = 20 (maximum 20 times per hour), Pprec = 2,2-10% ≈2 bar. Substituting the numbers into the formula and we find the required volume:

Vb = 16.5 * (32 * 3.5 * 2.2) / (20 * (3,5-2,2) * 2) = 16.5 * 246.4 / 52 = 78.2 liter.

It turns out that for such auxiliary water supply system is required accumulator volume not less than 78.2 liters. From the existing range of models selected for the next in the direction of the volume increase. For example, accumulator Aquamotor, volume 80 l horizontal, which can be purchased for about 4500 rubles.

A calculator for calculating the necessary volume of the accumulator

If we are able to automate the process of the calculation, we have to do this. That is the policy of the portal stroyday.ru. And, of course, the accumulator tank volume calculation for the autonomous running water at home, we have not ignored. We are introducing readers to the absolutely gratuitous use calculator, which is calculated from the dependence shown above. It's very easy.

5A calculator for calculating the necessary volume of the accumulator
Enter consistently requested the raw data, and then click "Calculate the required volume of the accumulator"
Type peak value Qmax water consumption in l / min (liters per minute)Type pump off pressure value Pmax, barEnter the pump cut-in pressure value Pmin, barEnter the manufacturer recommended maximum number of pump cycles per hour N6Air pressure in the accumulator tank empty Pprec automatically calculated as a 10% Pmin-bar

These data must always refer to the choice of the accumulator model. You can also use the calculator to check vending pumping stations to meet the volume of the supplied accumulator, necessary water consumption needs.

Pressure switch for the pumping station

Another essential part of any pump station is pressure switch. It is a very useful device and is responsible for turning on and off the pump when the pressure in the system of independent water supply is outside the permissible limits. The pressure switch is usually installed in the vicinity of the hydraulic accumulator, so it is sometimes called accumulator relay. To connect the normally used pyatihodovoy fitting, two pins which are designed for entry and exit of water, one - for connecting the hydraulic accumulator, one - for connection of the water pressure switch and one - manometer. This connection method is considered the most successful and marketable.

pressure switch - the most popular device for controlling a downhole pump

Pressure switch &# 8212; the most popular device for controlling a downhole pump

pressure switches are electromechanical or electronic. The most widely used electromechanical pressure switch due to the fact that they are reliable and inexpensive, but it requires a more complex configuration. In these relays the main actuator is a membrane, which affects the pressure in the water. Under the action of the membrane acts on the actuator which closes or opens the pump switching contacts. This mechanism is adjustable by means of which it is possible to exhibit the desired pressure at which it is switched on or off.

There are also electronic pressure switch, which controls are special sensors on it. Such devices are more easy to adjust, more reliable, but also more expensive. Besides controlling the pressure of the electronic relay can still reconcile themselves and function of protection against dry running of the pump.

a pump control unit Grundfos PM 1. Combines and pressure switch and gauge dry running and protection from water hammer

a pump control unit Grundfos PM 1. Combines and pressure switch and gauge dry running and protection from water hammer

When selecting a pressure switch is best to be guided by a model of mid-range. The "top" prices are also very good device, but there is a little unjustified overpayment for the brand. It looks exactly the same and in appearance and design of the relay lower price range further manifest themselves not with the best hand, since the materials used are already others. This is particularly true of the electrical contact group.

Additionally, at pumping stations can be installed and other elements of automation system. These include:

  • Relay dry run. These devices are very similar to the pressure switch. The difference is that they work in a strong decrease of pressure in the system - even lower than the cut-in pressure of the pump on the pressure switch. This often indicates that the air system is clogged or the pump inlet filters. These devices are most commonly used because of their simplicity and affordability. Their case has forced the power button, which is necessary at initial system start-up, until the pump to pump the right to operate the pressure switch.
Relay dry run

Relay dry run

  • Sensors dry run can have direct contact with water. These include the float, the electrode or capacitive sensors. Additionally dry running may monitor other sensors. They react to changes in the current in the pump is running, but they are used very rarely, because there are problems of adjustment and control.
  • flow sensors - allow the pump to operate only when there is movement of water in the pipe. They are used together with the time delay circuits because it may take a few seconds from the start of operation of the pump to the water in the pipe, where the sensor. Often that their combined with a pressure switch and a joint device referred to as pump control unit.
  • Soft starters - very useful tools that allow you to minimize the inrush current occurring at the start of induction motors pumps. The pump speed is gradually picking up, no sudden pressure surges. In the well there is no destruction of filters in the perforated parts of the casing. Often these device structurally combined into a single control unit with a pressure switch and the flow sensor even with a small storage tank.
  • frequency converters - this is the most "advanced" device in the pump control. As is known, the rotational speed induction motors can be controlled only by changing the number of pole pairs and the frequency of the alternating supply voltage. Frequency converters can smoothly change the performance of the pump, depending on the needs, which saves energy and avoids hydraulic shocks even without a storage tank. The widespread use of such a "miracle devices" stops only a very high price.

 

In addition, pumping stations used any more valves, check valves, filters, mechanical cleaning, various pipes and fittings, - in general, those elements which are characteristic of any plumbing system. Therefore, to consider them in the framework of this article makes no sense.

The pumping station wells. Average prices and installation instructions

A brief overview of some of the models of pumping stations and komplektuyushih

Consider what we offer the market both in terms of pumping stations in the collection, as well as with the equipment separately for self-assembly. Frankly, this is not an easy task, since the choice is huge. But we will try to make a selection of different equipment with different characteristics from different stores. The picture was more or less clear, we reduce all these data in the table.

IzobrazhenieNaimenovanie, proizvoditelOsnovnye characteristics opisanieSrednyaya price (as of April 2017)
Pumping stations or sets of downhole equipment
1Surface automatic pumping station Jumbo 50/28 B-18. Manufacturer "JEELEX", Russia.Material pump housing - iron;6900 rubles.
Connection size - 1";
Flow rate (throughput) - 50 l / min (3 m³ / h);
Pressure - 28 m;
Power consumption - 500 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 9 m;
Accumulator volume - 18 liters;
Weight - 15.1 kg.
2Surface automatic pumping station Jumbo H-24N 70/50. Manufacturer "JEELEX", Russia.Material pump housing - stainless steel;13 500 rubles.
Connection size - 1";
Flow rate (throughput) - 70 l / min (4.2 m³ / hour);
Pressure - 50 m;
Power consumption - 1100 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 9 m;
The volume stainless steel pressure accumulator - 50 l;
Weight - 19.3 kg.
3Surface automatic pump station based on a vortex pump QB AUTO QB 60-5. Manufacturer UNIPUMP, Russia.Connection size - 1 ";6200 rubles.
The maximum capacity - 30 liters / min (1.8 m³ / hour);
The maximum pressure of - 35 m;
Power consumption - 370 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 5 m;
Accumulator volume - 5 liters.
4Surface automatic pump station with an external ejector AUTO DP 750-50. Manufacturer UNIPUMP, Russia.Connection size - 1 ";15 500 rubles.
The maximum capacity - 40 liters / min (2.4 m³ / hour);
The maximum pressure of - 40 m;
Power consumption - 750 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 20 m;
Accumulator volume - 50 liters.
5Surface automatic pumping station NSS 1000 / 45S. Manufacturer WWQ, China.Material pump housing - stainless steel;15 500 rubles.
Connection size - 1";
Flow rate (throughput) - 80 l / min (4.8 m³ / hour);
Pressure - 45 m;
Power consumption - 1000 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 8 m;
The volume stainless steel pressure accumulator - 24 liters.
6Surface automatic pumping station JPB 60 liter tank 5. Manufacturer GRUNDFOS, Denmark.Material pump housing - stainless steel;28 900 rubles.
Connection size - 1 ";
Maximum performance - 58 l / min (3.48 m³ / hr);
The maximum pressure of - 40 m;
Power consumption - 775 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 8 m;
Accumulator volume - 60 liters.
7Surface automatic pumping station AUTO AMH-125-6S tank 50 liters. Manufacturer AQUARIO, Italy.The material of the pump casing and the impeller - stainless steel;26 000 rubles.
Connection size - 1 ";
Maximum performance - 105 l / min (6.3 m³ / hour);
Maximum pressure - 55 m;
Power consumption - 1450 W;
Max. Suction Depth - 8 m;
Accumulator volume - 50 liters.
8Smart water supply on the basis of a submersible pump system Water cannon TRAC 55/90 House. Manufacturer "JEELEX", Russia.type of pump - the centrifugal submersible downhole;23 000 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
Additional functions of the system:
· F01 - overheating protection;
· F02 - dry run protection;
· F03 - a smooth start.
The maximum pressure of - 90 m;
The maximum flow rate (throughput) - 55 l / min (3.3 m³ / hour);
Immersion depth under water - 30 meters;
The cable length the bundled 50 m;
Power consumption - 1200 W;
Number of steps in the pump - 12;
Connection size - 1 ";
Diameter pump - 98 mm (can be used in wells with a diameter of 110 mm);
Displacement of enamelled steel accumulator - 50 liters.
9Smart water supply on the basis of a submersible pump system Water jet TRAC Chastotnik 110/75-CH. Manufacturer "JEELEX", Russia.type of pump - the centrifugal submersible downhole;35 000 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
Additional functions of the system:
· F01 - dry run protection;
· F02 - overload protection;
· F03 - voltage protection;
· F04 - from pressure sensor fault protection;
· F05 - overheating protection;
· F06 - protection against failure of the inverter module.
The maximum pressure of - 75 m;
The maximum flow rate (throughput) - 110 l / min (6.6 m³ / hour);
Immersion depth under water - 30 m;
The cable length included - 70 m;
Power consumption - 2200 W;
Number of steps - 10;
Connection size - 1 ¼ ";
Diameter pump - 98 mm (can be used in wells with a diameter of 110 mm);
Displacement of enamelled steel accumulator - 24 liters.
10Set of downhole equipment SQE 5-70. Manufacturer GRUNDFOS, Denmark. The kit includes a pump cable, the control unit (CU 301), a pressure sensor and accumulator pressure gauge of 8 liters.type of pump - the centrifugal submersible downhole;131 000 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
Nominal flow rate (throughput) - 5 m³ / h (maximum of 7.35 m³ / h);
Nominal head - 73 m (maximum of 106 m);
Rated power - 1.85 kW;
The cable length included - 40 m;
Connection size - 1 1/2 ";
Number of steps - 6;
The volume of the accumulator - 8 l.
· Built-in protection against dry running;
· Soft start function;
· Built-in motor protection;
· Intelligent frequency flow control by changing rotational speed;
· Fully electronic controls;
· Remote communication.
Well pump
elevenWell pump Wilo TWU 4-0207-C. Producer WILO, Germany.Pump Type: Submersible centrifugal;22 000 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
Maximum performance - 3.6 m³ / h;
The maximum pressure of - 42 m;
Diameter pump - 98 mm;
Connection size - 1 ¼ ".
12Well pump 4BLOSKm 2/13. Manufacturer PEDROLLO, Italy.Pump Type: Submersible centrifugal;22 900 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
Maximum performance - 3.6 m³ / h;
The maximum pressure of - 86 m;
Power - 750 W;
Connection size - 1 ¼ ".
13Well pump Vortex CH-60 68/3/7. The birthplace of the brand "VORTEX" - Russia, the country of manufacture - China.Pump Type: Submersible centrifugal;9100 rubles.
Material pump housing - stainless steel;
The maximum capacity - 50 liters / min (3.0 m³ / hour);
Nominal pressure - 50 m;
Power - 800 W;
Diameter pump - 75 mm;
Connection size - 1 ".
Automation for pumping stations
14Pressure switch RDM-5. "JEELEX" manufacturer. Russia.Threshold pressure adjustment - 0,5-4,8 bar;900 rubles.
Power plug pump - 1.5 kW.
15Pressure switch Heisscraft FF-4-8. Country of origin - Germany.Threshold pressure adjustment - 0.5-8 bar;4200 rubles.
Power plug pump - 1.5 kW.
16Sensor dry run LP / 3 ITALTECNICA. Country of origin - Italy.Operating range - 0.5-2.8 bar;600 rubles.
The maximum switching current of 16 A.
17pump control unit turbo. Manufacturer "Akvarobot", Russia.The maximum allowable water flow - 100 liters / min;1100 rub.
Power plug pump - 1.5 kW;
Maximum allowable pressure - 6 bar;
The minimum flow sensor sensitivity - 2 L / min.
18Pressure automatic switch BRIO 2000-M. Manufacturer ITALTECNICA, Italy.electrical network parameters - 220 V, 50 Hz;2700 rubles.
Maximum Switching Current - 12 A;
Pressure adjustment range the pump - 1-3,5 bar;
Maximum operating pressure - 10 bar;
Delay time from running dry - 7-15 sec;
Connecting dimensions - 1 ".
19A frequency converter SIRIO ENTRY 230. Manufacturer ITALTECNICA, Italy.Parameters mains of 220 V, 50 Hz;25 800 rubles.
Maximum power consumption - 1.5 kW;
Maximum operating pressure - 8 bar;
The maximum flow rate - 150 l / min (9 m³ / h);
The range of adjustment of the operating point - 1.5-7 bar;
The range of adjustment of the initial pressure - 1-6,7 bar;
Range 25-50 Hz frequency modulation;
Connecting dimensions - 1 ¼ ".
accumulators
20Accumulator horizontal UNIPRESS 24 liters. Country of origin - Russia.Connection - 1 ";1900 rubles.
Gidroresivera volume - 24 liters;
Preset pressure - 1.5 bar;
Maximum operating pressure - 6 bar.
21Accumulator horizontal UNIPRESS 24 liter stainless steel. Country of origin - Russia.Connection - 1 ";4300 rubles.
Gidroresivera volume - 24 liters;
Preset pressure - 1.5 bar;
Maximum operating pressure - 6 bar.
22Accumulator horizontal UNIPRESS 50 liters. Country of origin - Russia.Connection - 1 ";3000 rubles.
Gidroresivera volume - 50 liters;
Preset pressure - 1.5 bar;
Maximum operating pressure - 6 bar.
23Accumulator vertical UNIPRESS 100 l. Country of origin - Russia.Connection - 1 ";5500 rubles.
Gidroresivera volume - 50 liters;
Preset pressure - 1.5 bar;
Maximum operating pressure - 6 bar.

This small sample of pumping equipment for wells is enough to grasp the main points:

  • Pumping station in the assembly are less expensive if all the equipment to buy separately, but not always, you can apply them. For example, if the depth of the well exceeds 8-10 m.
  • Pumping stations with external ejector should be avoided, since the constant circulation of water in the ejector takes a lot of energy. It is better to be guided by a simple rule, if the well is deeper than 10 m, then the choice is a submersible borehole pump.
  • Pumps stations and the world's best producers are significantly more expensive, but they are worth it!
  • According to the operational characteristics of the best equipment of the pump - a frequency converter, but for the same money can be several times to change the pump relay and sensor dry run, but one more time and the accumulator. It is better to wait for the time when they will drop greatly.
  • When choosing pumping equipment should be primarily guided by the needs in water, and the well capacity. It is not necessary to purchase pumps with plenty of power and performance.

Mounting of the pump station

After the purchase of all necessary equipment for binding wells and build pumping stations, you are ready for installation. We are in this section of this article will consider the most difficult option to install - when all the components of the pumping station to be collected on their own. To connect the compact units it is only necessary to carefully read the instructions. Here for example, drawing. It shows the pumping station and all the elements that are needed to connect it. In our opinion, everything is clear in this case.

Extremely clear and precise circuit with all the detailing

Extremely clear and precise circuit with all the detailing

For installation you will need a good set and the sanitary and plumbing tools and supplies: linen, sealing paste, fum-tape (who likes to work with her), the plastic clamps and others. Each case is different, it is difficult to foresee everything in advance. We represent the process as a table.

MiniatyuraOpisanie process
1At first it is necessary to find out whether a particular model of a submersible pump check valve fitted? If yes, then put another extra is not necessary - it will worsen the characteristics of the pump. If not, then through the nipple respective diameters carefully with threaded connections mounted to investment return valve, the arrow which should be directed upward.
2Downhole pumps are connected HDPE pipes 32 mm in diameter. For this it is necessary to apply the IPA bushing tube 32 mm in external thread 1 '. Fitting for connecting the pump is better to use brass as more reliable. The pumps have a connection with thread 1 "or 1.25". If necessary, the transition from 1.25 "to 1" corresponding Threaded used. After the package is twisted compound.
3For the "suspension" of the pump in the well of one pipe is insufficient, so use stainless steel cable or steel braided PVC. For fastening rope on the pump specifically provided two "ears", so I am sure it must be threaded through the two so that the free curved end faces upwards.
4The free end of the cable together with the main clamp is clamped in a special stainless steel bolts. If there is no after mounting clamp is wrapped with two layers of tape.
5HDPE pipe is connected to the pump. For this purpose it is cut exactly perpendicular to the first special scissors, then its end is inserted into the sleeve, and the tube itself are put in the following items sequence: nut, the compression ring, the compression ring, a rubber sealing ring.
6The tube is inserted into the fitting until it stops and then all the parts inside it are moved in the reverse order: a rubber sealing ring, the compression ring, the compression ring and only then is screwed and tightened nut. At this stage you have to be very careful, because after the pump is placed in the hole, to fix something that is very difficult.
7If the pump is not equipped with integral segment of the desired length of the cable, it will have to increase by means of special couplings, which are always sold at the same place and pumping equipment. Clutches are or aspic, or shrink. To build it is necessary to apply them according to the instructions and never use insulation tape for this purpose.
8Further, cable, pipe and wire are stretched in a straight line, and their fixation begins with plastic clamps. Cable and cable better fix on the pipe separately, since the mechanical stresses may occur when the pump is lowered into the well, which tear clamps. Therefore, give a little slack cable and start fixing it tightly to the pipe clamps at a distance of 20-30 cm in the first 1.5-2 meters of the pipe. The cable is fixed, do not tighten the clamps so that it can be moved by them. As they are needed for the transport of the pump with a pipe to the well.
9Further, the cable can already be fastened to the tube 1-1.5 meters and the cable is not fixed at all. Very convenient for fixing the position of the cable pipe and cable use special plastic split rings which are fitted to the diameter of any casing. They allow you to align the pump and flow freely and cable, and cable.
10Before you begin to lower the pump into the well it is necessary to prepare the well head casing. It is better to apply tight headroom of metal. For this first casing, if there is such a need, it is cut to the desired level.
elevenIn the casing lower part is worn tip, and then the O-ring.
12Since the pump must be suspended from it on a rope, he stretched in a straight line and on it is the depth of the mark. Of the cable is a loop, for which he will be suspended from the metal ring through the tip carbine.
13Thereafter, in the lock fitting tip IPA passed from the pump tube, the cable pull, and then measure out the correct its length with a margin of 15-20 cm, and cut.
14The cable is passed through a hole intended for it in the center pole Gland, retained the desired length from a stock and it is cut. It begins the process of lowering the pump into the well. Lower the need to slow with the assistant, to keep the rope in the hands only of working gloves. Before the tube will enter into the casing, it is wiped from contamination.
15After the pump is "suspended" at the correct height on the casing mounted headroom and tighten all bolts. Before making the connection pipeline to the home water supply system, the pump includes a temporary scheme and pumped out of the well is the amount of water until it is visually clean. It is recommended to pump at least 3-5 cubic meters of water.
16After pumping can begin the installation of the rest of the equipment, which in addition to the pump should be part of the pumping station. As you know, the equipment can be installed in the caisson, but if located beside the house, it is best to mount everything in it. For pipeline to house HDPE pipe from the pump don and tighten the clamping knee angle rotated by 90 °. For information on how to work with HDPE pipe, at the end of the article placed the video.
17Of the tribe of paving HDPE pipe 32 mm to the place where the equipment is installed. At the other end of the pipe already used adapter body from the pipe 32 mm in outer thread (pope) in 1 ". But as long as the connection to the pipe is better not to do, as it is necessary first to determine the seat of the automation of the pumping station. The most voluminous and heavy it is part accumulator tank. Therefore, we propose to install automatic pumping station on it without using any wall-mount brackets. A node assembly to begin with transition muff 32th IPA pipe external thread 1 '.
18On the sleeve 1 "is wound filter rough mechanical treatment (" oblique "filter) having an internal thread 1 from both sides" (mum). A threaded joint is required it is necessary to seal (pack). It is best suited for this county and pasta. To learn how to do it right, there is a thematic video at end of article. Investing should be subject to all threaded connections, in addition to the quick with cap nuts ( "American women").
001, The use of "oblique" filter will be impractical if the water from the well there is a large quantity of sand and other particles. It will very quickly become clogged and "misleading" automation. The best solution would be to apply a mechanical settling filter with a transparent bulb and backwash function.
19On the other hand "skew" (or other) filter spigot-American screwed with the external thread (Dad). The compound is also packaged.
20On the other hand in an American special screwed fitting for the automation of pumps, which for its number of outlets called "pyaternik". The first "pyaternik" is designed to accommodate sensors "dry run"
21Since the first "pyaternike" will connect the accumulator, the bottom opening with an internal thread 1 "brass screwed into the corresponding cap.
22Also on this "pyaternike" not necessary to use a pressure gauge, which is designed for a hole with an internal thread in ¼. " Can be screwed into the corresponding plug, but you can "stray" gauge (as pictured).
23In the first "pyaternik" twisted core - the second and then into its hole with ¼ "inner thread mounted main working pressure gauge.
24The external threads of ¼ "first" pyaternika "screwed switch (sensor) is dry running. In these devices, some manufacturers have provided a union nut, while others have to turn the sensor itself.
25Next, the external threads ¼ "second" pyaternika "pressure switch is screwed by means of a cap nut. Inch hole with internal thread intended for American women, by means of which subsequently the entire automatic pump assembly to be mounted on the accumulator.
26In principle, the entire automation unit including two "pyaternika" relay dry running and the pressure switch is already assembled. It remains only to mount it on the spot - on the accumulator. To sum IPA entry tube 32 mm, and the output switch to those of the pipe to be used in the house plumbing.
27To go to the other pipes can simply apply the adapter body, but it is better to apply the plug-in connection - an American, and even install shut-off valves, which in case of the need to "cut off" from the home water pumping station. And the best way is to use a ball valve with an American. Moreover, the valve does not necessarily have to apply one inch, but enough "head» ¾ ". For the first transition of the second outlet port "pyaternika" initially screwed Fittings (transition with the inner thread 1 "on the inner ¾"). Further already screwed Threaded ball valve with American.
28To move to a polypropylene tube need adapter which on one hand has an external thread ¾ ", and the other is used for welding to the pipe outer diameter of 25 mm. If other pipes, the corresponding fitting used to be used in the water home.
29At the "authority" end of the pumping station, since it adopted the water from the well established stock with the desired pressure and strictly following the working pressure in the whole water pipe. Then the water filtration system is already transmitted, at which to start any decent water.
thirtyIf we look at the part of the pre-assembled pumping station automation assembly, it is seen that all of its elements can be easily serviced and, if necessary disassembled, since all connections are made via plug-in connections.
31It remains only an American through and shutoff valve connect already ready to block automatic hydraulic accumulator. Then bring the IPA inlet tube and mount polypropylene output. The latest step is to connect the pump and network 220 to a group of automatic pumping stations. This complexity is never as both pump and pressure switches, and relays running dry in their passports are easy to understand concepts.

We have intentionally shown in the table in the description of the pumping stations self-assembly process of the process in this form, when just one part twisted the other without the use of any sealant first. We, of course, mention them and pointed to the sources, where the package of sanitary connections speak very detailed, very good. But still did not show. It shows the process as a game in the children's designer, Wilt &# 8212; I gathered, and you want - make out. This is a very simple explanation.

If you look at the work of a professional plumber, then the first any of them will be like a child to twist and untwist complex components without the package. And yet still count the number of revolutions by which the curl or that detail. And may even put the "mysterious" mark at the same time. We offer our readers to do the same way, rather than trying to just "go on the warpath." If you have no experience, it is better to buy a "handful" penny fittings and practice on them. Errors will always be first, but it is better to perform them under control and without costly consequences. And the moment when it is time to get down to serious work, each feels himself. If only there was a desire to learn, and there was no fear of making mistakes.

Video: How to calculate the size of the accumulator?

Video: How to tie a hole?

Video: What type of automation to choose a pump?

Video: How to seal the thread linen?

conclusion

We hope that the readers of our portal have realized that buying the most "elite" of the pumping station is not something that can not improve the problems with water supply, and, perhaps, many times worsen. In life, sometimes it happens that the Grundfos brilliant, for which laid a lot of money, most of my "career" to sit on the "bench". At this time the workaholic "JEELEX" bought with pension savings, may have a few years to please its masters of their dependability.

Even the selection and purchase of a pumping station for the well - is a complex engineering task, which must take into account some very important things that we put in order of priority:

  • First - this is the need for water.
  • Secondly - it is well possible.
  • And finally - this is the equipment.

If all of these three items are in harmony, then no problems. Even if the well will not be able to "give" as much as the person wants, then it is possible to find a good engineering solution. We hope that helped readers to answer any questions about water supply and pumping stations. And once again we remind you that we all should be happy that we live in a country where the population has no shortage of fresh water.

Siding with your hands

Siding with your hands

Different types of siding is becoming more popular in the exterior facades. This is justified, since it updates the building and gives it a completely different look. Saydingovye panels made of different materials, and each type has a finishing their pros and cons. But there is a "common denominator" &# 8212; they are easy to install, so the transformation of the house is quite rapid. In addition to aesthetic appearance, siding advantage over other surfacing materials it is that decorated the facade does not require for a special care for many years.

Siding with your hands

Siding with your hands

Siding with your hands just enough to mount. the main thing &# 8212; the right to carry out preparatory work, study the instructions for its installation and adhere to all full-time manufacturing operations.

However, you first need to understand what types of siding are the most popular, and what qualities they possess.

Types of modern siding

If you do not take into account the natural wood, the outer skin of the house for the most popular are considered three types of siding &# 8212; metal, polymer and fiber cement.

metal siding

This type of fabric is made of galvanized steel sheet, which is then coated with resistant to external influences polymeric compositions. Such a coating has a different color, texture patterns can simulate other finishing materials - wood or stone.

Metal siding under the & quot; ship's board & quot;

Metal siding at &# 171; the ship's board&# 187;

Metal siding can have different relief forms. In addition to traditional "herringbone" manufactured panels imitating the form boards, log (block house) or natural stone chips of different breeds.

Metal & quot;-house unit & quot;

Metal &# 171, block house&# 187;

Metal siding is used not only for covering unsightly walls of old houses, but also to create interesting fences around plots.

Metal siding with imitation masonry

Metal siding with imitation masonry

The advantages of the fabric can be attributed to the heat resistance, durability and sufficient strength. Siding has a double anti-corrosion coating (polymer + zinc), so he is not afraid of moisture and protects the walls of the house for 35 ÷ 50 years. The material is resistant to ultraviolet rays and low temperatures, it does not crack and does not fade, retaining its original appearance throughout the entire operation.

However, to lining it lasts a long time, the installation of siding must carefully handle attachment points and plots incisions because damage to the polymer coating will provoke the appearance of rust on the metal, which is capable of spreading to surrounding areas siding.

polymeric siding

Polymer siding is made of acrylic and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, so it is often referred to as vinyl. This finishing material is great for tidying up the house walls with insulation of ventilated facade of technology. It is well protects the heating material from moisture, but its installation over a warm layer, must necessarily leave a ventilation gap. It can provide a wooden crate, which is fixed and finish of the siding.

Vinyl siding - the most popular of all the other

vinyl siding &# 8212; the most popular of all the other

A siding made in numerous colors, as well as an imitation stone, bricks, boards and logs with corresponding structural drawings and reliefs.

A variety of colors and textures - is extremely high

A variety of colors and textures &# 8212; extremely large

For finishing Cap made a special version of the ground polymeric siding. It differs in that it has a greater thickness, but smaller panels relative to the wall material.

 These factors are very important for the reliability of finishing bottom of the house, as it was at her best to have a negative impact - mechanical and against dirt, rain, snow, etc.

Types of ground plastic siding

Types of ground plastic siding

Most often, a ground vinyl siding mimics the rough natural stone or brickwork in different colors, which makes the lower part of the house visually heavier, giving a "reliable" appearance of building.

The price of ground siding higher than usual vinyl panels in two ÷ three times, but it is justified, since it is more strong and durable.

Using ground siding gives the house a thorough view

Using ground siding gives the house a thorough view

Vinyl siding does not flake and is not subject to corrosion and rot. He is non-toxic and non-flammable, easy to install and has an aesthetically neat appearance.

However, it should be noted that the defective siding not withstand exposure to low temperatures and becoming fragile, and with a slight mechanical action on it may cause cracks and chipped. Therefore, choosing it is very important to pay attention to the basic characteristics, which must be in the data sheet. If the technical documents on the party siding with the seller not, from such a product should be abandoned.

fiber cement siding

Fiber cement siding is made of cement and cellulose fibers. Because of this it is able to withstand high and low temperatures, resistant to deformation and various external influences.

fiber cement siding

fiber cement siding

Fiber cement has a pronounced heat resistance, does not rot and corrosion, it is environmentally friendly. Such siding has some good noise insulation qualities - in this indicator it exceeds vinyl analogue or metal several times.

The disadvantages include some hygroscopic material, so before its mounting on the wall to be fixed moisture proof film, especially if it is fixed on top of the insulation.

In addition, you can not call it a big advantage of the weight and high cost. So that it is securely held in the crate, it should be done under the most durable frame that should be strongly secured to the wall.

Mounting fiber cement siding material is complicated by weight

Mounting fiber cement siding material is complicated by weight

Fiber cement siding is made in the form of a flat panel of 190 mm in width, 10 mm thickness, 3600 mm in length. Complicates its installation on the wall lack of interlocks, which always have the siding made from other materials.

Cutting such siding made using special equipment or a disk grinder stone. Cutting should be done as precisely and accurately as large errors when cutting and installation, can greatly reduce the strength and moisture resistance finishing.

In short, fiber cement siding is good, but its installation is better to "give" to the professionals.

Focusing on a single type of siding, can move in the preparatory activities to be carried out on the surface of the walls of the gables and roof.

Preparatory work

Preparatory work include the following activities:

  • collection of measurements of the gable walls and roof of the house and the calculation of their areas;
  • determining the amount of material required for finishing;
  • training tools and accessories;
  • the acquisition of all necessary for high-grade finishes;
  • wall preparation &# 8212; the dismantling of the wall elements, minor repairs, priming and installation of lathing.

Carrying out the necessary calculations

Since vinyl siding &# 8212; the most popular for the decoration of houses, due to ease of installation and affordable price, as an example, you can show the calculations just for this material.

First you need to determine the area of ​​each of the buildings walls and gable roof parts, if they are planned, too, to sheathe siding.

  • Determine the area of ​​the rectangular wall is easy &# 8212; you need to multiply the height by the length. If the walls are windows, or (and) the door, then calculated and their area, and then subtracted from the total area of ​​the wall. The resulting value will be equal to the number of the desired fabric.

In the event that the base and the corners of the building will be finished siding with another texture or another color, these areas are calculated separately.

In any embodiment, the fabric is recommended to acquire 15% higher than obtained by calculations.

Calculate the area of ​​the panel - easy

Calculate the area of ​​the panel &# 8212; not difficult

  • Knowing the area of ​​each of the walls of the house, you can count how many siding panels need for her skin. To do this, you need to specify the area of ​​one of the fabric panels. The calculation is made using the same formula as the area of ​​the wall, ie, height multiplied by the length of the panel, e.g.

0,23 × 3,66 = 0,84 m².

By the way, very often it is the value of (useful area of ​​one panel) is indicated in the data sheet.

  • Further, the obtained total wall area (after subtracting the size of windows and doors), divided into one panel area. The result is a number of panels, which must be purchased for covering one wall. Such calculations must be repeated for each of the walls &# 8212; the only way to get the required number of panels for the entire home decoration.
  • Further calculates the square gable roof parts. It is recommended to make an accurate drawing of the gable in the scale of 1:20, and it properly distribute the siding panel, with respect to their length and direction.
To calculate the required length of the gable area of ​​the triangle sides

To calculate the required length of the gable area of ​​the triangle sides

Gable area is calculated according to the formula of Heron:

S= √ p × (p&# 8212; a) × (p&# 8212; b) × (p&# 8212; c)  

Where R &# 8212; is semiperimeter which, respectively, is

p = (a + b + c): 2.

For example: suppose that our gables triangle has sides to 7 m, and the base - 8 m.

Semiperimeter is: p = (7 + 7 + 8) 2 = 11 m

Now easy to calculate, and the very area:

S11 = √ × (11 &# 8212; 7) × (11 - 7) × (11 - 8) = √ 528 ≈ 23 m²

Thus, the gable area is 23 square meters. meters. Usually two gables, so the found parameter is doubled.

  • Next, you need to calculate all the elements of the auxiliary fitting.

They are necessary for ease of installation of panels perfectly smoothly and accurately to one another and to give a complete skin type &# 8212; closing all gaps and inconsistencies in the joints.

Thumbnail profilyaNazvanie and purpose profilyaMiniatyura profilyaNazvanie and mission profile
startingStart strap - with its installation, as a rule, begins the general assemblyJ strapProfile, chamfer, for finishing end of the eaves
finishing stripFinishing lath - completes the top ranks of the sidingjambArchitrave - to finish the transition from the wall to the walling and window openings
exterior angleProfile for lining the outer cornerspriokonnaya strapPriokonnaya (for doors) strap - for finishing the appropriate slopes
internal angleProfile for docking panels in the inner cornersjunctionA connecting rod - for the design of vertical panel joints
Prof. J.A J-profile - is installed on the junction plane, or on their completionedging stripEdging strip - for registration transitions of step differences on the vertical level
soffitSpotlight - for filing the bottom eavesattachmentsDrain strap - to ensure free drainage of rain water on the ledges, for example, at the transition to the cap

Square finishing m² plo2Fass.

PARAMETERS curtain wallsThe total length of the walls (perimeter) m periThe height of the walls, m akiOK.

Subtract window openingsNumber of windows:- no- one- two- three- four- five- sixWindow width, mThe window height, mtwo.

Subtract the doorwayNumber of doors:- no- one- two- threeDoor width, mThe height of the doorgara.

Subtract GARAGE DOORSNumber of gates:- no- some- twoThe width of the gate. mDoor height, ma type.

SIZE SELECTED SidingStandard panel length, mm length panel width, mm brCutting the panels will be held: - perpendicular to the edges (for rectangular walls) - angle (for triangular or trapezoidal sections of the facade or gable)

Typically, each model manufacturers siding accompanied by a complete set of profiles fitting. The technical documentation is required to put down the length of each element. So make the necessary calculations will be easy.

  • For lathing required timber size of 20 × 80 ÷ 25 ÷ 100 mm, or alternatively - galvanized profiles 60 × 27 mm, which are used for drywall. The guides are mounted on the walls of the house with a pitch of 400 ÷ 600 mm from each other (depending on the specific model and siding must be indicated in the installation manual). The length of each of the elements of the crates will match the height of the walls in this place. In the same manner calculated the number and length of the guide battens on each of the walls and on the gable. Bar best buy at 20% more than is necessary for the calculations, as in some areas of the walls will have to increase its consumption.
The preferred all the elements mounted on the screws

The preferred all the elements mounted on the screws

  • For fixing the siding on a crate will need to purchase a large number of screws with a broad hat. If you wish, you can calculate their exact number, but usually acquire x packs of 1000 pieces.
Walls and parts crates recommended properly primed

Walls and parts crates recommended properly primed

  • For processing elements walls and wooden lathing prior to mounting, you need to purchase a preservative primer that will protect the surface from moisture, mildew colonies or insect nests. solution flow rate specified by the manufacturer on the packaging, so its amount is acquired taking into account the total area of ​​the facade.

Tools and accessories for work

For the installation of siding will need the following minimum set of tools:

  • Measuring tools &# 8212; a tape measure, folding ruler, building level and area, a metal ruler, plumb, strong cord for spacing lines, chalk, marker, pencil.
  • Hand saw with fine teeth for metal and (or) an electric jigsaw.
  • Screwdriver, which will quickly make installation as a screwdriver to do the job will be difficult.
  • To fix the battens on the stone walls sometimes can not do without Punch.
  • Locksmith tools - a hammer, pliers, screwdriver, knife cutter, awl, etc. - as needed
  • Building a roller and a broad brush - for pre-surface primer.

All tools should be always at hand, so you need to consider user-friendly mobile device, where they will be laid. In addition, you will need somewhere to carry out preparatory work for sawing siding and wooden bars. For this is well suited sturdy wooden or metal table, workbench, which as needed can be transferred to the right place.

For work at height require special stand or forest that will comfortably and accurately carry out the installation process. At not too high walls in construction "box" fit as them.

Construction goats

Construction goats

 It is recommended to have two such devices of different heights. One allows to get to the top of the wall, and the other will need to work in its middle part. In addition, by setting them side by side, we get a kind of to be able to seamlessly climb the highest. Normal ladder will do is difficult, as it covers a very small area of ​​the wall and have to work with long panels.

It is best to build a "box" with a length of 2,500 ÷ 3,000 mm &# 8212; then they will have less to move. "Goats" should be strong and stable, otherwise they will be dangerous to climb during operation. If they are even a little unsteady, they should be well strengthened.

Preparing walls

Preparing walls before further work on the installation-process simple, but very responsible. On how well it will be held depends on the duration of the operational period of the whole structure.

This work begins with the dismantling of drains, window and door casings, street lamps, tides and other facade elements.

Next, you need to take stock of the state of the surface, which will be mounted crate:

  • If it is brick, stone or adobe wall, it is necessary to close up all cracks and chips formed thereon during the operation of the structure. The slots are expanded, treated with primer and sealed with cement mortar, sealant, and the gaps are too large - with foam.

If the wall is wooden, built of logs, and top coated lining, the lining can be removed and can be installed on top of her crate and, depending on the age and condition of the old coating. But still recommended to remove the old skin, as it can be found out by insects dwelling, small rodents, mold stains can not be excluded or even growths of moss.

If, nevertheless, decided to make installation of the old skin, then you need to ensure that all lining boards were fastened securely. In the presence of rotten boards, they must be replaced with new ones.

  • The next step is processing wall antiseptic composition which is applied with a roller or a wide brush. The coating must dry out well and will be held until this process should be treated with antiseptic bars crates. It is recommended to carry out this treatment at least two times.

Mounting batten siding at

Further, when you are ready, go to work to consolidate the construction crates.

It must be remembered that this is a very important step in the process of facing the facade siding, and from the final result will depend operations and overall architecture of the building.

Such a neat old building house will acquire only if it is qualitatively mounted crate under the siding

Such a neat old building house will acquire only if it is qualitatively mounted crate under the siding

Unfortunately, the walls, especially in older homes, rarely have a perfectly flat surface, so they need to be aligned using the crates. To determine the ideal horizontal and vertical lines used plumb and level building - laser, the bubble or water.

In order to avoid exposure to the moisture siding on the facade it is traditionally held horizontally, but on the gable of the roof, sometimes fastened vertically or "herringbone", that is, from the middle of the gable he was sent at the same angle as the roof slopes. For the traditional horizontal installation of panels on the walls of lath house is oriented vertically.

The table below shows the assembling steps of the carcass structure being constructed of galvanized metal profiles. If desired, they may be replaced by wooden beams - the principle of works of this particularly does not change.

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
KA1The first step in the wall corner profile is applied a metal or timber, which would serve as a frame counter, and marked on the surface at several locations middle of its width.
Ka2Through the target point with the control on the construction level, is drawn flat line. On it will be fixed to the wall fasteners - suspensions, in which will be installed metal profile or timber frame.
From the first line along the length of the walls are laid in a distance of 400 ÷ 450 mm, and with a pitch such as vertical lines are drawn to guide subsequent lathing.
In the course of the marking should be provided, and the length of the siding panels. If they are shorter than the length of the walls, the place they need to define a butt joint even during layout and installation of lathing. Perhaps for this site will require additional vertical stand crates or multiple horizontal beams.
KA3Further, certain lines on the wall, through the perforated surface attached to hangers drilled holes for their fixing.
ka4The suspension is fixed to the front surface using screws or dowels (depending on the wall material).
Dowels gently through the suspension, are driven into the wall, in such a way that they have come to a depth of at least 60 ÷ 65 mm.
ka5Direct hangers mounted on the vertical line with a 700 ÷ 750 mm.
Of course, this step can be varied within reasonable limits, for example, to anchor did not hit the seam between the bricks of the wall.
Further, the lateral "wings" fixed hangers are folded, attaching brackets U-shaped.
ka6Between the bent "wings" of direct hangers are installed metal frame profiles.
Due to the holes provided in the suspension, it is possible to adjust the distance between the wall and the profile, but in any case, during the installation of racks, their verticality is checked building level.
The distance between the profile and the wall will depend on the thickness of insulation material, if it provides the structure and, of course, the degree of flatness of the front surface of the vertical wall.
ka7Secured profile suspensions from both sides by metal screws with wide flat bars, 15 mm in length.
After that, the pro-profile suspension strap is folded back so that they do not interfere with further work.
ka8Installation and fastening profiles in the suspension begins on the angle, and the process of their installation should be kept under constant review, conducted with the help of a spirit level.
To maintain a single plane generally first placed on the two outer wall rack, adjusted vertically. Then, between the top and bottom of the pull cords, which become beacons for all other guides. So the work goes much faster and more accurately.
If instead of metal profiles for lathing used a wooden beam, it should always be treated with fire-bioprotective impregnation, in order to prevent rapid decomposition of wood.
ka9If there is a wall lined windows or doorways, around the fixed additional metal profiles which form the slopes.
In this frame will finish secured consisting of angular splines and saydingovyh or soffit panels.
ka10If you intend to dock siding panels in length, then add additional vertical or horizontal guides, if necessary, in uniform step installation batten racks.

Installation of spotlights on the eaves of the roof

Before proceeding to the wall surface of the facade walls, finishing can be performed eaves roof soffits. However, this is not necessary &# 8212; very often masters used and different sequence, ie first trim facade itself, and then &# 8212; eave &# 8212; lot in this matter depends on the characteristics of the building.

For finishing the eaves convenient to use specially adapted soffit panel of some type, solid or perforated to allow air circulation in the roof space.

Eaves acquire finished neat appearance, if they are hemmed with special soffit panels

Eaves acquire finished neat appearance, if they are hemmed with special soffit panels

Soffits manufactured from the same vinyl or a laminate of thin profiled metal. Experts recommend to choose the second option, since it is less susceptible to thermal expansion, and more firmly makes the impact of the wind and other atmospheric influences.

Further, as a good example to be considered the installation of spotlights of the Polish company «Profile VOX», which has established itself as a manufacturer of high-quality finishing materials, and its products are widely used by Russian builders.

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
sof1Spotlights as vinyl and metal, are made in several shapes - solid and have a full or partial perforation.
sof2Typically, they are used in the finishing of the complex, as for the space under the eaves and roof space ventilation is required, in order to avoid accumulation of moisture.
sof3For mounting soffit panels will need J-profile.
sof4It is fixed to the surface of the wall of the house and podzhelobny times overhang.
It will be installed and the edge soffit panels.
sof5Furthermore J-straps, for connecting panels at the corners of the overhang required H-profile providing aesthetic appearance of the soffit joints.
Also for assembly work required wooden beams cross section 50 × 30 mm - it will be fixed J-bar.
sof6Having prepared all the necessary materials to begin marking the wall surface defining anchoring line beam.
A marked line should be parallel podzhelobnomu belt, otherwise the casing will look messy. The point on the wall designed to hold the line, are coordinated with the line of the eaves edge with the help of a spirit level.
Timber mounting line, focusing on the target point, it is easiest to recapture via cord colored paint.
The next step for a specific line on the wall is fixed wooden rake. Racks are used for fastening screws or dowels (depending on the wall material) 70 ÷ 80 mm.
sof7The next step wooden slats are screwed along the full length podzhelobnogo belt, exactly opposite the bar, mounted on the wall, and thus it is necessary to take into account the height of the J-bar.
However, no solid rack attached along the edge of the eaves, and its segments 700 ÷ 750 mm in length and spaced apart in the 52 ÷ 55 mm, so that these gaps can be set wooden beams.
sof8Further, on fixed rails are mounted to the crossbar step 700 ÷ 750 mm.
If necessary, the crossbar fixed not only between the segments timber podzhelobnogo belt, but also, additionally, to the rafter.
sof9For stiffening lathing created under a covering in the middle of fixed horizontal crosspieces fixed longitudinal beam.
The wooden elements are fastened together with screws 60 ÷ 70 mm.
sof10Final frame structure should look like this, as shown in this illustration.
sof11The next step on rails fixed to the wall and on podzhelobnom belt fixed J-profile, which is cut at the corners at an angle of 45 degrees and connected end to end.
sof12If necessary, lengthening strap, its two connection segments is performed by removing a portion of one of them and install it inside the other.
The illustration clearly shows how this operation is carried out.
It should be noted that such a connection does not affect the thermal expansion of the material.
sof13J-profile is fixed throughout the structure overhang, where it will be soffit cladding panels.
This illustration shows an example of lateral overhang structure with a "step", and a fixed location thereon for further mounting profiles soffit panels.
sof14Panels are cut such a length that they were free to J-profile and does not abut against the inside of it, since they also must be met for the linear thermal expansion gap.
sof15To install soffit panels in J-straps, bend them slightly.
First panel is mounted in a profile mounted on a wall, and then the one that is mounted on the belt podzhelobnom eaves.
sof16When docking mounted panels already installed, they are latched on the lock "click" system.
Fixing the spotlight on the frame by means of screws with a broad hat and washer through the holes provided for staff. When this screw is tightened to never completely - should be about a millimeter between the cap and the mounting strip panel.
sof17H-profile is used for docking soffit panels, so-called "herringbone" to overhang the corners.
Profiles to be installed accurately, their edges mark out directly on-site.
sof18Profile is temporarily fixed on the lath, and then using a polygon or line is marked the angle which is required for accurate docking.
Then strap unscrewed and cut exactly along the lines. 
sof19On one side is cut strips must inner corner, and on the other - a forwardly.
sof20Ready profile is set in place and secured at the corners through the perforations to the furring battens.
sof21After fixing this profile, it is necessary to cut a panel properly.
They will also be easier to mark out of place.
To do this, turn on the spotlights are attached to the bar, they made a mark, which are connected to the line that will be produced by the cut.
sof22Further, the panel is cut off in grooves H strips, after which in the same way is marked and cut the next panel - and so on until all the space on one side of the profile is closed soffit.
Each of the installed panels is secured in three places.
sof23Mounting of the panels on the other hand H-strap is somewhat more complicated since in this case will be aligned with the embossed pattern of spotlights, since in general is supposed to be "herringbone" pattern.
Partitioning is also produced at the place of installation, the profile and the opposite side of the panel is to form a belt podzhelobnym straight angle, as shown.
sof24Corner piece overhang the lights can be issued by another method, as shown in this illustration.
This option is finishing less complex, so it is easier to perform because they do not have to make complicated fitting.

After finishing work on the design of the eaves, you can go to the lining of the walls of the facade siding.

Installation of facade panels sadingovyh

After the frame on all walls of the facade will be assigned, transferred to the mounting fitting elements referred to above, are required to install siding. All these details prior to fixing the cladding should also have to be verified on the construction level.

After the appropriate sections are already beginning to assemble siding. And it probably will have a very simple operation, as the tool joint of panels - intuitive, and assembly of the lining is made quickly enough. However, even here there is a lot of important nuances.

All this detail - in the table, the instructions below:

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
Caa1Mounting a siding must always be remembered that the panel and the profiles must have a certain degree of freedom, since the material temperature difference varies in linear size, expanding and contracting.
Therefore, fixing on the frame uprights using the screws fitting the profiles should not be screwed fasteners on the edge of the longitudinal slot-like opening in the mounting plate.
Screws should be installed closer to the middle.
AAL2The following requirement - screws should not be tightened up to the stop, since it is necessary to leave the possibility of panel displacement during thermal expansion.
To comply with the desired clearance, screwing screws through, then twisting them about a half turn back.
You can also use one of the small coins, once when tightening fasteners temporarily placing it under her hat.
Fixing profile strips made in increments of 300 ÷ 350 mm.
saa3Installation of specialized elements typically start with the corners of the structure.
On line angles are fixed the so-called profile outer corner.
They are fixed to the metal racks lathing screws for metal as described above.
saa4In these profiles the grooves will end face mounted siding panel.
Corner profiles not only hide their cut edges, but also will serve them as an additional leveling element.
Furthermore siding, they are inserted and J-edge slats.
saa5If the structure is also internal corners, they draw up a specially designed for this area profiles is called "inner corner".
These fitting parts have the same function as the corner profiles, with the difference that makes a neat interior angles of the facade, closing seams siding panels.
Sometimes they do not enjoy, and the junction at a similar angle to each of the Parties shall establish regular J-profiles.
saa6If the wall is longer than the crosstrees panel acquired, they establish two (go even more) in a single line, connecting through H-profile.
This strap is fastened on the batten and racks in step mounting auxiliary angular profiles. The figure shows the circuit connection of two siding panels in the H-profile.
For accurate billing H strap is applied to the rack and is screwed on a screw from one side. Then spotted and fixed on a level with the other side, and then along the entire length. Self-tapping screws are screwed in increments of 350 ÷ 400 mm.
saa7The next stage of spotlights fixed line coated J-strip.
Its edges are inserted into the corner profiles, and then it is fixed with screws to the frame uprights.
saa8Further, the lower fixed base line J-strip or starting profile, which will start up for engagement in the joint part of the bottom panel.
saa9However, if the house is a basement than horizontally, and the lowest panel has to trim the width, it is only necessary to use J-bar, which will be inserted into the lower edge of the cut.
saa10Securing all the profiles on the main surface of the facade, as soon as it is necessary to solve the problem facing window and door openings.
Exterior openings corner profile is made of the same name "exterior angle", which also is fastened with screws on the metal frame on the carcass.
Vertical and horizontal angle profiles must be joined at the corners perfectly flat. Therefore, the fitting edge corner strips are cut at an angle of 45 degrees, prearranged pattern.
saa11For internal corners of the window opening J-mounted bracket, which is fixed on wall slope.
If the window opening allows for its size, the skeleton frame made of metal section is mounted not only on the outside of the opening, but also on its internal corner. In this case, J-strap secured to the drains of the carcass frame.
The upper and lower corners of the slope fastened straps designed to process the inner corner.
saa12If the fixing holes when the splines do not fall at the fixing position, it is necessary to cut additional longitudinal slot-shaped opening.
This can be neatly cut sander or the profile drilled several round holes, which are then combined into a longitudinal slot.
saa13For facing slopes can be used as siding or soffit panels that are installed horizontally.
In order to properly cut a material for finishing of window openings, the dimensions are taken from them. Then, the parameters are transferred to the panel, are cut through "grinder" or electric jigsaw.
It should be borne in mind that the panel will be inserted in the fixed embankment profile external and internal corners.
saa14In this illustration, the cut is clearly visible install panels in profiled corner strips that frame the slopes.
saa15When installing panels horizontally, respectively, and slit-shaped openings for fasteners will be located in the same position.
Once the panel is inserted into corner profiles, it is fixed over the extreme longitudinal holes screws to the metal profile.
saa16.1The result is a frame of the window opening should look something like this, as shown in this illustration.
saa16A fully decorated soffits or saydingovymi panel window should look something like this.
On the same principle and faced with all the other windows and doorways.
saa18Well, if the house is built on a flat surface, then the installation of siding on a plinth panel will not have to specifically customize.
If the building is built on a slope, the basement at different points will vary in height by at least two walls of the buildings, and finishing panels have to be trimmed.
saa19It is easiest to partition saydingovoy panel designed for wall socket directly on site.
It is set free and is fixed to the screw in J-bar, mounted on the lower edge of the wall, on the side of the cap, which is less than the height.
Then, the second edge of the panel is raised to a flat horizontal position, which is controlled by the level of the construction.
Withdrawing siding on a flat, horizontal, plate secured with the high side of the cap.
As a result of such action of the cap-open portion formed purlin, often having a triangle shape.
saa20With this space are the measures taken, which is cut and one or two panels, which are closed and form a triangle.
Mounting of cut panels starts from J-profile with the high side of the base and rises to the height which is conceived in advance and marked smooth line derived by level.
saa21After finishing the installation of a ground siding, for its top fixed to the frame profile section tide.
saa22To preserve the integrity profile reflux for a corner projecting part cap, made cutting the upper side rail.
Her with scissors on metal sections are produced that will lay down the bar at any angle.
saa23After fitting the tide is fixed around the perimeter of the base to the stands crates.
All the rules of attachment fully extended to him.
saa24Further, the top mounting plate reflux installed and leveled horizontally starting profile for façade panels.
Following this, installing siding facade with fixing it on the crate and interconnected to special locks. At the corners of window and door frames, siding is inserted into the angular or J profiles.
At the same time we must not forget about leaving thermal expansion joints. Thus, the distance between the end edge and the edge of the corner siding planks should be 10 ÷ 12 mm, i.e. the panel does not slide in the decorative joint rail until it stops.
If the installation is at a negative temperature of air in the street below - 8 ÷ 10 degrees, thermal gap must be increased to 3-4 mm.
saa25Docking panels in length with H-profile is produced on the same principle, and subject to the same requirements for the establishment of a compensation gaps.
saa26If the facade is lined with siding imitating stone, the dock panels along the length of sometimes produce a drawing stone relief.
For this purpose, two connecting plates are cut along the contour of individual "stone blocks", and screws screwed in relief seams or panels are glued to each other "liquid nail".
saa27After completion of all work on facing walls saydingovymi facade panels, the house will change its appearance beyond recognition, which will certainly please their owners.

proooogeWindow and door slopes, finished siding, decorate the facade of the house!

The table was enough to briefly mentioned about the design of such complex areas as window and door openings. For more information on Frames with the help of siding It can be found in a special publication of our portal.

Video: Master Class for installation of vinyl siding

sheathing gable

Securing the siding on the front &# 8212; difficult enough to perform the tasks for which it is necessary to increase the "goats", or try to work from a ladder, moving it several times.

Est diagram vertical gable plating

Est diagram vertical gable plating

  • Operation begins with fixing the crate to the starting profile, the bottom of the gable, J-profile on sloped sides of the H-profile and in the middle, if the plating will be carried out symmetrically from the center. In the case where the decoration will be integral panels (which is considerably more complicated), H-profile is installed.
How to mark the corner to trim?

How to mark the corner to trim?

  • Further, in the panels need to cut the edge at a right angle so that it is ideally entered the fixed J-profile. Determine the angle may be as follows:

&# 8212; Taken siding panel segment and is set forth in the lower part of the gable profile and start moving until it stops in a corner.

&# 8212; The J-profile, mounted to the ramp segment is inserted into one panel and also moves until it stops in the same angle.

&# 8212; Then, standing on a horizontal profile annotation marker in the intersection of two panels, or the line is drawn directly, which will define the angle of cut. Once the desired angle is cut, this piece will be the template for all subsequent cutting and plating series.

&# 8212; According to the verified template is made and the rest of the panel, but each of them vymeryat and cut once is set lower, as each of the rows of gable is its size.

  • Prepared siding installed and fixed in the same way as when mounted on a wall.
  • If the medial side of the gable established H-profile, that each row is assembled from two casing segments of which one flat side is set in the H-profile and the cut edge at an angle - a J-profile. Mounting in this way is much easier to carry out than vymeryat and set-piece panel.

In the installation of siding on the walls and gable is no big deal, except for the fact that some time will have to work at height. If you prepare well, make robust "box" or timber, and to have at hand all the necessary tools and follow a proven technical advice, then finish their home siding is quite possible to carry alone.

Video: What mistakes should be avoided during installation

Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installation

Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installation

Residents of high-rise buildings, reshivshiesya move to the private sector, it is expected that the closeness to nature and the desire to retire immediately manifest in all its glory. Will not be in the window dull urban landscape, will not be heard from the windows the noise of the big city, there will be odors that inevitably come from transport and a variety of living fetuses, live compactly. You will be able to breathe clean air, natural, and enjoy life. But what is surprising new households when their suburban housing misted window, the air is very humid, which is very difficult to breathe, and at the same time he can carry with him "flavors" basement. And the beautiful scenery in this case are not so pleasing to the eye. And this phenomenon is not uncommon. The diagnosis is clear - with ventilation problems.

What would any normal person, if it appears in a similar situation? Naturally, he would try to contact the specialized organizations who are professionally engaged in ventilation. And the likelihood that the problem will solve - is very high, as the experts and now it is enough, and the equipment no problem too. But we urge first learn a little yourself this question, and then decide - or not to apply. Perhaps the problem is a breeze and can be resolved on their own? In our article "Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and the installation" &# 8212; we will talk about all these issues, we know. And it's going to make it so that it was clear to everyone, not just those who are on you with engineering science.

Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installation

Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installation

What is ventilation, and what is it for?

Ventilation is essentially a conventional ventilation. And in Latin ventilatio it is exactly this means. But in the modern, wider meaning ventilation called process of removing exhaust air from the room and replacing it with pure outside. The outer air may be pre-cleaned, heated, cooled, humidified or drained, - depending on the needs. For what need ventilation?

  • First of all, for a comfortable and safe stay in the room of people and other living creatures. This is regulated by the sanitary rules and regulations (SanPiN).
  • Ventilation is also needed to maintain the desired environment for the safe operation of the building structures, interior, furniture, building materials and other items in the room.
  • Ventilation is needed to store anything. This can include not only the cellars, pantries, but also a dressing room.
  • An important function of ventilation is also to provide any technological processes. First of all, it concerns the kitchen, where the cooking. But in a private home may be a shop where the owner might have something to cut, shave, soldering, welding and so on. D.

Ventilation should provide certain sanitary conditions smokers who evaluate the temperature, relative humidity, air cleanliness, and the speed of its movement. It is clear that different in their functional purpose indoor ventilation can not and should be the same. This is done in different ways, which we detail below.

What makes the air go?

It is obvious that the ventilation is associated with breathability - is used instead of air, comes fresh and prepared (if necessary). In order for such an exchange took place, we must act on the air some forces. Some forces are natural and natural, while others - artificially created. Let us examine them. Let's start with the natural forces.

Natural causes, forcing air to move

Gravitational forces act on the air, but one who has a density greater will "try" to stay closer to the ground, displacing the air with a lower density. As is known, it has a density greater than the air that has lower temperature. The air density is also dependent on atmospheric pressure, which may vary with the weather changes. As well as a very large impact on the density of the air present in it have water vapor. Their presence reduces the overall density. To simplify calculations, it was assumed by experts density of dry air at normal atmospheric pressure of 760 mm Hg, which is equal to P = 101,325 kPa, a temperature of 15 ° C. Temperature dependence of the density is given by:

ρ =(P * M) / (R * T), where:

  • ρ - air density in kg / m (kilograms per cubic meter);
  • - the absolute pressure in Pa (Pascals) at normal atmospheric pressure P = 101,325 psi;
  • M - the molar mass, it is about 29 g / mole dry air;
  • R - universal gas constant, R = 8,3144598 is J / K * mole;
  • - absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin, it is easy to learn, adding to 273.15 degrees Celsius T = 273,15 + t ° C.

In this formula the values ​​of molar mass (M) and the universal gas constant (R) are constant. If we assume that the atmospheric pressure is also a constant for the given conditions, it can be represented as a formula:

ρ = (101,325 * 29) / (8,32 * (273,15 + t ° C)) = 353 / (273,15 + t ° C).

It is this formula and are experts at ventilation calculation. Density at any temperature can easily be calculated independently of this dependence. We will not even provide a calculator to calculate the air density in relation to temperature, given the simplicity of the formula, as we respect our readers and we believe that each of them can do it yourself. Just bring a small table, where for a number of temperatures calculated air density.

t, ° Cρ, kg / m³t, ° Cρ, kg / m³t, ° Cρ, kg / m³
-351.48-101.34151.23
-thirty1.45-51.32201.2
-251.4201.29251.18
-201.3951.27thirty1.16
-151.37101.25351.15

The table shows very clearly that the density decreases with increasing temperature. This means that the air by natural causes will move from low temperatures to higher, but this will occur only if there are ways for air traffic. If you take a hermetically sealed room, then there is no admission of colder air from outside will not, and the warmer will have nowhere to go. If the room has a heater, the air around him, of course, will be heated and rise up, and in its place comes the cold air, but from the same premises. Convection currents are formed, but they are closed within the premises. In order to update the air is necessary that fresh air would come from, and hours worked was where to go. Experts call it supply and exhaust ventilation. this will be explained below in more detail.

To exit the exhaust air out of the apartment or house necessarily make vertical exhaust vents. They always provide a further stage of designing the house, and always make a strictly vertical, since any change in the direction of the channel, not to mention the corners, giving additional resistance to escaping air duct. These channels do always only in the inner walls of the capital and provides for compulsory in the kitchen, in bathrooms, in the boiler room, as well as in the other, as we take a closer look below. On each of these rooms is a separate exhaust vent, no "co-operative" approach should not be. This will allow in the future to avoid a lot of problems with ventilation.

Exhaust vents make the internal walls of the capital. It is expedient to combine them in the group extending through the roof chtobv occurred in a single tube

Exhaust vents make the internal walls of the capital. It is expedient to combine them in the group to pass through the roof occurred in one tube

Air movement in a vertical ventilation duct will occur only when the air pressure at its inlet is higher than at the outlet. The pressure drop can be calculated from the following formula:

ΔP = (ρn-ρv) *g *h, Where:

  • ΔP - a pressure drop in a vertical air duct, Pa;
  • ρn - ambient air density, kg / m³;
  • ρv - air density inside the house, kg / m³;
  • g - acceleration of gravity, this reference value g = 9,8 m / s²;
  • h - the vertical height of the ventilating channel (the vertical distance from hole center drawing room to the upper edge of the channel), m.

Besides the required differential pressure it is also required that it be higher than the path loss, which depend on the material cross section, the roughness of its walls. That is why traditional masonry brick vents attract highly skilled masons who do wall smooth, without burls solution. Better yet, for these purposes, use special blocks of artificial stone, which produce some manufacturers. The most famous is the German company SCHIEDEL, having production in Russia.

Application SCHIEDEL pre-engineered for ventilation ducts - the perfect solution!

Application SCHIEDEL finished blocks for ventilation ducts &# 8212; perfect solution!

From the pressure drop of the above formula shows that the air outlet through the vent will be possible only when the ambient air density is greater than the inner. Only then the channel will pull. And this will happen when the house temperature will be higher than on the street. It turns out that on hot summer days traction in vertical channels will not be at all, and may create a condition where everything will happen the other way around: through the air vents will not go on the street and do. And so it sometimes happens. About how it can be avoided we describe below.

Another the natural force that causes the air in the air in motion, is a breeze. Atmospheric air is constantly in motion, full of calm does not happen hardly ever. As a result, one side of the house is on the windward side, where there is pressurized air masses, and the other on the leeward, where, on the contrary, the vacuum is formed. The magnitude of the pressure drop, of course, depend on the wind strength. Under the action of this air pressure differential moves indoors from windward to leeward. Obviously, for this internal air space of the house must have a connection to the atmosphere. It may be open windows or air vents, valves, special window vents or wall air supply valves.

Wind - is one of the natural forces, forcing air to move inside the house

Wind &# 8212; It is one of the natural forces, forcing air to move inside the house

Some building materials and building envelope are able to pass air through itself without special devices. Such process is called the infiltration and it is required to take into consideration in the calculation of heat losses in the design of heating systems. Modern hard rules on teplosberezheniyu call on all external and internal air flow leaving the air out done in a controlled and only through specially arranged for this purpose inputs and outputs, and all protecting designs in the form of walls, windows and doors to make the most airtight.

Unfortunately, or fortunately, the concept of eco-friendly "breathing" of the walls is less and less space in a modern building. Nevertheless, the home of traditional materials: wood, brick, adobe, - continue to be erected and operated successfully with the amendments to the requirements for thermal protection. Some types of heaters that are required in modern construction, and are able to pass water vapor and air. For example, this basalt rock wool. And even modern hard heat saving standards allow not "sealed" hermetically house the environment and leaves room for "dialogue". But the calculations of ventilation air supply systems due to infiltration across the wall structure does not take into account at all, because the "contribution" to the common cause negligible.

Wind can also promote and increase traction in vertical exhaust air ducts. To do this, headroom wear a special device - a deflector that performs two important functions:

  • It protects the ventilation duct from precipitation and various debris.
  • Deflector thrust increases in the duct.

Increased thrust is due to a reduced pressure zone in the ventilation duct exit area. For this it is because one airflow deflector is cut by at least two different speeds. According to the law, open in the XVIII century by the famous Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli, it follows that any change in the flow rate of fluid or gas entails a change in pressure. If the flow rate increases, the pressure decreases. And vice versa. The tip area of ​​the channel special form of the deflector results in an increase in flow velocity and reduction in pressure. A vacuum is created, which increases the pressure drop across the air duct. As a result, he begins to "willingly" to pull the exhaust air from the premises.

Different types of deflectors

Different types of deflectors

Those who have spent a long time in front of the fireplace, notice that the wind increased in the street is often noted more willing to burn wood in the firebox. This is due to increase thrust due to changes in flow rate. Now readers who have not previously been familiar with Bernoulli's law, there is in the arsenal of iron argument that explains the behavior of the fire in the wind. And there is every reason to show off his erudition before the distinguished audience, comfortably ensconced in front of the "magic" of the fireplace insert.

According to experts, with the performance of the deflector ventilation duct or chimney can increase by 20%. It happens that these 20% are so essential in the hot summer days when the temperature difference, and thus the density, do not allow the air to leave the premises in a natural way. Therefore, the deflector should be used always. They are completely different designs and can be made of galvanized steel, stainless steel, ceramic, and even copper. Additionally, the baffles can have a movable part which unwinds the oncoming air stream. Such constructs are called rotary deflectors. And they also provide a significant increase in traction in exhaust ventilation ducts.

rotary deflectors

rotary deflectors

Long before the Bernoulli opened his own law, experienced potters always headroom chimney constructed of special shape. In the upper part of the tube made expansion, which had a bevel. Such an element is actually a deflector at its core, although potters about this concept and did not know, and could not bring it under reasoned theoretical basis. Just a centuries-old experience is that so do a better job.

Masons from time immemorial have done so designed and did not even know that it's called a deflector

Masons from time immemorial have done so designed and did not even know that it's called a deflector

On consideration of the natural causes that lead to move the air in the ventilation system, we end up as no more no natural forces. But they are sufficient to ensure that in certain circumstances, create a ventilation system that will work without any mechanisms.

Mechanical air impulsion

There is one main disadvantage of natural ventilation system - it is not always predictable. A lot depends on the environmental factors that are not always predictable even meteorological centers, staffed by trained professionals and expensive equipment. A ventilation in your home you want to have controlled at the right time having the desired performance. Therefore, using special mechanisms that help natural ventilation, and in some cases even completely replace it.

The main unit, which causes the air to move, is a fan. By design, they can be very different types:

  • The most widely used axial fans, in which the air flow is along the motor axis. These fans can still call axial. The air driven blades of some form, called also blades or impellers. Axial fans are small size, good efficiency and at low aerodynamic resistance and there is no opposing fluxes can move impressive air volumes at low energy input.
Axial fan - the most common design in the ventilation system

axial-flow fan &# 8212; the most common design in the ventilation system

  • centrifugal Blowers (Also referred to as radial) the second most common and widely used in ventilation systems, but mainly in industries that require high performance. A feature of these is that they have a volute casing that resembles a snail. The air intake occurs through the rotor hole, and the output occurs in the perpendicular direction tangential to the rotating rotor blades having a curved shape. Because of the special shape of the hull such fans can only be applied if there is sufficient space, it is not always feasible in private households. But they are widely used in supply and exhaust ventilation systems.
Centrifugal fan

Centrifugal fan

  • Diametric or tangential fans They have a clearly visible feature - a rotor with impeller they pulled out and resembles a centrifugal fan. The difference is that the air intake is not performed through the rotor hole, on the outer diameter. That is why these fans are called diametrical. The air outlet is also produced with the outer diameter of the diffuser through the hole. Most often they are used in air conditioners and fan coil units, but in some devices designed exclusively for ventilation, flow fan can also be used. They even at low revs can move large volumes of air, so they are practically inaudible when the air conditioner or fan coil air curtains.
Tangetsionalnye fans are widely used in indoor units of air conditioners

Tangetsionalnye fans are widely used in indoor units of air conditioners

  • It is very widely used in the ventilation systems found mixed flow fans. They can also call fans mixed type. And it is not in vain, since they integrate in their design axial (axial) and centrifugal (radial). Air in such fans comes strictly along the axis, but further due to the special shape of the impeller is deflected by 45 °. Because of this air flow is even and the centrifugal component and this pressure increases. Their efficiency may reach 80%. These fans can be seen from the characteristic thickening of the airway in the place where they are installed.
Diagonal duct fan

Diagonal duct fan

We describe the main types of fans, designed to mechanically move the air in the house. But, in addition, they can have various design, have something to do exactly its purpose and installed in different places. All attempts to classify them according to these features may cause confusion in the perception, so we offer in order to consider what kind of ventilation systems there are in the process of storytelling has to point to specific devices, which are installed in a particular case.

What are the ventilation system in the house?

Readers probably already learned that the ventilation system is a must. Moreover, even if the person will not do anything for her organization - it will still be, as the air will still be for one reason or another to move. Consider how classified ventilation system, to continue to choose the option you want is for their particular circumstances. To begin, consider the circuit shown in the figure.

Classification of ventilation systems

Classification of ventilation systems

First of all, the ventilation systems are classified by the method of organization of air. They are divided into three major groups:

  • general ventilation suggests that the exchange of air going around the house (room) or at least a large part of it. It is assumed that almost the entire volume of air in the house (room) is replaced by relatively evenly. For the majority of private homes or apartments is the preferred option.
  • local ventilation as a plenum and exhaust, designed to provide breathability in any particular place. The well-known kitchen hood is a prime example of local exhaust ventilation. A fan is mounted in the window and air the "drawing" on the outside - an example of local ventilation.
  • combined ventilation - a "symbiosis" of local and general exchange. Frankly, if the house or apartment will be installed at least one unit of local ventilation, any system is to be combined, as the ventilation is still to go in the same place, and in all areas.

By the principle of action of the ventilation system are divided:

Ceiling height h, m gpk_razmery_komnaty 11dscCalculation of conduct: - Only the size of the room - the number of people permanently (more than 2 hours) staying in itType of room: Bedroom, living room, children's room, dining room Office, library Pantry, walk-in closetThe number of people permanently (more than 2 hours) staying in the room:For every resident accounts residential area of ​​the house or apartment: - 20 m² - less than 20 m²

These calculations help evaluate the desired breathability, but still before the purchase of any equipment are advised to consult specialists, since expertise and experience in the implementation of the ventilation system at different sites are very important.

Typical scheme of forced ventilation of private homes

Consider a typical diagram forced ventilation freewheeling home and briefly mention the appointment of its members. We present a scheme quite simplified, as are other elements may be present in the system. But the purpose of this article is not a detailed description, and the introduction to the principles.

Driving home mechanical ventilation

Driving home mechanical ventilation

The figure shows a two-storey house in the section marked and the main types of facilities that are present in it. Located in the attic ventilation system with heat recovery. In one unit and mounted input and exhaust fans, and the heat exchanger. There are a block filters and automation unit, which is designed to manage the machine either manually or by a signal from sensors which may be located on the premises.

The performance of the unit is selected on the basis of pre-made calculations. In the diagram, it is clear that a suitable recuperator four vents. Two of them are located outside - one serves for the suction of fresh air and the second for the removal of waste into the atmosphere. At the ends of these ducts mounted hoods to protect against rain and mesh to prevent entry of large debris. Caps intake and ejection spread to exclude air flows therebetween. For example, emissions can be done by horse roof and fence - on the wall at a height of not less than 2.5 meters.

The other two outputs of the main recuperator is connected ventkanala two: one in the scheme is designated as the supply air path, and the other - the exhaust air removal channel. When connecting the main air ducts are guided by the "iron" rule - their diameter shall be not less than the outputs from the unit. For example, if the output is 125 mm, then the line must also have a diameter of 125 mm. later, a branch of the highways is already possible to make smaller diameter air ducts, what should be said in the draft.

The air intake is done in the same premises as the system of natural ventilation: kitchen, bathroom, toilet, shower room, household room, pantry, dressing room, if there is no inflow and it is adjacent to the room where the influx is organized. The influx is done in all the rooms, except corridors, bathrooms and kitchens. it makes sense to install a separate vent valve to ensure the effective operation of the hood in the kitchen.

The interior doors and doors mounted toilets necessarily lattice for air flow between rooms. The influx in each room should be located so that it was in the farthest corner relative to the door. In large or elongated rooms can be made not one, but two or more flows. This will provide a better filling the room with fresh air.

Video: ventilation wooden country house

Air ducts for forced ventilation systems

In centralized air mechanical ventilation of the recuperator to the destination moves strictly the duct. They help to distribute the fresh air on the premises, collect the waste and deliver it to the heat exchanger. Industry produces a very wide range of ductwork, which can pick up on any cases. In addition, there is still room and a variety of accessories in the form of bends, reducers, tees, connectors, check valves, brackets and other products. We offer readers acquainted with the details of the arsenal, with which you can create any kind of ventilation system.

IzobrazhenieNaimenovanieOpisanie appointment
1PVC ventilation channels are round, the diameters of 100, 125, 150 and 200 mm.To create a round ducts in the supply air and exhaust ventilation systems. Produced length 350, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mm.
2Connector for round PVC diameter ventilation ducts 100, 125, 150 and 200 mm.To connect two respective diameters of channels.
3Bends 90 ° for round PVC diameter ventilation ducts 100, 125 and 150 mm.For connecting two ducts of diameter at 90 °.
04Tees round PVC ventilation duct diameters 100, 125 and 150 mm.To create branching in round channels corresponding diameter.
5Wall plate for round PVC channel diameters of 100, 25, 150, 200 mm.For connecting round ducts to the ventilation holes and shafts.
6The connector with check valve for circular ventilation duct diameters PVC 100, 125, 150 and 200 mm.To connect the two channels corresponding to the diameters and to prevent back flow.
7Gearboxes for round ducts compound different diameters of 80-100 mm, 100-120 mm 100-125 mm 100-150 mm 125-150 mm 150-200 mm.To connect two circular ventilation ducts of different diameters.
8Connector round and flat PVC ventilation channels: 100-55 * 110 mm * 122 mm 100-60, 125-60 * 204 mm.For the connection of round and flat PVC ducts.
9Holder for round PVC diameters channels 100, 125, 150 and 200 mm.For mounting circular channels to any flat surface by means of appropriate fasteners.
10PVC ventilation channels planar section 55 * 110 mm, 60 * 122 mm, 60 * 204 mm.To create a flat air ducts in the supply air and exhaust ventilation. The standard length of 350, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 mm.
elevenFlat duct connector section 55 * 100 mm, 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.For flat PVC compound corresponding section channels.
12The connector for flat channel valve section 55 * 110 mm, 60 * 122 mm, 60 * 204 mm.To connect the flat channels and prevent reverse flow of air.
13Elbow 90 ° to the vertical plane cross-section channels 55 mm * 110 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.For compound channels corresponding flat sections in the vertical plane.
14Elbow 90 ° to the horizontal plane cross-section channels 55 mm * 110 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.For compound channels corresponding flat section in the horizontal plane.
15Universal corner connector for flat PVC ventilation duct section 55 * 110 * 60 mm and 204 mm.To connect two flat sections corresponding to the ventilation channels in the horizontal plane at an angle of from 3 ° to 48 °.
16Tee for flat PVC ventilation duct section 55 * 110 mm, 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.To create taps in the ventilation ducts of the corresponding section.
17The connecting elbow 90 ° for flat and circular channels 110-100 * 55 mm, 60 mm * 122-100 60 * 204-100 mm, 204-125 mm 60 * 60 * 204-150 mm.For compounds of flat and round channels at 90 °.
18Reducer for flat PVC ducting 55 * 110-60 * 204 mm.To connect two flat channels of different sections.
19Wall plate for flat channels 55 * 110 mm, 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.To connect the flat connector to the ventilation holes.
20Grate end with adjustment of effective cross section for the flat channel 55 * 110 * 60 mm and 204 mm.Decoration of supply air or exhaust air outlets.
21Reducer for flat and round ducts 55 * 100-100 mm.For compounds of flat and round ducts.
22Connector round and flat symmetrical channels 100-60 * 122 mm.For compounds of flat and round ducts.
23Holder for planar channel sections 55 * 110 mm, 60 * 122 * 60 mm and 204 mm.For flat channel mounted to any flat surface.

For the organization of the supply air outlet or exhaust suction using special devices that are placed on the ends of the ducts. That they remain in the mind after the installation of ventilation and finishing, so pay attention not only to their functionality, but also in appearance.

  • diffusers - designed to provide inflow or exhaust air. Accordingly, they may be the supply, exhaust or supply-exhaust. If the room only to withdraw and end of the vent pipe from the heat exchanger to submit the air, it will go a stream, which can affect badly on the quality of ventilation, and on human health. The diffuser diffuses the air stream so that it is evenly distributed around it at a certain distance. Similarly exhaust diffusers create a vacuum, not locally in the form of jets, and around a certain distance. This allows you to more fully take exhaust air.
Diffusers of different design

Diffusers of different design

  • diffusers - have absolutely the same purpose as the diffusers, they have a valve adjustment only in its design. This is a significant advantage, since it is possible either to increase the flow of intake air or the feed, or to reduce, making it easy to balance the ventilation system.
Anemostat flap can be opened or closed

Anemostat flap can be opened or closed

And diffusers and diffusers are produced from different materials - plastic or metal. They come in different shapes, different sizes, different colors and designs. There are even those devices with color LED backlight. In general, a wealth of choice will allow air to fit into any interior without breaking it.

EXAMPLE installation supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation with heat recovery

Although we have argued that the installation of a complex ventilation equipment should be trusted only to specialists, but it never hurts to learn about the structure and characteristics of the air handling unit and the main stages of installation. As an example, we choose a very popular and reliable installation VENTS VUE2 P 250 EU (hereinafter it will be called the "set"). Its appearance can be seen in the figure.

VENTS VUE2 250 P EU

VENTS VUE2 250 P EU

The installation is completely ready ventilation unit that supplies fresh air into the room, its filtration and removal of contaminated. The device provides heat and moisture transfer from exhaust air to the supply via two plate heat exchanger. It is used in the installation of ventilation systems and air-conditioning of residential buildings, apartments and other premises. It has a very low noise level, because the electric fan is located between the heat exchanger. electronic switching motor windings also applied (EC motors) that lets you change the speed and reduce the noise further smoothly. The main technical characteristics of the installation VENTS VUE2 P 250 EU:

  • Installation is powered by a single-phase AC power. Supply voltage 220-240 V, 50 Hz.
  • Maximum fan power 125 W, current consumption - 0.87 A.
  • The maximum installation of air flow 257 m³ / h.
  • Fan Motor speed 2930 rev / min.
  • The sound pressure level at a distance of 3 m - not more than 39 dB.
  • The material installation housing - aluzinc.
  • transported air temperature &# 8212; -25&# 8212; + 60 ° C.
  • Thermal insulation and soundproofing installation - polypropylene foam 10 mm thick.
  • The diameter of the duct plug 125 mm.
  • Types of filters used in the supply and exhaust - Pocket G
  • Recovery Efficiency (CAP) - up to 89%.
  • Heat exchanger type - cross-flow.
  • Heat exchanger material - polymerize cellulose.
  • Number of heat exchangers - 2.
  • Overall dimensions - 581 * 864 * 220 mm.

Due to its compact size, the installation can be installed in the attic, on the wall, suspended ceiling. In any case, the installation of easy access for maintenance must be provided. Here is another figure, which is clearly visible "inner world" air handling unit.

Apparatus ventilation system with heat recovery

Apparatus ventilation system with heat recovery

Let us now consider the main stages of installation mounting VENTS VUE2 250 P EU together with the forced ventilation system.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie process
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationAny installation should begin only when the ready project documentation and an object all the equipment imported.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationTo mark the passage of the duct through the main walls and partitions. It is convenient to use the connector as a template. On the ceiling and walls of the markings applied axial duct lines indicate all bends, branches with dimensions of air ducts. Also marked the installation site diffuser or diffusers.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationTo mark the position of the air handling unit block. For its location it is best to use a separate utility room to the service for a quick and easy access in the living room could not hear the noise from the operating system.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationBracket set for wall mounted heat exchanger, bundled.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationInstallation is tried in his place, marked axial duct line, then it is removed before the end of drilling and chiseling work.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationHeld drilling and grooving work in places of passage ducts through walls and partitions. It is better to use powerful drills SDS-Max. After completion of the work in all areas to do the cleaning.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationChannels are tried to make a hole. For highways ventilation is better to use circular channels 125 mm, but if the false ceiling for them is not a place, it should be fine rectangular channels 204 x 60 mm (as pictured). For the branches are well suited rectangular channels 55 * 110.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationIt begins assembly of air ducts. You always have to start with the roads. Cutting can be used handsaw, jigsaw or grinder with a corresponding drive for cutting plastic. The best cut is obtained from the grinder.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationFor fixing of air ducts to the ceiling or walls should only be used specifically designed for this purpose holders (brackets) of the corresponding size. The use of metal strips can increase the noise level of the ventilation system.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationCompound ducts between themselves and with various mounting elements necessarily insure short screws with a press washer - not less than two per joint.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationMounting of the main ducts and branch continues. Initially, the desired length of cut ventkanala with the mounting member and then to the ceiling or wall mounted brackets (brackets), then the duct together with the mounting element is tried to place. If done correctly, the duct is fixed in the holders, and the joints of "fear" self-tapping screws.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationIf you need air ducts crossing at different levels, it is easy to implement with the help of the knee 90 °. But even at the design stage, you should try to avoid unnecessary turns, since they increase the resistance.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationHung installation of ventilation and made the connection to the main ventilation ducts. To compensate for vibration air handling unit is better to use segments of flexible air ducts, which are fixed by means of screw clamps.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationYield duct street must "formalized" accordingly. First of all, it has a value of protection against rain and large debris, and then - relative positioning. The ends of the duct facing the street, protected by special caps that have a large grid. If the inlet and outlet are located on one wall, the first always make up the second.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationDiffusers or diffuser can be mounted in the ducts through the tees. But if the false ceiling is not enough space for it, you can use a plate with a flange, which is mounted directly on the air duct.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationFor this purpose, target site applied to a flat plate duct marker and marking is done on the inner diameter of the flange.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThen grinder is two diametrical cross cut inside the marked circle.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationMetal scissors cut a round hole.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationNext the plate is applied to the flange and through the mounting hole is secured to the duct by four screws.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationMounted diffuser or diffusers in the appropriate place.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe air handling unit is connected to the mains. For this is allocated a separate cable 3 * 1.5 mm, which is maintained by a switch board in the house. The shield for protection against short circuits and overloads the circuit breaker is placed at 10 A. The use of a protective neutral conductor (PE) must!
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationFitting test conducted in various modes. After that, a note in the passport of the air handling unit, and it receives an official guarantee.

In the example shown, we have shown the installation of centralized ventilation, when all the functions are summarized in a single unit, and the air through ventilation ducts distributed around the premises. This is a clear advantage, as this system is easy to manage. But there are situations when forced ventilation in the inertia-free structure to make necessary, but such a centralized system would be redundant. This may be a small country house or, for example, in a free-standing bath. These structures are periodically, and there is no need to ventilate them constantly. But, nevertheless, during a visit to the people necessary to ensure normal ventilation. And this is possible thanks to a special device with heat recovery, but several other types. Forced ventilation in buildings can be freewheeling and decentralized, and, despite this, it perfectly fulfills its function.

Video: Bentilyatsionnaya uctanovka c pekuperatsiey Daikin VAM 800FB

 

EXAMPLE installation supply and exhaust ventilation decentralized

As an example, consider the supply and exhaust ventilation unit with heat recovery type UVRK-50mA (further we will call it "the device"), which issues the Russian company "Ecoterm". The device is designed for energy-efficient ventilation of an area up to 30 m². It implements the functions as the fresh air from outside, and the exhaust hoods. The apparatus unit shown in the following figure.

Apparatus UVRK-50mA

Apparatus UVRK-50mA

The device is mounted in the channel, which is specially organized for its installation. Inside the case are two regenerator - big and small. They are made of a special alloy, which is able to accumulate thermal energy, i.e. the inertia of the material. In fact regenerators - this heat exchangers. Between them is a high-performance fan unit capable of operating in reverse mode, ie both the air flow into the room, and on the hood. Automatic controls fan provided with an electronic circuit and a set of sensors.

On the inner side there is an automatic valve which is driven closing or opening it. The valve may be closed even in case of loss of electric power. To do this, the instrument is provided the battery pack. Of the valve is a filter and a decorative grille. The device can be operated by remote control. Let us briefly consider the work UVRK-50mA.

Phases of device operation

Phases of device operation

Suppose that the indoor temperature is + 20 ° C, and on the street -20 ° C. In Phase 1, the device emits exhaust air from indoors to outdoors. When passing through the device it is rapidly exchanges heat regenerators, heating them. In Phase 2, when regenerators and heat up enough heat stopped, the sensors give a command to stop the fan and initiate its rotation in the opposite direction. In phase 3, the fence is cold outside air and thus there is an intensive heat exchange, only air from the regenerator. Manufacturers claim that in this phase, the air is warmed up to + 14 ° C, that does not lead to a sharp drop in the room temperature. When the regenerator is already very faded, it is the "notice" sensors, which will give the command to the first fan to stop, and then to run it, but in the opposite direction. Work unit returns to phase 1. If the unit is in the summer time and the indoor air is cooled by air conditioning, it is a process of reducing the temperature of external air through the regenerators.

Synchronous operation of two devices

Synchronous operation of two devices

The most effective such a decentralized ventilation enables synchronized operation of two devices in opposite phase. When one works on the hood, the other works on the inflow, then the opposite is true. To implement this feature in the design of the device provided the technical possibility of synchronization. Also UVRK-50mA can work synchronously with the kitchen hood, when it is turned on, the instrument automatically opens the shutter valve and the fan runs at the air supply from outside the building. This compensates for the "care" of a large number of air-initiated draft. Here are brief specifications of the device:

  • Temperature range - from -40 ° C to + 50 ° C.
  • Output device 13 m³ / h to 80 m³ / hour.
  • Coefficient power saving from 86% to 96%.
  • Area for ventilation - up to 30 m².
  • Power consumption 19 watts.
  • The level of noise generated during operation - no more than 42 dB.
  • The thickness of the walls for mounting the device should be from 400 mm to 750 mm.
  • The diameter of the channel for mounting the device - 225 mm.

Obviously, the use of such a supply and exhaust device (or similar to it) is advantageous in every sense. At very low power consumption - only 19 Watts, the device allows very good save thermal energy. We do not need any duct, no designated spaces. No wonder such ventilation systems are used everywhere and are becoming increasingly popular. Mounting the device on its own is quite possible except phase of drilling holes in the main wall. But now this service, you can easily order, as in almost any locality there are organizations that have the necessary equipment. We briefly describe the process of installation UVRK-50mA.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie process
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe device is unpacked and checked his equipment.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationChoose a location where the device will be mounted, this is usually done on the left or right of the window opening at a height of 2-2.2 meters. The instrument must not be obstructed by furniture and some decoration elements or blackout curtains.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationA special indicator is checked, whether at the installation site of the buried wire.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationA pattern that comes bundled with the device, performed opening the markup for the sleeve and dowel mounting.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationTo install the diamond drilling is required for wall mounting. Therefore, for this drilled hole puncher. This part of the work has already should be carried out on drilling.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe dowel is inserted into the hole and then screwed into it a special mounting rod for mounting diamond drill.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationMounting is possible even when fully made the finishing, but it does take some precautions. At the drilling site wall and ceiling with the help of masking tape is pasted over with plastic wrap.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationFurther mounted diamond drill rig. This takes into account that the final hole should have a slight slope of 3-5 ° in a side street.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationDrilled diamond crown diameter 225 mm. Installation thus connected to a special tank with water which circulates and cools the drilling place continuously. Depending on the wall thickness of the drill may consist of several stages, as the need to install extensions.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationIn this work of invited experts on drilling is finished, you can continue to install the product yourself. After drilling the hole turns out very flat and smooth, and even the reinforcement in reinforced concrete is not an obstacle for the diamond crown. Subject to the technology interior suffering minimal.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationMeasured with a tape measure wall thickness.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe telescopic sleeve is expanded so that its length exactly the same as the thickness of the wall.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe length of the sleeve is fixed temporarily with tape.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationA further drilled hole, and the length of the sleeve is securely fixed by three rivets arranged circumferentially at 120 ° from each other.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe sleeve is wrapped insulating self-adhesive type "Penofol" material thickness of 10 mm. Thus it is necessary to leave the inside of the gap that will continue to be filled with foam.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe sleeve is inserted into the hole. In this strip, located on the outer side should be positioned horizontally. Planck is needed for fixing the outer visor.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationChecked sleeves slope toward the street.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe gap between the sleeve and the hole zapenivaetsya. After complete polymerization of foam are cut off flush with the wall excess
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe outer visor can be installed using a ladder, and with a rope which is pulled up to its outlet and directed arm or rod fixing bolts into the grooves on the horizontal plate. At this stage it is important to work with an assistant, one pulls the visor to the opening, and the other, holding the other end of the rope to the ground, nor allow him to fight against the walls.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationAllen key bolts twist the cap to full fit to the outer wall.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationOn the reverse side of the housing is block for electrical connection for convenience it is better to remove.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe terminal block consists of two identical parts. One part serves for electrical connection, and the other - to synchronize with other similar devices or kitchen hood.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationAlso near the terminal block on the left and the right are two switch-jumper. One is responsible for synchronizing with other devices, and the other allows you to connect to external controls.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationPower wires connected to the terminal block.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationBlock is set in place.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationTo seal the flange of the appliance is stuck. Its adhesive side must face it to the device, not the wall.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationThe device is installed in the sleeve ...
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installation... and then fastens four screws to the wall in the pre-installed anchors.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationPower supply is turned on and when the remote control is checked his work in all modes.
Ventilation in a private home: the scheme and installationSet filter and internal grille. Make a mark in the passport of the mounting device.

Needless to say, the two shown in the article of forced ventilation devices is not limited to their range. There are such devices as ducted air conditioning, electric or water heaters, various manual valves or motorized. Ventilation can be fitted with various temperature sensors, humidity, concentration of CO₂ and others that provide data to the control system, which can, without human intervention to respond to any change in the microclimate in the house. Embodiments of the ventilation system, in principle, an infinite number and in one article it is impossible to describe all. Therefore, we again strongly recommend readers that time there was a need for a system of forced ventilation, it is necessary to consult specialists. At least from considerations of what they were taught that at least a few years. Plus good manufacturers of ventilation equipment always offer complete solutions, when once acquired a set of equipment is much cheaper if you purchase everything separately.

Video: Detsentpalizovannaya ventilyatsiya c pegeneratsiey tepla PeBEHTa

conclusion

We in this paper tried to explain to the readers of our portal for ventilation importance as one of the engineering systems, which makes the life of a man in his home comfortable and safe. We tried to explain that to every single house should have its own, highly individual approach. If in one house will be free and act natural forces effectively, in another they are simply useless and have to make a forced ventilation.

The ventilation system is not separate from all others. She is very tightly connected with heating, and air-conditioning and electricity supply. Trends of modern construction are inclined to mass construction is relatively cheap freewheeling homes, but their owners unwittingly become dependent on energy. You can oppose this process, but is it worth? Still comfortable life in our time depends on the energy sources and to pay for them. It is difficult to imagine the life of modern man with no electricity, no gas, no water, no connection, no Internet. Yes, you have to pay. But in the end, it is almost always cheaper than their own harvest natural energy resources or to do some of his methods of communication with the outside world.

If someone is lucky that he has a traditional house of teploinertsionnyh materials, let the natural forces will be exploited to the maximum. If necessary, in the summer season can be difficult ventilation to help some elements that will make the air move. If the house is different, there is nothing wrong with that, because there are inexpensive and effective ways of organizing ventilation.

All our readers we wish in their homes fresh air, comfortable and safe life! We hope that the information provided in this article will help make the right decision with regard to the ventilation system.

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

The construction of the roof - one of the most critical stages of construction. The reliability of the "umbrella" on top, by its resistance to atmospheric agents and any external influences, depends durability of the building and the level of comfort of living in it.

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Of the variety of roof structures, gable can be attributed to one of the most popular, simply because of the relative simplicity of its construction. However, and this 'simplicity' is a lot of different nuances, the need for certain calculations and following technological rules. However, this publication is the main task: to show that the installation of the rafters gable roof with his hands - the task is quite feasible, even for the novice builder.

Let's go through all steps of the process for installing trusses such roofs, from preliminary design bases to the example of practical embodiment.

General device pentroof

basic concepts

The principle of the device pitched roof is clear already from the title. It is characterized by the presence of two rays of the roof, in the majority of cases are symmetric with respect to the ridge line. On both front sides are located triangular pediments.

Two symmetrical sides equally steep slope of the roof - a

Two symmetrical sides equally steep slope of the roof - a "classic" layout gable roof

This scheme is characterized by the relative simplicity of calculation and installation. It is extremely secure (with proper building), provides uniform load distribution on the walls of the building, while possessing excellent operational safety margin. However, such a roof is looked even without any frills, very nice, suitable for practically all types of roofing, but it may be given any skates slope angles (within reasonable limits).

Apparent disadvantage of such a roof is the presence of "accessibility" zones in the attic, in the lower part of skates.

Sometimes architects are trying to make some variety in the design of gable roof. For example, one of the methods is to create the underlined asymmetry skates, and, both in their slope and the length of the ridge to the eaves.

The original solution - roof slopes are different and the angle of inclination to the horizon, and the length

The original solution - roof slopes are different and the angle of inclination to the horizon, and the length

Such an approach opens up additional opportunities useful attic. However, self-correct design and construction of a gable roof for the unprepared person - a problem of discharge impracticable, so in this article, such a structure will not be considered further.

With a certain degree of conditionality to include gable roof planes with broken rays.

Polyline shape of the roof ramps is usually done in favor of the beneficial use of attic space

Polyline shape of the roof ramps is usually done in favor of the beneficial use of attic space

However, such design and have features in the design and mounting. this type of truss system deserve a separate detailed consideration.

dvu5Roof sloping ceilings - the perfect solution for residential attic

To build a reliable truss system of this type, it will be necessary to hold a series of calculations, carefully consider the sequence of work, used processing methods. All this detail - in a special publication of our portal "Mansard roof with his hands".

Structural elements of frame of roof gable roof

To further can be, as they say, "speak the same language", you need to consider some of the main parts and assemblies made up the general construction of a gable roof. Attention to the scheme:

The circuit structure simple in structure gable roof system

The circuit structure simple in structure gable roof system

Outset that this scheme is, of course, may not reflect the diversity of all possible structures of roof systems, but the main parts and components on it shows clearly enough.

1 - mauerlat. This board or beam, which are rigidly mounted on the upper end of the external load-bearing walls of the building. His mission - even load distribution on the entire roof system on the wall of the house, to create conditions to secure the rafters at their lowest point support.

2 - rafters are installed in pairs. They are the main structural parts of the roof throughout the system - namely the rafters set the slope ramps, will be the basis for fixing the battens, roofing and insulated if the roof is planned - something else and all the thermal insulation of the "pie".

quality boards or beams used for making rafters, and logs can be used. About timber section which is sufficient to guarantee the holding of all possible loads - will be discussed below.

Rafters can end mauerlat, but often go beyond the perimeter walls of the house, forming eaves. However, and lighter parts can be used for this purpose - the so-called "grasshopper", which build rafters on the desired width of the eaves.

For the formation of eaves rafters overbuilt

For the formation of eaves rafters overbuilt "filly"

3 - ridge pole. It can be a timber, board or component design. Run extends across the ridge line and serves to connect the upper pair points rafters, truss pairs of connection in order to impart the overall rigidity of the entire roof structure. In various embodiments, the roof can run hard to rely on the rack or be linked only to a connection node rafters.

4 - Tightening (fights, crossbars). Horizontal parts amplification system further binding pair rafters together. It can be used several puffs, located at different heights.

5 - joists, which will serve as the basis for the installation of the floor in the attic and ceiling from the room.

6 - and this beam simultaneously serves as sleepers. This beam extending over the entire length of the roof, which is a support for the installation of additional parts strengthening truss system. Sill can be mounted as shown (by type joist) or fixedly laid on capital septum inside the building.

7 - rack (grandmother) - additional vertical support rafters to prevent their deflection under external loads. Desk top may abut the rafters themselves, or in an additional run longitudinally binding rafters at a certain height.

The illustration shows the additional well-runs linking the rafters along the entire length of the roof.

The illustration shows the additional well-runs linking the rafters along the entire length of the roof.

8 - struts. Often at great length rafters of their load-carrying capacity is not enough, and the amplification of the pillars does not provide the required strength. In these cases the diagonal reinforcing elements based on bottom sill, creating an additional point of support for the rafters. The number of struts and their place of installation may vary roofs of varying complexity.

Some of the differences and the hanging system naslonnoy gable roof

Gable roofs can be divided into two types of designs - with naslonnymi and hanging rafters. Also, combined systems are widely used, in which two combined construction principle. What is the fundamental difference?

Naslonnaya rafters system

This truss system design is characterized by support for the capital internal partition in a building. On the upper end of the partition is mounted sill, on which rest drains supporting the ridge pole. Thus, the rafters "nasloneny" on a vertical support, which makes the whole system as much as possible solid.

The roof structure with rafters naslonnymi

The roof structure with rafters naslonnymi

Such a scheme is the most popular because of its reliability and relative simplicity in design. If there is an opportunity to create additional sharpen support for the center, then why not take advantage of it? However, if the attic is planned occupancy of residential premises, the uprights can sometimes be a hindrance. However, their presence too, sometimes "beat", using, for example, for internal partitions easy mounting.

Depending on the number and placement of the internal baffles naslonnoy truss system design may vary. Some examples are shown in the illustration below:

Various embodiments of system design with naslonnymi rafters

Various embodiments of system design with naslonnymi rafters

On fragment "a" shows the simplest embodiment, which incidentally in small lengths of rafter (5 meters) may not be shown strut - sufficiently under some central ridge pole racks

With increasing width of the building system, of course, complicated, and there are additional reinforcing elements - tightening and struts ( "b" fragment).

Fragment "in" demonstrates that the inner wall of the capital does not have to be located exactly in the middle, under the ridge. It is possible and an option, as shown in the illustration, but with the condition that the displacement with respect to the ridge Lezhnyov not exceed one meter.

Finally, fragment "d" shows how the system can build trusses in large building, but having two capital partitions inside. The distance between such parallel sleepers can be up to one third of the width of the building.

with hanging rafters system

Graphically, this roof scheme can be represented like this:

The roof structure with hanging rafters

The roof structure with hanging rafters

Immediately apparent that rafters rest mauerlat only on the bottom, and then connected to each other on the ridge. Additional support in the middle is missing, ie rafters as if "hanging" that determines the name of the system. This feature places certain limitations on the use of hanging trusses - typically this scheme is practiced when the distance between the carrying walls, on which is mounted mauerlat, no more than 7 meters. Installable tightening only partially remove load from the outer walls.

The following illustration shows several embodiments hanging system. However, some of them are rather can be attributed to the combination.

Variants of roof system with hanging rafters

Variants of roof system with hanging rafters

Fragment "d" - Hanging rafter linked to a coupler mauerlat level or fastened to a powerful beam overlap, forming with it a triangle. No other reinforcing parts. Such a scheme is allowed when the distance between the walls to 6 meters.

Option "g" - for the same size house (up to 6 meters). Tightening (bolt) in this case is shifted upwards, and is often used for filing the ceiling attic.

Options for the "e" and "s" are designed to span between walls up to 9 meters. Few puffs may be used (or the top-tightening in combination with the lower beam overlap). Another approach - installation of racks under the ridge pole, similar to naslonnoy system. Just as the lower pivot point is not used on the sill of the capital wall, and rack based on the tightness or joists. Call this option purely "hanging" - it is difficult, because there is - obviously a combination of parts of both designs.

In an even greater degree such combination of the two schemes is expressed in the embodiment "and", which is designed for large spans, from 9 to 14 meters. Here, in addition to the stand-grandmother, involved more and diagonal struts. Often these farms in general are going on the ground, and only then lifted and set in place, communicate with each other, thereby forming the entire roof frame.

So, it is necessary to study the principles of the structure of a system to assess their advantages and disadvantages, choose the best for their conditions and make a graphical operating scheme in preparation for the construction of a gable roof. She will need and the acquisition of the necessary material for the production of own installation. However, the composition of the drawing still has to be preceded by some calculations.

The calculation of the basic parameters of the gable roof truss system

Let's take another look at the concept of a gable roof device to select the parameters that need to be calculated.

The circuit for visual display of the calculated parameters pentroof

The circuit for visual display of the calculated parameters pentroof

So, in the calculation process, we need to determine the following values.

Input data - is side dyne Housing according gable portion (highlighted in blue - F), and the length of the ridge house (violet color - D). It is assumed that the owners have to determine in advance the type of roof covering - as there are certain restrictions on the steepness of the roof ramps. (A corner).

To be calculated:

  • Ridge height above the plane mauerlat (H - green), or, conversely, to determine the angle of slope, starting from the planned height of the ridge.
  • Rafter length (blue - L), and if necessary - and an elongation rafters to form eaves necessary width (l).
  • Calculate the total load falling on the truss system to determine the optimal cross section for the production of timber trusses, their installation step (red - S) and the allowable length of spans between the support points. All these parameters - are closely interrelated.
  • When the hands are the calculated values, it is not difficult to make a flow chart to determine the need for and the optimal location of the gain elements to calculate the amount of material to make them.

We expect the slope of the slope and height of the ridge

The angle of slope of ramps may be defined on various hosts evaluation criteria:

Planned roof slope angle α (degrees) Risunok2

By the way, the calculator will solve both direct and inverse problems. For example, if it is necessary to start from the planned height of the ridge of the roof, it is possible by entering once to start the triangle base length f, then change the angle of slope of the roof (gradation change calculator - 1 degree) to quickly arrive at a desired value. It takes just a few seconds.

We expect the length of rafter

To calculate the length of the rafter, which in this case is the hypotenuse of a right triangle (with legs and f H), the easiest way to apply the well-known Pythagorean theorem.

L = √ (f ² + N²)

A calculator for calculating the working length of the gable roof rafter

 Enter the requested value and press "Calculate the length of the hypotenuse (rafter)"Leg 1 (triangle height H), m , Figure 32 cathetus (base of triangle f), m Picture 1

This result has given us a "working" the length of the rafter. If you plan to another due to the rafters once to form the eaves, it is necessary to do to increase the length of - l. According to the laws of trigonometry this "appendage" will be equal to:

l = K / cos a

By - paniruemaya wide eaves, by the house wall to the edge (horizontal).

a - angle of slope of the roof slope.

Even if the eaves will be formed at the expense of "grasshoppers", then the calculation will determine the necessary working length of the design details. The calculation is easier to carry out with the help of our calculator:

Calculator for extension rafter to form the eaves.

 Enter the requested information, and click "Calculate elongation rafters (filly working length)"The planned width of the eaves K m 2017-03-11_204338The magnitude of steepness of slope α, degrees 2017-03-11_204422

At small angles of roof slope of this extension is very slightly different from the proposed width of the eaves. However, with the growth of the slope, rafters elongation begins to increase rapidly, so ignore this value - it is impossible.

Will only sum the values ​​obtained and to get the total length of the blank for making rafter. Of course, it is taken with a small margin of about 200 ÷ 250 mm - in the exact trim after installing and fixing rafter into place.

You can immediately evaluate - whether for sale workpiece (timber) to length. On the roofs of large size sometimes have to resort to merging the rafters in length.

calculation of loads on the truss system, the definition section of the rafters, and the step of setting

We turn to the most difficult stage of the calculation. It is necessary to assess what the total load will fall on the roof structure, as they are optimally distributed along the length of the carrier elements, varying the installation step rafters. From this it will be possible to choose the desired material which will provide structure stability without deformation or fracture, to determine the details of the gain, i.e. in Scheme arrange additional support points which reduce free span rafter.

The selected type of roofing Asbestos cement slate conventional Profile Asbestos-cement roofing reinforcement profile Pulp bituminous sheets ( "Euroslate", "ondulin") Roofing iron (galvanized steel) Soft shingles Metal, corrugated ceramic tile Tile Cement-based The resin-sand tile Roof - roofing material on the asphalt mastic in two layersDefine the map diagram and specify the zone for your region level snow loadIIIIIIIVVVIVIIIdentify on the map and select your region by region level wind pressureIaIIIIIIIVVVIVIISpecify the location of the building zone Zone "A" - Open terrain (steppes, deserts, plains), the windswept coast of large bodies of water. Zone "B" - Crossed, wooded terrain with natural obstacles for the wind or with artificial plantings, up to 10 meters, the territory of the villages and small towns. Zone "B" - dense urban areas with tall artificial barriers for wind of 25 meters or more villages or houses, surrounded on all sides by forestSpecify the height of the roof ridge above the ground- no more than 5 meters- from 5 to 10 meters- from 11 to 20 meters- more than 20 meters The following will be prompted for the intended installation step rafters. By changing this parameter, you can optimize the value of the distributed load on the rafters.
Opora_skolzyaschaya_dlya_stropil__5Step installation rafters, meters

Since the received input values ​​in a table and determine the sectional boards for making rafter.

The calculated value of the distributed load
(Kilograms per meter of rafter) Cross-section of the timber for the manufacture of rafters
75100125150175board or barround timber
Board Thickness (timber), mmDiameter, mm
40506080100
Planned flight of support points between the rafters, mboard height (timber), mm
43.532.52160150140130120
4.543.532.5180170160140120120
54.543.53200190180160140140
5.554.543.5-210200180160160
65.554.54--220200180180
6.565.554.5---220200200
-6.565.55---240220220

For example, the value is issued by the calculator 92 kilogram per linear meter. The closest to the next higher value in the table - 100 kg, it means working with this column.

It is planned to install the rafters so that they span between support points will be up to 4.5 meters. We find the intersection of the selected column with the same value.

Now you can write out the right side of the table all the dimensions allowable timber that is guaranteed to withstand such a load. In this example, the board 40 × 200; 50 × 190; 60 × 180; 80 × 160; 100 × 140, and the beam diameter of 120 mm.

Possible in the planning mode to try to change the amount of free flight, yet virtually installing additional point of support (braces or grandmother) to see what kind of material will be more profitable.

In this section of the article dedicated to carrying out independent calculations we will finish - it's time to move on to consideration of the practical example of creating a roof system gable roof. But still &# 8212; a few words in conclusion.

Algorithms of calculation and design of roof system, of course, simplified, and their use is acceptable for not too large-scale construction. If a full-fledged residential house is being built, then you can not do without a professional architectural design of both the building and its roof structure in particular.

EXAMPLE installation trusses pentroof - incrementally

Work on the construction of the roof always - very time-consuming and difficult, as most of the operations have to be carried out in very uncomfortable conditions at altitude. As a general rule, it requires the use of assistants. But those interested in the following description that the master, using specific processing methods, all the work is done completely independently.

For a start - a project of the future roof system, composed after the necessary calculations. It is made using available «SketchUp» application, which is to find and easy to master even the novice.

It will be installed this truss system - naslonnogo type

It will be installed this truss system - naslonnogo type

House with polumansardoy, ie the second floor more than half removed from the wall silicate blocks, and only the upper third of the side walls and the ceiling will replace the roof structure. Gables - all out of the silicate blocks. Central space of the second floor attic located capital partition dividing it in two, and this partition three rows masonry block above the side walls. This solution provides a roomy loft even with a relatively small slope of the roof ramps.

A presence of the central capital partition enables to apply a more simple mounting scheme naslonnnyh trusses.

Table &# 8212; Illustrated assembly instructions rafters gable roof

All pictures are in the table-instructions - clickable, that is, increased at a mouse click.

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
mnk1Delivered and unloaded necessary for lumber.
The first thing they should do is - folded in a neat pile, to prevent deformation of the wood, make the necessary treatment.
mnk2Treatment will be applied in special impregnation, which has antiseptic properties - gives wood shock resistance to biological degradation and defeat the fungus, mildew and insects.
Furthermore, many of these formulations enhance wood resistance to fire.
mnk3Antiseptic primer may be in ready to use or concentrate form.
In this example, it required dilution water in accordance with the appended instructions.
mnk4To improve the quality of treatment, the surface of the boards and beams is recommended prior to applying the composition thoroughly obmesti - to remove dust and fine dust.
mnk5Antiseptic impregnation liberally applied using a roller, on all sides of the board, which in the course of its processing sequentially inverted.
To narrow end faces is more convenient to use a brush.
mnk6After processing boards are left in the stack until complete absorption and drying of the primer.
At this time, you can start preparing the base for laying mauerlat.
mnk7The upper end of the side walls of gas silicate, which will be laid and fastened mauerlat - board of 50 × 200 mm.
To board against the wall throughout its plane surface of the base in this case it is necessary to straighten a few.
mnk8For this master threw construction adhesive which was used for silicate masonry blocks.
Then, using a wide spatula it was covered with a thin alignment layer.
mnk9A similar operation was carried out, and on the opposite wall ...
mnk10... and then - on the central wall-wall, which will be laid sill.
mnk11The board after the treatment is completely dried out, leveling layer on the face of the wall stood - it is possible to come for further action.
First of all, on the end wall waterproofing layer is laid.
In this case, it uses the chopped tape-polymer bitumen roll roofing material. Laying can be carried out "dry", as illustrated, or with the corresponding mastic - waterproofing quality only benefit from this.
mnk12Thereafter, a waterproofing layer is laid on the required length trimmed mauerlat board.
Its width in the present case corresponds exactly to the wall width - 200 mm.
mnk13Board mauerlat carefully aligned to the wall line.
mnk14For fixing the wall boards mauerlat be applied here, such the anchor bolts, and a length 150 of 12 mm diameter.
For greater reliability, mounting anchors installed yet and thick washers 25 mm diameter.
mnk15To anchor installation point does not fall on the future site of installation rafters, it makes sense to immediately carry out the corresponding markup.
mnk16installing trusses Step figured out beforehand, the thickness of board is also known (50 mm).
On board mauerlat outlined rafters exact location - they are marked with a crossed two borders area between them.
A mauerlat fasteners can be positioned between the rafters. The recommended spacing between the anchors - from 600 to 800 mm.
mnk17The process of fixing mauerlat.
To start points identified in drilled through holes in the board-drill pen 12 mm. Sawdust sweep immediately, so they do not fall into the drilled channels.
mnk18Then, using a gun drill 12 mm right through holes drilled in the wall of the channels for setting anchors. 
These channels are cleared as much as possible from the dust formed as a result of drilling.
mnk19Installed anchors.
Each anchor is first gently hammered into a hammer lock washers channel dollars in a tree ...
mnk20... and then wrapped the Allen key, until it clicks.
mnk21Installing mauerlat on one wall is finished.
A similar series of operations carried out on the opposite wall.
mnk22Next, you need to install on the sill of the central partition walls.
Initially, just as before, it is placed a layer of waterproofing material.
mnk23Then the stacked boards - are the same, 50 × 200 mm.
However, for the length of the sleepers standard boards was not enough, and it is necessary to spread the two.
Furthermore, given that in such a construction, the roof system is in the middle sill fall highest load, it decided to make the power in the two layers of boards, i.e. with a total of 100 mm thick.
mnk24But first spreading and fastened anchors the first layer boards - all in the same way as when the mauerlat on the side walls of the building.
mnk25Lower board sleepers fixed, but part of anchor protruding parts will interfere with laying of the upper layer.
Hence, in the top board to be cut "nests" in which will hide apex anchors.
mnk26To make an accurate layout for these "nests" upper board placed on the place where it should lie, and carefully aligned.
Then, the anchor locations on top of the board hammer rap.
mnk27The projecting portion of the anchor left on the top board of a clearly visible mark on which will be held drilling.
mnk28For drilling nests applied down the drill diameter of 25 ÷ 27 mm, so that the hole can accommodate anchoring washer.
mnk29The through hole is not required - is sufficient depth of "nests" in 25 ÷ 30 mm.
mnk30Laid top row of boards in advance primereniya place.
If everything was done quickly and accurately, the top board perfectly lie down to the bottom and immediately get a certain fixation due to protruding parts of anchors - random offset can no longer be afraid.
mnk31Connection between two layers of boards are made by means of universal galvanized screws 6 × 90 mm.
They are screwed in staggered increments of 250 ÷ 300 mm.
mnk32All sill is ready for further assembly work.
mnk33The next step is to lay out a master rather block wall gables, considering that at this stage it will make it more convenient to everything.
Masonry gables not included in the plan review of our publication, and we'll skip this step - just show what happened in the end.
Subsequently, the side of the gable will be cut in the level of the roof, irregularities - smoothed.
mnk34As for exactly the rafter system, the next step will be the installation of racks for sleepers and installation ridge pole.
The first will be installed extremely resistant.
For the manufacture of racks will same board as that for mauerlat with Lezhnyov - 200 × 50 mm. They immediately cut the right amount exactly to size.
mnk35The number of racks and their location in exactly the same number and placement of pairs of roof trusses.
On sleepers made accurate markings - similar markup mauerlat.
mnk36It sets the first rack.
It has in advance at both ends yellow galvanized screws 6 × 40 screwed steel perforated corners (50 × 50 × 2 mm).
mnk37Installed Front baits right through the corner to the softwood sleepers.
mnk38It is very important to achieve verticality of the uprights starting while they are still not completely fixed. Moreover, this test should be performed in two planes.
Initially checked vertically in a transverse (relative to the axis Lezhnyov) plane - for an equal exposed construction perfectly vertically.
mnk39In this example, to ensure that such a situation had to resort to the use of a small wooden wedge.
mnk40Now it is necessary to achieve vertically in the perpendicular plane.
To fix the desired position it is best to use a temporary brace of trimming boards (slats). One end of a softwood black struts attached to the side face sleepers.
mnk41Then, on the construction of persistent accurately exposed vertical ...
mnk42... and fixed in this position by means of a temporary strut of the second screw.
Now stand is here to shift.
mnk43Exactly the same operation is done with the reception and at the opposite end of the sleepers.
The last stand with temporary props and become the basis for laying planks ridge pole.
mnk44As already noted, for laying and fastening runs on highly persistent in advance were bolted steel mounting corners.
mnk45Board ridge pole rises up, fit to the exposed extreme rack, carefully aligned.
Board applied all the same - 200 × 50 mm.
mnk46Then, using the screwdriver ridge pole is fixed to the corner posts.
Until finally tighten a few screws is not necessary - you may have to make minor adjustments. Suffice one metal screws on each side (6 × 40 mm).
mnk47All board ridge run has taken its place.
You can proceed to install the intermediate posts.
mnk48On the cut exactly in size rack bolted steel angles, with one ...
mnk49... and then with the other hand.
mnk50The reception is set right on the markup, and its edges are aligned with the sleepers and the ridge pole.
The lower bracket is fastened to the sleepers until that one screw.
mnk51Then, using a spirit level shall be verified upright rack ...
mnk52... and it is attached through the corner to the ridge pole, as long as one screw.
mnk53While and left - one screw.
Final fixing will be done after the installation of rafters, as is the need to make minor adjustments.
mnk54On the back of the corner stand also yet - he will be placed necessarily, but later.
mnk55All racks are installed.
If done correctly, and stand are of equal height, the ridge pole into a horizontal position.
mnk56The next stage - setting the rafters themselves. But before going on to it, you need to check and compare the length of the resulting rays.
The idea is that it should be equal, but the tree is still a tree, and sometimes run over small mistakes. Check Easy - with a tape measure the distance from the corner to the corner ridge runs mauerlat.
The same is done on the opposite side of the run.
mnk57If accumulates a small error in the range of 25-30 mm, it can be in the right place, unscrew the very single screws, make the necessary adjustments and tighten them again.
And to this position when installing trusses remained unchanged between mauerlat ridge pole and set temporary struts of fine solid board.
mnk58Fastening of the auxiliary time elements carried by conventional ferrous screws.
mnk59Of course, the location of the temporary shoring is selected so that it does not interfere with installation of rafters.
A similar pair of struts mounted on the opposite end of the ridge of the span.
mnk60Now we can move on to installing the rafters.
Recommended for mounting each regular pair to establish here is a temporary reference bar, right on the scribe line. He did not give the rafters move when installed, and in addition, it can be temporarily fastened heavy board clamp or the same screws to make it to the final fixation are not pushed down.
Beam mounted a pair of black screws, and it is easy to dismantle by no longer needed, moving to the next mount.
mnk61Board rafter rises up and locks into place, along the lines of the previously applied layout. Its length is typically 50 ÷ 80 mm larger in each direction - for subsequent accurate prirezki.
mnk62While the board is based on the angles of the ridge runs and mauerlat.
It is possible to temporarily fix the clamp from slipping to the support beam.
mnk63Now you need to perform layout tapping rafter in the ridge pole and mauerlat.
The most convenient way to do so. At run plane rafter is applied to processed well bar 50 × 50 mm (as illustrated) ...
mnk64... and on its upper edge a horizontal line is drawn with a pencil.
mnk65Then applied to the end face run-gon, and a vertical line is drawn to intersect the horizontal.
mnk66As a result, it blocked out the triangle that will need to be cut.
mnk67Exactly the same markup held and at the intersection of rafter with mauerlat.
mnk68Further, the clamp is removed, the board removed, and thereon a manual hacksaw or jigsaw electric slits made on the executed markup - two triangular piece removed.
mnk69Rafter foot is placed back in place, and at the same time it should be "like a glove" to connect with the ridge pole and ...
mnk70... and mauerlat.
mnk71Further, in the same manner and the second fitted, steam rafter foot. It's time to fit them together.
Initially, the master used the method of simultaneous prirezki two rafters.
One board is installed exactly according to the markup, the second - on her lap, and between them they pulled clamp.
Exactly in the center of the ridge line is drawn run ...
mnk72... and then it with the help of the construction level is transferred to the vertical truss boards.
This line will be cut at the same time the direction of the two rafters using a hand hacksaw.
mnk73The cut is made, but it turned out that this approach is not very convenient.
Use for such prirezki electric tool - does not work, and manually, especially in uncomfortable conditions at a height exactly to saw just two 50-mm board - not an easy task.
mnk74Furthermore, boards overlap when cutting inevitably gives a small but nevertheless error.
Over the next truss pairs will be used a different approach.
mnk75But while it is necessary to permanently fix the rafters in place, connect them with the ridge pole, mauerlat and among themselves.
- for mauerlat and plates 60 × 200 × 2 - for mutual fastening perforated corners 50 × 50 × 2 for the run, 80 × 60 × 2: On this metal connection elements are used.
mnk76With parts and galvanized screws 6 × 40 mm rafter foot is attached to mauerlat ...
mnk77... then to the ridge pole.
mnk78After both rafters are installed, they are bonded to each other by perforated plates and screws.
mnk79After installing the first pair of rafters, mount the next - on the opposite end of the roof.
Then, between the outer rafters on each ramp stretch cords - on top, down and around the middle.
These cords can help navigate when installing the remaining intermediate truss pairs.
mnk80By the way, as already mentioned, to the follow-Cutting rafter pairs was used a different approach.
The angle is marked in the same way as before, and then applied to a vertical line ...
mnk81... which is projected from the ridge pole center with the help of a spirit level.
After this board is removed, and the cutting and the angles, and rafter top of the line is carried out in an easy-to such an operation position, and for this it is already possible to use an electric hand circular saw.
mnk82The same operation is performed with the second rafter foot, and the result - is shown in the illustration, all matched perfectly accurate.
mnk83In the same way the work goes on and on, until it is put up and secured all the "suite of" truss pairs.
mnk84Now you need to arm themselves with screwdriver, a good supply of screws, perforated corners and plates, and a final binding posts and rafters to mauerlat, sleepers and ridge pole.
Corners and plates are now installed already on both sides of each of the fixture, and the necessary number of screws are fixed: to corner 50 × 50 - at least three on each side, for corner 80 ÷ 60 - four,
mnk85... and for the plate - five or six on each half.
You can then remove any previously installed temporary braces - they have already played their part and are no longer needed.
mnk86The next phase - installation of the lower number of puffs.
This tightening will also serve as a basis for the filing of the ceiling of the attic space, that is, they must be installed at a certain height - in this case 2500 mm from the floor level of the second floor.
To make things easy, you can prepare a template of the board - Tightening center from his position to take the necessary adjustment.
The template can be temporarily fastened to the rack with one screw, and repositioned as the installation of regular puffs.
mnk87Tightening board (150 applies × 50 mm) mounted on a support template and softwood nazhivlena one in the middle.
As can be seen, to the horizontal position it is far - require alignment. To do this, first dismantled stand template.
mnk88Then, gently turning the board with respect to the axis of the screw-seeks its exact horizontal ...
mnk89... and fix this situation with one self-tapping on any of the rafters.
mnk90Pulled together by tightening will not only screws but also the M12 × 120 bolts rafter.
mnk91Drilling bolt hole using a drill down to 12.
mnk92At the intersection of the tightening of the board area of ​​the rafter foot, approximately in the center, is drilled through hole.
It is set bolt with a broad washer, this washer also strung on the other hand, baits and then finally twisted via nut wrench.
As a result, connection node with the lower tightening rafter looks like - and three self-tapping screw 6 × 90 mm.
mnk93At the intersection of tightening and the central pillar will be enough five screws.
mnk94Then lines are drawn - the outer edge of the rafters ...
mnk95... and conveyers with a hand tightening on both sides cut off flush with the plane defined by the rafters.
mnk96This sets the entire series of lower puffs.
mnk97For maximum strength generated by the system, and for the final "pinching" ridge pole, the bottom has set the upper tightening.
With them - it's simple. The special construction of the alignment is not required - a floor board (50 × 100) is tightly pressed from the bottom to the ridge purlin and fixed with screws to both the counter and the rafters, as shown in the illustration.
Then, in the same way as with the lower puffs, are marked and trimmed edges projecting outwardly boards, flush with the plane of the rafters.
Such tightening is placed on each rack and truss pair with one of the parties - that is enough.
mnk98Get Durable design, but in order to eliminate even the slightest play it along the axis of the roof, it makes sense to add a pair of diagonal struts between the first and second racks (rafter pairs).
There can apply board 50 × 100 mm pre-cut blank and measuring the required length.
For fixing such struts enough screws. A similar pair of set and on the other side of the roof, between the last and penultimate racks.
mnk99In this installation of trusses can be considered almost complete.
mnk100However, the outer edges of the rafters outside the perimeter of the house and required to form a neat eaves, has not trimmed - as we know, they were left with a small margin.
mnk101To work in this case, it took forests construction.
To schedule a vertical line cutting, it is possible to produce a bar-template, set the width of the walls of the eaves level.
Then the intended risk level is drawn by a vertical line.
mnk102For the binder rafters an end will be used fascia board width 100 mm.
So, on top of the roulette on the planned line is delayed distance.
mnk103Then, through this point it is carried out using a level horizontal line.
Edge rafters scheduled.
mnk104Now we need on each rafter cut groove, which will be stacked banding board, becoming the basis for the further setting-drip profile.
This board must stand level with the surface of the rafters. As will be used board 100 × 20 mm, and the groove must be the same (assuming the intended stop edge).
mnk105After marking out all the rafters, using a hand-held power conveyers producing crop.
mnk106As a result, an outwardly projecting edge of each rafter gets here this form.
mnk107Shut down the rafters with possible mounting and securing the strapping and front boards.
mnk108Now we can move on to the stages of the deck waterproofing membrane, creating a roofing insulation "cake", the installation kontrobreshetki and crates under the selected roofing and other work, the final establishment of a sound pitched roof for the house.
All these questions - are discussed in detail separately in the pages of our portal.

We hope that after studying this detailed step by step guide readers developed answers to many of facing inexperienced builder questions. Of course, this way of installing the rafters - just one of many, but it looks simple enough for self-fulfillment. Well, to expand the scope of the information received, we suggest you review a few movies on this subject:

Video: Installation of roof gable roof system under metallocherepichnoy

 Video: Some useful technological advice on the exact installation rafters

Water heating with their own hands

Water heating with their own hands

What house is associated in any person? This closeness to nature, and comfort, and convenience, and of course the heat. And the heat in our climate zone is not always associated with the tender sun that shines all year round. In Russian citizen heat will probably be associated with the furnace or hot battery, as the cold season in our country lasts from a minimum of three to four months to the year.

In today's world of the furnace in the house are either forced necessity or a fashion statement or a pleasant element of the interior. They had long since lost the "battle" for the effectiveness of other heating - water. Therefore, as the primary heating in 90% of cases are selected and precisely implement it. And in this article we are going to describe in detail how to make a water heating with their own hands.

Water heating with their own hands

Water heating with their own hands

Why is water the most profitable coolant?

Any heating system has coolant - a substance that transfers heat from its source to consumers. In this article, we will consider only the water as it, since it is the most profitable coolant. The idea of ​​using water for heat transfer man "spied" in nature, since it is the primary water coolant therein.

You can see the most vivid example of the natural heat transfer with water. This warm current of the Atlantic Ocean known to us under the name of the Gulf Stream. Gulf Stream thermal energy is gaining in the Gulf of Mexico, where the lack of solar energy is not observed. Moreover, the flow in the Gulf of circulating around the circle, picking up more heat, and then still give way to the cold and dense water, which came from the depth and "break" in the Atlantic Ocean, where they continue their movement along the east coast of North America.

The most efficient water heating system in the world - the Gulf Stream

The most efficient water heating system in the world &# 8212; Gulf Stream

The movement of the Gulf Stream water initially results in the main rotation of the Earth energy that first "presses" over to North America. Then the Gulf Stream meets the cold Labrador Current is deflected to the east and flows to Europe already, bringing with them a huge amount of heat. It washes and for Iceland and the British Isles, and the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Gets a lot of heat even more and the Kola Peninsula, on which the ice-free port of Murmansk and Severomorsk, located above the Arctic Circle.

Such influence of the warm raised annual average temperature in Europe, which is characteristic for these latitudes, on average 10 ° C. Therefore, the climate is milder, and the sea does not freeze, and densely populated countries in the region can live comfortably in a warm current of heating. We can say that the Gulf Stream - a global system of heating, the boiler is located in the Gulf of Mexico, the pipeline in the Atlantic Ocean, and the radiators - in those countries where the coast is washed by the Gulf Stream.

Scientists estimate that the thermal capacity of the Gulf Stream is 1,4 * 10¹⁵ watts. This is a huge figure! For example, the largest power plant in the world is in China Tuoketuo. Its capacity is 6600 MW. Golftrim it exceeds more than 212 thousand times (1,4 * 10¹⁵ / 6600 * 10⁶ = 212121). The Gulf Stream carries huge amounts of water - 50 million cubic meters of water - this is the flow of water that flows in the second. To understand how much we say that it is more than all the rivers in the world combined 20 times.

This impressive transfer of heat from one region of the world to another Gulf Stream could be achieved only due to the fact that water has a high specific heat. To heat 1 kg water per 1 ° C will require 4200 Joules of energy. It's a lot. For example, for the same index of air is about 1000 Joules. It turns out that the water is more difficult to heat, but it at the same weight can accumulate a 4.2 times more energy than air. On the other hand, cooling down to 1 ° C, the water environment will give exactly the same energy.

Incidentally, excess heat is transferred in the Gulf of Mexico and the air and water vapor. Therefore, there are often produced atmospheric fronts, including tornadoes. But though they are moving at high speed, but lose their energy within a 200-300 km, very rarely reaches 500 km. A water though the Gulf Stream flow slowly and dignified, but heat is transferred to a distance of 10 thousand. Km. And this is only due to the fact that water has a high specific heat capacity.

In addition to the high heat capacity of water it has also other beneficial qualities - it is absolutely safe in terms of toxicity to humans and wildlife throughout. In addition, she has and is available. In addition, water is easily transported through pipelines, and it does not require large pipe diameters, if forced circulation is applied. For example, wall-mounted boilers, which have a capacity of 35 kW, which is theoretically sufficient for heating the living space 350 m² have an outlet for heating a diameter of ¾ inch. But once again, we note that this is only for the forced circulation of the coolant. For natural circulation of the heating water outlet diameter with parapet boiler at such power should be at least 1 ½ inch.

At what stage of construction or repair must be done water heating?

This is a very important question, because the heating system must never be separate from the rest of the house or apartment. All work on the creation of water heating will touch and interior of the house and its exterior, and other engineering systems. Therefore it is better to combine these activities with the repair or construction. But everything must start long before the construction - during design, in which the following should be considered:

  • If you plan to install floor-standing boiler and water heater of indirect heating, then without a separate boiler room is not enough and it should be taken into account in the project. Boiler house must meet certain requirements, they can be found in the article on our website.
Long arms dizayerov have reached up to boilers, water heaters and up, and up to the boiler room

Long arms dizayerov have reached up to boilers, water heaters and up, and up to the boiler room

  • In addition to the boiler room, at the design stage shall include provisions flues and ventilation with the right diameter, which must also meet certain requirements.
  • At the stage of designing the house specified event on warming. This will make it possible in advance, even before construction, to calculate the heat loss at home and on the basis of the right to know the power of the boiler, taking into account also the need for hot water. And also very desirable in advance to determine the specific model of heating equipment.
  • At the design stage house is determined by the location of the mains water supply and heating, the position of the radiators, underfloor heating pipes and other elements of the system. And also very desirable to have to know what kind of radiators will be used, what kind of model. This will greatly facilitate and further construction and finishing, and installation of heating.

When it comes already directly to the heating system installation in a newly built house, each element must be mounted at a time when it is more appropriate and the most profitable. Here are some examples:

  • If you plan to hide the line heating and supply of radiators in the screed and plaster, these elements have to be mounted after the plastering, but before the screed.
  • Floor heating pipe, of course, laid before the screed floor is poured. This is usually accompanied by an extruded polystyrene foam insulation, if the floor is at ground or above unheated rooms.
  • The boiler equipment is best to mount after, when it will already be completed finishing works (if they are assumed). All piping, manifolds, circulation pumps and other elements in the boiler room always have opened, and it is easy to implement in a paneled room. It is much more difficult, or even impossible, to make the finish boiler after installation of all equipment.

The same principles also apply to heating equipment apartment in a new building. If we are talking about the reconstruction of the heating system, the options here can be very much. Reconstruction will be associated with major repairs or not? What kind of work will be carried out in the repair? And a lot of other issues that can not be covered in one article. If you intend to open laying of water heating pipes, it is possible to arrange it even after finishing the room. To do this, however, requires highly skilled installers. Modern heating system with forced circulation of coolant tubes involve the use of small diameter: ½ or ¾ inch which does not spoil the interior, and copper or stainless steel are even their decoration.

Copper pipes may decorate

Copper pipes may decorate

The choice of fuel type for the water heating system

The heat source in the hot water heating system can be used boilers fueled entirely different types of fuel:

  • Solid fuel boilers are used to generate heat energy firewood, charcoal, briquettes, and special pellets - pellets, which are made of peat and wood waste. This type of boiler is necessary to choose only if the place where the house is built, not gasified and have access to low-cost solid fuel. With the current low price of gas solid fuel boilers in Russia rather forced measure than justified economically. In Europe, solid fuel boilers are popular only because of the high gas prices. Recently, they have become popular in the Baltic States, Ukraine, the demand for them is also growing. The main disadvantages of solid-fuel boiler is low efficiency and the need the operation in a constant human intervention. They automation in terms of fuel load and waste amenable to little besides pellet boilers.
Pellet boiler Buderus. 280 000 rubles!

Pellet boiler Buderus. 280 000 rubles!

  • Fuel oil boilers are very reliable, has high efficiency, easy to automate, but for economic reasons unprofitable. Primarily due to the cost of diesel fuel, which must still be a considerable margin. Not everyone else will like to live in a house where a large amount of diesel fuel is stored.
Such oil boiler may well play in a

Such oil boiler may well play in a "Star Wars". And get the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor

  • Electric boilers most easily implemented, it is best to be automated, have small dimensions. It seems to be good, but the cost of heating water electric boiler is too high compared to gas or solid fuel boiler. However, the use of electric boilers is appropriate when they are put in a couple with a gas or solid fuel and they are in the cold season keep the water temperature in the system at the right level, preventing it from freezing.
Water heating with their own hands

"Fear" is paired with electric boiler gas

  • Gas boilers - best to present realities choice, since the gas is an affordable and reasonable price. In addition, modern boilers have a high level of automation, and may provide safety in addition to heating the coolant, and heat the still hot water in the built intended only for this heat exchanger. Some models of boilers do not even need a separate flue structures, as they are equipped with a closed combustion chamber and the coaxial flue. The inner pipe of the flue gas is used for the ejection of combustion products and the external - for blowing outdoor air required for combustion gas. All this is forced by a fan, built into the boiler.
Who could say that it is a gas boiler? Moreover, already connected to the system!

Who could say that it is a gas boiler? Moreover, already connected to the system!

Details about gas boilers, their types, characteristics and proper selection can be found in the article on our website: "How to choose a gas boiler."

Promising and innovative eco-friendly heating system using solar panels or heat pumps to consider we will not, as it is, unfortunately, a rarity for Russia. While gas is cheap and until the state program subsidizing alternative energy, push for the development will be. While profitable to sell a lot of cheap gas, and judging from the stocks of fuel in Russia, will be beneficial to many more years.

Open or closed system of water heating?

This question is crucial, but we do not want readers to long time to choose what type they choose. Our answer is clear - only the closed heating system. And this choice, we are ready to argue.

  • In open heating expansion tank installed on the highest point on the straight line. air through the tank, which can be in the system is free to go upstairs and get out into the atmosphere. Through the same tank, water is added, that is, doing feeding. The coolant in such systems is not under overpressure, and it is usually a natural circulation takes place through - due to the difference of densities heated and cooled water. Such systems require the use of elevated pipe diameters, in compliance with their deviations mains supply and return. In addition, the constant "communication" of water to ambient air leads to a high content of dissolved oxygen which initiates corrosion. Therefore, only the cast iron radiators should be used in open systems. Such systems - is yesterday and the day before yesterday, even for heating. And those people who in the XXI century modern homes set out to do an open heating system must be at least ashamed.
The best use for open heating systems in the XXI century

The best use for open heating systems in the XXI century

  • In closed heating water stored in a closed loop and pressurized to 0.8-3 bar. The heat medium is not evaporated and does not "communicate" with atmospheric oxygen, thus minimizing the internal corrosion of steel parts of the system. This gives greater freedom of choice of radiators. Excess air is removed from the heating system by means of automatic bleed valves and Majewski. In most cases, the implementation of heating water circulates through the closed loop is forced, by means of a circulation pump. But can be realized and natural (gravitational) circulation, would be applied if the pipe diameters and elevated observed deviations. The thermal expansion of the water when heated in a closed system is compensated by the use of the expansion tank - ekspanzomata, which must be selected individually.
In a closed heating system coolant is under control and free from

In a closed heating system coolant is under control and free from "bad influence" of the environment

Natural or forced circulation of water in the heating system?

This choice should always do when planning the heating system. But again we want to simplify it and unambiguously choose a system with forced circulation. And that's why:

  • Natural circulation systems require the use of larger diameter tubes, as we mentioned earlier. In addition, the radiators in such systems must have an internal passage of a large section. And this can "boast" only iron or terribly expensive steel tubular radiators. Systems with natural circulation of inertia, as coolant in them moves slowly and his lot.
  • heating system with forced circulation very quickly respond to changing conditions and automation team, as the heating medium required temperature very quickly "accelerated" by a circulation pump system. For heating systems highways often lack the pipes of ¾ inch, and for connections to radiators ½ inch. These tubes if desired easily hide in the building construction (floor screed or plaster Wall). Heating water in such systems is much smaller and in good heating of make-up is required very rarely. Most modern boilers only operate with forced circulation of coolant, moreover - all wall mounted boilers are equipped with circulation pumps and when it is idle just will not light the flame or turn on heater.
Water heating with their own hands

"Driving force" of modern heating systems &# 8212; circulation pump

These arguments is enough to make a clear choice. Although supporters of the natural circulation remained the only argument. Natural circulation system can operate in the absence of power supply. Honestly, it is very difficult to imagine a modern man, who in the XXI century will consciously choose a place to live where there is no electricity at all or with its uninterrupted supply there are frequent problems. In the end, for the operation of the boilers and pumps, there are special uninterruptible power supply, and can be purchased for home and compact petrol or diesel generator, which insure the home side's rare moments of outages at some papers on the lines. Generators with capacity of 1-2 kW can now be bought for 10-12 thousand rubles. This power is more than enough on the functioning of the heating equipment, security systems and lighting. Modern, have become affordable, LED lamps consume so little electricity that will go a small part of the power generator in the lighting share.

And a lot of places do not take, and the price is reasonable. Compact gasoline generator

And a lot of places do not take, and the price is reasonable. Compact gasoline generator

Single-pipe system of water heating or two-pipe?

Another choice is to stand in front of those who intend to implement a heating system in your home. And we will take the side of two-pipe heating systems in this regard. And no arguments also do not dispense.

  • Monotube systems assume that the coolant supply from the boiler is on the one pipe, which passes successively all radiators circuit and then returned to the boiler return line. Radiators in pipe systems can be connected in different ways: in the "gap" or through the bypass pipe. If the radiator is connected to the "gap", the repair or replacement of only one heat sink will require shutting down the system and drain the coolant. If the radiator is connected by the bypass, there is the possibility of removing a single radiator without stopping the entire system. it is implemented in the system according to the scheme "from Leningrad" about which there is an article on our website. The only advantage of one-pipe heating is a smaller number of pipes, which, according to adherents of these systems will save money. Deficiencies in pipe systems is too much to talk about them in this article.
Water heating with their own hands

"Leningradka" &# 8212; is the limit of the evolutionary development of pipe systems

  • The two-pipe heating systems are used to connect two pipes of radiators coming directly from the boiler or manifold. One tube - this is strictly supply and the other - is strictly tank line. All radiators are connected in parallel to the two pipes that allows you to adjust the coolant flow through them independently. It provides unlimited possibilities for adjustment, automation, possibility of local repair, expansion of the heating system. All the most famous manufacturers of equipment for the heating systems always recommend the use of only two-pipe systems.
Two-pipe systems are more

Two-pipe systems are more "docile" and "democratic." All thermal devices have equal access to the coolant

Now a bit about the advantages of a single-pipe systems - fewer pipes. If the "rewind" 25-30 years ago, in the reality it can be seen that the independent heating used only steel pipes, and the circulation was only natural. Of course, all the operations with steel pipes is very labor-intensive and require skill masters. Yes, and the highway to lay pipes 1 ¼ inch or 1 ½ inches. Of course, if we assume that someone is the people in the reality offered to use 2 times the pipe, then in the best case, this would be a daredevil verbal sent to the "fascinating trip" in the direction from the waist down.

100 watts per sq. mThe number of external wallsnoonetwothreeThe outer walls are looking at:North, Northeast, EastSouth, South-West, WestPosition relative to the outer wall winter "wind rose"windward sideleewardparallel to the direction of the windLevel negative air temperatures in the region in the coldest week of the year- 35 ° C and belowfrom - 30 ° C to - 34 ° Cfrom - 25 ° C to - 29 ° Cfrom - 20 ° C to - 24 ° Cfrom - 15 ° C to - 19 ° Cfrom - 10 ° C to - 14 ° Cnot colder - 10 ° CWhat is the degree of warming of external walls?Exterior walls are not insulatedThe average degree of insulationThe outer walls have a high-quality insulationThe ceiling height in the roomto 2.7 m2.8 ÷ 3.0 m3.1 ÷ 3.5 m3.6 ÷ 4.0 mmore than 4.1 mThat is located at the bottom?Cold floor on the ground or above unheated roomsInsulated floor on the ground or above unheated roomsLocated below a heated roomThat is located on top?Cold attic or unheated and not heat-insulated roomWarmed attic or other premiseheated roomType installed windowsConventional wood frames with double glazingWindows with mono (2 glass) glass-Windows with triple (3 glasses) or glass-filled with argonThe number of windows in the roomThe window height, mWindow width, mDoors facing the street or on the balcony: no one two

If hot water is used Indirect heating boiler, the boiler to the necessary power is necessary to add 30% of the power supply. This is necessary to ensure that at the time of heating water in the boiler is no "gaps" in heating. The boiler power is selected not lower than calculated. For example, calculations show the necessary boiler output to compensate for the heat loss of 7.5 kW. To prepare water in an indirect heating boiler add another 30%: * 1.3 = 7.5 kW 9.75 kW. Of the preferred range of boilers is necessary to choose the one with the power to be the nearest upward. If it is more than a few kilowatts, it does not matter. Firstly "excessive" power will be very useful in the preparation of hot water, and, secondly, most modern boiler has a two-stage burner or modulated - when the supply of gas takes place depending on the coolant temperature.

Selection of radiators

Based on the rate of heat loss, which we already know how to produce, can be quite pick up and radiators for each of the premises. The initial data for this are just the heat loss, plus 15% of the operational reserve. To begin with, where and how should be placed radiators.

  • Radiators should be installed where the greatest heat losses occur. First of all - it's windows, some they were not energy efficient. Radiator under window arranges thermal curtain of heated air, that prevents "run off" the cold air down to the floor.
  • Radiator under the window a strictly middle of the window opening. Only in this way and not otherwise.
  • The distance from the floor to the bottom edge of the radiator should be 8-12 cm, from the top edge to window sill -. 10-12 cm This will allow the cold air to flow freely down and leave the heated top. In addition, such a distance is necessary for cleaning.
radiator installation rules

radiator installation rules

  • There is an unspoken rule - the radiator should occupy not less than 70-75% of the width of the window opening. Then, the air curtain will be extended to the whole area of ​​the window. But here it is necessary to make a reservation - if you select the number of sections of cast iron, aluminum or bimetal radiator, or the width of the panel, &# 8212; first of all, to consider the heat capacity of the radiator, and then later "occupancy" of the window opening. The fact that the usual cast iron radiators are losing much on heat transfer bimetallic, aluminum or steel panel and the approach of the old days - the more sections, the better - can not pass. The room may be too hot. It happens that for closing the window opening on 70% it is advisable to use radiators with a lower overall height.
  • Near the panoramic windows and doors is best to set the built-in heaters. Near the front door is also desirable convector, but its lattice can heavily pollute from street shoes. Therefore, the input lobbies put the cooler side of the door.
Radiator near the door may partially replace the convector

Radiator near the door may partially replace the convector

  • If the room has a long outer wall, oriented to the north, and yet it is downwind, the heat sink must be installed next to it there is no matter whether or not the window openings.
  • Any decorative design screens on radiators can be safely attributed to the category of absolute evil. If required by the designer, it is necessary to drive him out. All artificial barriers greatly reduce heat transfer.
How to call a screen on the radiator: luxury stupidity or stupid luxury?

How to call a screen on the radiator: luxury stupidity or stupid luxury?

Now tell how to pick up a radiator on thermal power. At first it is necessary to evaluate the room and make some adjustments on the correct choice of the radiator power.

  • If the room box 1 and 2, the exterior walls, the radiator power should be selected 20% more than the heat loss.
  • If the room two exterior walls and two windows, the radiator power should be increased by 30%.
  • If the window faces north or north-east, the radiator power is increased by 10%.
  • If the radiator is located in an open niche, its capacity increased by 5%.
  • If you can not get rid off the designer, and he insisted on a horizontal slit screen, the radiator power should be higher by 15-20%.
Selection of panel radiators

Each radiator model is characterized by its thermal capacity, which is always in his passport. The thermal capacity - the amount of thermal energy in watts, which can convey heating radiator per unit of time. In such heat engineering unit is one hour. A very important indicator by specifying thermal power is the temperature of the water supplied - tV, withdrawn water temperature tR and the room temperature tL it depends on them heat output. For example, for steel panel radiators very famous German manufacturer Kermi a passport contains power radiator with tV = 75 °C, tR = 65 °C and tL = 20 °C. On the basis of these values ​​calculated index ΔT = (tV + tR) / 2 &# 8212; tL, which is called temperature difference, however, in an environment of Heating name briefly and clearly - delta. As seen from Formula Delta - the difference between the mean water temperature in the radiator and the temperature in a heated room.

The passports of most modern radiators indicate their heat output at two of the delta: ΔT = 70 °C (tV = 95 °C, tR = 85 °C and tL = 20 °C) and ΔT = 50 °C (tV = 75 °C, tR = 65 °C and tL = 20 °C). Here are some examples. In the description of the panel Kermi steel radiators have a table that helps to choose the radiator for the required output at ΔT = 50 °C. This table is shown in Figure (Figure "clickable", click on it to enlarge).

Table capacity panel radiators Kermi

Table capacity panel radiators Kermi

Above the table indicated overall height of radiators, it might be 300, 400, 500, 600 and 900 mm. It is usually chosen depending on how much space is below the sill. Further, in the names of the columns is "mysterious" types of radiators. As can be seen, at Kermi they are 10, 11, 12, 22 and 33. What does it mean? We look at the different pattern of Kermi catalog.

 

Types Kermi radiators (can be clicked to zoom)

Types Kermi radiators (can be clicked to zoom)

The table shows that the radiators differ in the number of panels (rows) and convectors. It is obvious that the more rows (panels), the radiator will be more "plump". This dry engineering language means an increase in the construction width. Icon X2 inside, Kermi is a patented technology for the series connection of panels and not parallel as is customary in most of the radiators of this type. This innovative approach allows us to "squeeze" out of the coolant more heat energy, consistently taking it first in one pane, and then in the other. This, according to experts Kermi, resulting in savings of up to 11% energy. Other manufacturers of panel radiators classification may vary slightly. It is always indicated in the passport, catalogs and technical documentation, published on the official websites. If the manufacturer has not bothered to even make multi-lingual site, then he should not buy anything.

Returning to the previous table and look that designate rows therein. This is nothing like the length of the radiator assembly, which is in the range Kermi. It can be seen that it may be from 400 to 3000 mm. Next to the length specified temperature. For all of this table it ΔT = 50 °C (tV = 75 °C, tR = 65 °C and tL = 20 °C). The cells of the table itself contains thermal radiator power in watts, which corresponds to a certain mounting height, length and type of radiator design.

How to use this table and find the right radiator? Here is an example. Suppose there is a room with the calculated heat loss of 2.5 kW. It has two windows: one with a width of 150 cm aperture faces north, and another 100 cm wide - to the west. Radiators, of course, will be installed under the windows. Only how to distribute the power of 2.5 kW between the two windows? Very simple - the radiator power should be proportional to the width of the opening. Remember elementary school math and solve simple equation. Initially denote power smaller radiator for X, and then find out how many times the power of the second must be greater. To this end, a large width of the window opening to a smaller share: 150 cm / 100 cm = 1.5, &# 8212; that is, one and a half times the capacity of the radiator with the opening of 150 cm must be greater. Now make up an elementary equation: X + 1.5 *X = 2,5 kW. Hence, we find 2.5 *X = 2,5 kW, and therefore X = 1 kW. It turns out that power radiator installed below the window opening with a width of 100 cm to be 1 kW, and another 1.5 kW. Everything is very simple! But the end result is necessary to make adjustments, as in this room 2 exterior walls and two windows. Remember the material covered, and increase the heat capacity of the radiator by 30%: the first window 1 kW * 1.3 = 1.3 kW, and the second 1.5 kW * 1.3 = 1.95 kW. Now, still need to further consider that second window faces north, it behooves us to even "throw" of 10%: 1.95 kW * 1.1 = 2,145 kW. It turns out that one radiator should be with a heat output of 1.3 kW, and the second - 2,145 kW.

Now we return to the selection table radiators in thermal capacity. It is necessary to select the next power values ​​for each of the radiators, which should not be less than estimated. These values ​​denote the first radiator blue and red for the second. Table increases after the click.

Choice of thermal power

Choice of thermal power

Not all heatsinks that are highlighted in the table, perfect for those specific conditions. We must also take into account the height of the sills of windows. Assume it is 75 cm from the floor. The space between the sill and the floor perfectly fit radiators with mounting height of 500 mm. for a window with an opening of 100 cm are suitable only those radiators which length is smaller than the opening width. One can not disagree with the fact that the radiator, which is wider than the window will look ridiculous. It turns out that with suitable radiator mounting height of 500 mm and a length of 900 mm, type 22 or the radiator with the same height, 600 mm in length 33. The second type of radiator length is not appropriate, since it in the window opening of 1000 mm, covers only 60% and good thermal curtains he did not provide. A clear choice for the first - this is the type 22, height 500 mm, length 900 mm.

Which coolant is used? Water Antifreeze contains ethylene glycolWhat is the concentration of glycol? - 10% - 20% - thirty% - 40% - 50% - 70% - 90%The maximum pressure in the heating system (operation threshold of the safety valve) BarThe minimum pressure (injection rate of the air chamber of the expansion vessel), Bar

On the calculated volume in the calculator can not pick the closest lower by volume expansion tank.

 

The choice of expansion tanks will satisfy any heating system

The choice of expansion tanks will satisfy any heating system

Hydraulic design of water heating

This is one of the "hard nuts" in any project of the heating system. Hydraulic calculation is done already when the selected pipe and sectional radiators, all shut-off and regulating valves. Moreover, hydraulic calculation should precede the layout of all instruments with particular reference to the rooms and the house. This scheme should be in the form of a drawing in perspective, with all dimensions and height differences. Modern designers use for this 3D modeling software which, in addition to placing a device that allows to visualize the entire system down to the smallest details.

Heating in 3D

Heating in 3D

Hydraulic calculation - is too complex a thing to make it your own. Only to discover the theoretical basics of hydraulics heating is necessary to peruse some pretty bulky textbooks. And for those who are not in school, friends with physics do not even try to learn something yourself. For them, that heating hydraulics that cuneiform writing of the ancient Sumerians are equally incomprehensible. And our advice is clear - for the calculation of hydraulics of heating is best to contact the experts.

no Comments

no Comments

That includes hydraulic calculation?

  • The diameter of the pipes and their bandwidth. Each tube can pass per unit of time a certain amount of the heated heating medium to provide the desired amount of transfer of heat energy. In addition, the fluid must move through pipes at a certain speed not too small to provide fast response and not too large to create circulation no noise and does not lead to accelerated wear of stacks and other elements of the heating system.
  • Pressure losses in different parts of the heating system. Such losses are due to the friction of the coolant pipes, pipe bends, narrowing its diameter, lifting tube. Also, there is always a loss on a different stop or control valves.
  • hydronic balancing requirements. If the heating system has several parallel branches, the coolant when submitting it simultaneously in all the branches will try to go for one that has the lowest flow resistance. As a result, this branch shunts the other, flowing through it unnecessarily large amount of coolant, while the other branches are experiencing "starvation". Therefore, any attempt to make the individual branches of the same resistance (that is, in principle, impossible), or use a special balancing valves or hydraulic separators (collectors or gidrostrelki) apply.
  • General system pressure losses, which losses are summed at each site, in each circuit, in the boiler and heat exchangers
  • Heat transfer fluid flow in the heating system. Naturally, it should not exceed what the boiler is capable.

hydraulic calculation algorithm is very complex and will not be able to fit in the scope of this article. It is better to entrust it to specialists, but we will give a few recommendations that will make the heating system as simple as possible, with a hydraulic point of view, and therefore reliable.

  • In the heating system can not only heating, but also heated floors, as well as heat exchangers and boilers of indirect heating. Best of all, from the point of view of hydraulics, highlight radiator heating in one circuit, heated floors in the other circuit, and the boiler heat exchanger in the third loop. If the house has two or more floors, each floor is better and in a separate circuit. Within each loop on highways flow and return heat transfer medium should be no branches.
Each pump - a separate circuit

each pump &# 8212; a separate circuit

  • Supply line and return heat transfer medium within each loop making pipes of one diameter. Most often it is a pipe with a passage of ¾ inch of them can be easily "pump" as the coolant, from which you can "remove" the 30-35 kW power. No restrictions diameter do not have to on highways. Pipe with a nominal width corresponds to ¾ inch polypropylene pipe with an external diameter of 25 mm, metal pipe 25 mm, 19 mm copper pipe, pipe XLPE 25 mm.
  • Connection of the heating devices to the mains pipes made only ½ inch. To this polypropylene pipes with an outer diameter of 20 mm to 20 mm multilayer pipe, copper pipe to 12.7 mm for pipes of crosslinked polyethylene 20 mm.
  • All branches from the trunk to the heating devices to do the same type, with the same number of turns.
  • Each circuit is very desirable to provide its pumping and mixing unit (for circuit boiler sufficiently single pump) in order to separate them to regulate the temperature of the coolant and run circulation only by commands from the electronic thermostats in rooms thermostat with temperature sensors for floor heating, or the temperature sensor water in the boiler indirect heating.
Pumping and mixing units of the highest reliability - with redundant pumps

Pumping and mixing units of the highest reliability &# 8212; with redundant pumps

  • In each circuit, you must install a special balancing valve with flow meter. This greatly simplifies the hydraulic linkage.
Blansirovochny valve with flow meter

Blansirovochny valve with flow meter

  • To facilitate the balancing of the coolant flow through the radiator can be connected on their beam pattern through the collector with balancing valves and flow meters. The collector is best placed in a position where the length of the feed pipes to the radiators will be approximately equal. To a collector fed manifold flow and return pipe to ¾ inches, and distribution to the radiators do already integral tube segment to ½ inch. Preferably for this use pipes of crosslinked polyethylene, but it is possible and metal pipes. Such a system makes it easy to balance, but greatly increases the flow pipe and forces to buy expensive collectors.
EXAMPLE radiator connection through the collector

EXAMPLE radiator connection through the collector

  • When wiring tee radiators are best used a counter-movement of coolant. This means that the first radiator to be connected to mains supply, connect the latter to return, the second on the pitch - the penultimate in the return pipe and so on. This method of connection is called a loop Tichelmann. Radiators in this connection does not require almost never balancing as Tichelmann loop - a self-balancing system.
Tichelmann loop - it is a gift for those who do not like to balance the radiators

loop Tichelmann &# 8212; it is a gift for those who do not like to balance the radiators

  • Loop of floor heating at the design stage should try to do the same length and the same diameter pipes. The maximum length of the floor heating loops 16 mm diameter tubes 70-90 meters, and for a tube of 20 mm -120 meters. Underfloor heating should only be connected to a manifold with balancing valves and flow meters. Podvodku supply line and return to the manifold pipe must be carried out corresponding to ¾ inch inside diameter.
  • All selected contours with its pump-mixing units are best connected via thermo-hydraulic separator, also called gidrostrelkoy. Such a method is ideally link the different circuit heating systems, with varying need for coolant flow, with different hydraulic resistances.

    Hi-tech gidrostrelka

    Hi-tech gidrostrelka

If this is, in principle, simple rules apply to its heating system, the hydraulics no problems should arise. It will be adequate, predictable, control it will be very easy.

I want to say a few words about gidrostrelke. Why is it advantageous to use in heating systems, having various contours?

  • Pressure built boiler pump almost never sufficient for the heating system, consisting of multiple loops. But the performance of the boiler allows the pump to pump the desired amount of coolant at a predetermined temperature through gidrostrelku which has a large volume. All the circuit connected to it by its automation commands include their pumps taken from gidrostreli right amount of coolant is prepared in a mixing unit coolant temperature desired and send it to your "destination". Tank line, coming from the circuits flagged gidrostrelku, picked up by the boiler pump, heated therein, and again enters the upper portion gidrostrelki. Circulation is independent and there is practically no mutual influence of different circuits.
  • The boiler is connected to gidrostelke, can operate with maximum efficiency by preparing coolant with a high temperature. And already pumping and mixing units each of the circuits it is prepared with the temperature they need. If no requests from the circuits in the coolant, the temperature in the boiler brings gidrostrelke to set and then otlyuchaetsya.
  • The coolant in gidrostrelke moving very slowly because its diameter is much greater than the diameter of the forward and return flow of the boiler. This allows different slurry that may be present in the coolant, quietly settle to the bottom. At the bottom of the drain valve gidrostrelki do to cleanse from the slurry.
  • Gidrostrelka allows you to connect a cascade of boilers and heating system used in various types of boilers. To one gidrostrelke can be connected and gas and electric and solid fuel boiler.

Gidrostrelka was specially invented for lazy heating engineers, because to calculate it enough knowledge of mathematics at the primary level.

On our website there is a great article about the thermal-hydraulic separator - gidrostrelke. It described in detail the validity of its application, given the benefits, given the method of calculation. In addition, readers will be able to calculate the thermal device using a calculator handy. Read "for heating Gidrostrelka".

Mounting water heating system

After a difficult stage of designing hot water heating systems, not less difficult process of procurement of all necessary related to the embezzlement of large sums, the next "fun" time - directly yourself installation. And if it is done correctly, then the reward will be very high in a warm and comfortable home. We have already mentioned that the heating installation should start after the plastering, but to tie, with the application of the hidden wiring of heating pipes. This is easily explained by the fact that all the radiators should be put strictly parallel to the plane of the wall, and this plane just sets the plaster. Trunk heating with concealed wiring is best to hide in the insulation layer under the screed, and therefore such recommendations were given.

For mounting the heating system need impressive arsenal of different tools and different devices.

  • First of all - it's boring, grooving tools: hammer, and preferably two - one more powerful, and the other lighter. A powerful punch is easier to do a variety of technological holes in the ceiling and in the concrete, and small - hollowing Stroebe, install brackets for radiators and other elements of the system. Of course, for punch must have appropriate drills, chisels, spades, crowns, - may all need.
  • Slicing Stroebe wall chaser is very desirable with a vacuum cleaner. Theoretically, you can use grinders with disc dry cutting in stone, but the dust of the work will be just darkness. It is clear that such a tool to buy for heating installation purposes only does not make sense, but nobody forbids to rent, which has services in almost all major cities.
Wall chaser with vacuum cleaner

Wall chaser with vacuum cleaner

  • Marking tool also just extremely necessary. The first place it should occupy a laser builder of planes. Only he, and not the level or spirit level. He had long since ceased to be a luxury item, and we very strongly encourage him to have in his personal arsenal. In an extreme case - the rent. still need markers and pencils, and paint the cord will be very useful, and building levels of different lengths except laser, and roulette, and elbow.
It is no longer a luxury, but a necessity

It is no longer a luxury, but a necessity

  • A standard set of plumbing and installation tool as needed. This could include a variety of screwdrivers, wrenches, hammer, screwdriver, drill with drill bits of different diameters, a chisel, punch, building knife with a set of spare blades and other tools.
  • Depending on the purchased pipes need tools for their installation. For polypropylene - a welding machine which for some reason the soldering iron, shaver, tube and scissors, if the pipe to be used, the outer layer reinforced with aluminum. For this metal-pressing tongs and scissors for pipes of crosslinked polyethylene - a pair of scissors, an expander and a vice for pressing fittings with nozzles for different diameters. The most extensive set of tools - this is for the soldering of copper, but it is better to invite a specialist.
  • Set plumbing sealants is a must. In this category can be attributed to flax pulp and anaerobic sealants. Tape fum for heating should be avoided.
anaerobic sealant

anaerobic sealant

  • If the sectional radiators are used - aluminum or bimetal, it will need a special key for the assembly, the required number of nipples and intersectional seals.
  • For pressing the heating system will require pressure testing pump, which can be rented.
  • For fixing the pipe in cutting grooves in the technological holes can use the professional assembly foam. Therefore it is necessary to have a gun, removable tanks with foam and bottle cleaner.
  • To protect radiators from contaminants during installation must have several rolls food polyethylene film and adhesive tape.
  • During installation and pressure testing is often the need to isolate any part of the heating system from the rest. Therefore, it is desirable to have a set of plugs with internal and external threads of different diameters, as well as working shut-off valve, which may take time to screw in some part of the system.
  • Cleaning of construction debris (it will be many) will require a broom or a broom, shovel, scoop, and vacuum cleaner bags for garbage collection.
  • To fix the thermal insulation on the pipes will need plumbing tape.
sanitary scotch

sanitary scotch

  • For work at height need ladders and scaffold.
  • Personal protective clothing, gloves and eye protection and respiratory organs also should not be forgotten. In addition, on-site must have a first aid kit for first aid.

We describe the main steps of the heating installation. will present this exciting process as a table.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie process
1If the heating system sectional radiators are used, it is their assembly of the desired number of sections. Apply special radiator key is twisted between sections necessarily apply paronitovye pads. The assembly is best done on a clean surface that will not promote the appearance of scratches. For example, on a large piece of cardboard laid on the bench.
2After assembly into the threaded holes of the radiator screwed Fittings acquired connection kit. Before Fittings set into place, they should be without a rubber O-ring and screw the screw out of his seat. This is done in order to check the quality of the thread and clean it from drops of paint that may remain in the manufacturing process.
3Fittings are put on the O-rings, and they twisted a special key made of nylon, as metal key can easily damage the paintwork and Fittings, and a radiator. Packing in this case do not have to thread any sealant in any case! Fittings on the left side of the radiator have a left-hand thread (twisted counterclockwise), and on the right - the right (twist clockwise).
5In Fittings screwed plug and bleed screw. It also used a nylon key. The vias futorok everywhere right-hand thread is cut. It is necessary to consider, as when tightening with excessive force plugs or bleed screw in Threaded left-handed, you can trigger it twisting. It is therefore recommended to use either two switches or install the plug and Majewski crane with an adequate and sufficient force, which will not lead to loosening Fittings. also do not have to pack your connection! More than enough staff and polymer seal ring.
6Valves for radiators: adjusting valves, thermostatic tuning or - screwed into Fittings. These compounds necessarily need to pack. You can do this by using flax and paste, but on a new thread is better to use an anaerobic sealant average fixation. Before its application is recommended to clean the threads of a brush clamped in the chuck screwdriver.
7Then it is necessary to clean the threads using a special spray means which is not necessary to rinse after application. It dries independently and at the same thread will clean and degreased.
8Sealant is better to use the average fixation (usually blue). It needs to be applied on 3-4 threads. The preferred applied to the external threads of the parts. You can put a small amount of sealant on the mating thread in the radiator.
9Further, the fitting is twisted by hand, it is not necessary to use the key. Accurate positioning is not necessary for the Americans, because the connection fittings to the radiator is the union nut. The sealant, which has been embossed with a twisting, it is better to wipe with a cloth. Outdoors anaerobic sealant dries. For fixing the connection is sufficient for 10-15 minutes. After picking the radiator all fittings it is numbered according to the project and set aside. In the same way all prepared sectional radiators.
10Steel panel radiators in terms of equipment - the most self-sufficient. Plugs and bleed screw usually come in a set of radiator. Their installation does not require the use of sealants, as they are equipped with O-rings EPDM. The threaded portion of the radiator valves to be mounted on radiators, requires packages. It also best to use an anaerobic sealant.
elevenIf the panel radiators will be used bottom connection, these units require no packing thread, as provided with O-rings. They must also be installed on the regular places. Package with panel radiators to shoot is not necessary, it is possible in just the right places to trim board with a knife. Bi-metal or aluminum radiators, after assembly and installation of the fittings necessary to roll cling film. This will prevent damage to the paint until the end of finishing in the rooms.
12With laser level marked position of the upper part of the radiator with one first under the window, and then transferred to mark all the places where the radiators to be installed.
13Next, using the roulette there are centers of window openings. The position of the upper edge of the radiator and the center of the window opening - the two main benchmark against which must be installed thermal appliances. On the wall are the place bearing mounting. For this purpose the brackets are installed on the radiators, and then measured with a tape measure their position relative to the upper edge and the center. These dimensions are transferred to the wall.
14Hammer drilled holes for the appropriate plug, brackets set into place, the radiator is hung in its place. Checked for correct installation visually and using a spirit level. Radiator must be installed horizontally.
15Hung all radiators and after verification of their installation, they set all the valves. American union nut can be tightened without. Next is marking the position of the pipe liner by cutting grooves to radiators from highways. Marker on the walls made the mark. After that, the location and the radiators are numbered, and they are removed and taken away in a safe place.
16Wall Chasers with a vacuum cleaner and a hammer are cut and hollowed out all the necessary Stroebe and holes in the ceilings and walls for the passage of highways. After that all debris is removed, the room to sweep and vacuum cleaner.
17All hollowed Stroebe cleaned with a brush, and then primed with the deep penetration of the composition
18Radiators are mounted again on the brackets intended for them, together with the reinforcement. It begins installation of pipes. It is better to start from the farthest radiator in the loop, and then gradually move to the neighbor. Soldering pipe (if they used plastic pipes) should start from the radiator valves and continue to move to the backbone. For more information about soldering technology can be found in the article on our website.
19Initially radiator valves (thermostatic valves or balancing) is screwed into the fitting, which makes the transition to a polypropylene tube. Typically, the fitting is internally threaded ½ inch to move the pipe 20 mm in diameter. Compound flax once packed with paste or anaerobic sealant.
20The sequence of operation should be as follows: the fixture with the fitting is screwed onto the radiator (not much), then the position is determined following the fitting of polypropylene (e.g., angle 90 °). A tape measure the distance between them. Then it is measured and cut off the desired length of pipe, bearing in mind that it should go to each fitting by a distance of 14 mm. The pipe is tried at the place, on it and make a note about fitting their mutual arrangement. Before soldering is worn tubular pipe insulation and then soldering is performed.
21Further again already welded assembly together with the reinforcement is screwed to the radiator, the position is checked pipes Stroebe determined position of the next fitting cut tube, a mark is made on the mutual arrangement of the pipe and the fitting, insulation is worn, soldering is performed. This is done until then, until the entire assembly line to be soldered.
22Similarly, in the same sequence to solder another radiator connection node to the backbone. After the soldered components, they are connected to the backbone. At the end portions of this is done via a reduction angle of 25 mm-20 mm, and in the middle using a multiple of 25 mm-20 mm-25 mm. Before soldering on the main pipe insulation and worn.
23After connecting the units to the mains, sanitary insulation tape is attached to the sites, and on the highway. Check the position of pipes and fittings. Pipes must lie in Stroebe freely without mechanical stresses. If everything is in order, line pipes are attached to the floor with a perforated mounting strips. American union nut on the radiator fittings are tightened and the position of the pipes in Stroebe fixed with foam, but not completely, but only in the most critical areas.
24Next proceed to penultimate loop radiator and make its connection to line in the same sequence. The field lines passing through the wall or ceiling made liner (available from the soil pipe 50 mm in diameter) tube with a plastic insulation are fixed therein with foam. Mounting extends to a first radiator in the circuit. loop pipe to the boiler output.
25After a paved highway heating circuit and all connections are made to pass radiators tested. For this circuit isolates stop valve which can be screwed to a convenient location, for example, instead of the plugs in the radiator. Then, check the tightness of all the union nut on the valve radiators. Contour is filled with water, the air descends through Majewski cranes.
26After a shut-off valve is connected to the contour of the pressing pump, its capacity is filled with clean water. Pump pressure circuit rises up to 6 atmospheres. After that, inspect all joints loop and pressure control is carried out. If the pressure drops, then seeking revenge leakage. The disadvantage is eliminated, and then again raises the pressure to 6 atmospheres. If the pressure dropped within half an hour of not more than 0.5 bar, the system can be regarded as proven. The pressure may drop due to the reaction tubes or radiators. When leakages it falls sharply.
27Similarly, assembled and tested all the contours of the heating system. If the house will be equipped with a warm water floor, then pipe radiator heating mains should be in a layer of extruded polystyrene foam, which is laid to the floor heating installation. To this end, sheets of insulation make the cuts, then it is laid, fastened to the floor, and all the cracks that might be in the place where roads, blow out with foam.
28Next is the installation of underfloor heating. More about this can be found in the relevant article of our portal.
29The boiler installation of all the equipment begins after finishing work. If outdoor boiler will be used and indirect heating boiler or heat accumulator, then they are placed on a pre-made catwalks.
thirtyAfter the installation of the boiler and the boiler, mounts all the other boilers: expansion tanks, reservoirs or gidrostrelka, heat exchangers and other provided in the project.
31Produced piping boiler equipment. Boiler piping should be done with metal pipes (preferably copper). It is better to hire a specialist. When piping should not forget about the required elements: boiler safety group, automatic air vent,, sumps filters in front of each pump and the check valves after them, feeding and filling unit oil drain valve of the boiler and the system, thermometers and pressure gauges on each circuit balancing valves and other equipment.
32After installing pump mixer assembly connected to the collector or gidrostrelke, are already doing their connection to the forward and return paths plastic pipes.
33After verifying the correct installation of equipment is done filling the water heating system. The air is discharged from the system by means of automatic air vent (their caps must be opened) and the bleed screw on all radiators. The system pressure was raised to 1.5 bar and inspect all joints. If the pressure is kept steadily at that level, the water is drained from the system completely. Any debris that could fall into the pipes or radiators for installation at the same time washed.
34System again fill with water and adjusted to a nominal pressure of 1.5 bar. Next-gas companies invited experts, who must connect the boiler and make it a test run. Only then can operate the boiler.
35The heating system is tested in all modes. If everything is in order, at the time of finishing work is necessary to remove the radiators. To this end, water is discharged again, the radiators are removed, and all the fittings remaining in the pipes, zamatyvaetsya cling film to prevent pollution in the decoration. The final installation of radiators with package removing or film is made after completion of finishing.

conclusion

Creating a "from scratch" water heating system - a complex engineering task. Even for professionals who are specially trained for that 4 or 5 years in high school. If any online sources says that it's very simple and it is available to everyone, our advice would be straightforward - immediately block these sources and more to them do not come back. In fact, it is difficult and not accessible to everyone. For self-realization heating in your home need to have a certain amount of knowledge, have brains, "incarcerated" on the engineering sciences, and be able to work with their hands and tools.

Of course, in one article it is impossible to tell you all about the water heating. But we, in any case, we hope that at least the interest in this subject, and they are missing the information they will seek and find in a certain circle of readers. Especially, now do not have to go to the library to do, but rather to move from the couch to the chair at the computer. And we hope that someone from the readers make their heating system and write an interesting story about this and publish on our website in the section "Customer Stories". portal administration is prepared to pay for these good stories, but the main prize is in the heat, which will give self-made hot-water heating system.

 Video: As you connect radiators

Video: Aluminum Radiator, how to add and twist sections

Video: Tying steel panel radiator polypropylene tube

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

The construction of the roof - one of the most critical stages of construction. The reliability of the "umbrella" on top, by its resistance to atmospheric agents and any external influences, depends durability of the building and the level of comfort of living in it.

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Installing rafters gable roof with his hands

Of the variety of roof structures, gable can be attributed to one of the most popular, simply because of the relative simplicity of its construction. However, and this 'simplicity' is a lot of different nuances, the need for certain calculations and following technological rules. However, this publication is the main task: to show that the installation of the rafters gable roof with his hands - the task is quite feasible, even for the novice builder.

Let's go through all steps of the process for installing trusses such roofs, from preliminary design bases to the example of practical embodiment.

General device pentroof

basic concepts

The principle of the device pitched roof is clear already from the title. It is characterized by the presence of two rays of the roof, in the majority of cases are symmetric with respect to the ridge line. On both front sides are located triangular pediments.

Two symmetrical sides equally steep slope of the roof - a

Two symmetrical sides equally steep slope of the roof - a "classic" layout gable roof

This scheme is characterized by the relative simplicity of calculation and installation. It is extremely secure (with proper building), provides uniform load distribution on the walls of the building, while possessing excellent operational safety margin. However, such a roof is looked even without any frills, very nice, suitable for practically all types of roofing, but it may be given any skates slope angles (within reasonable limits).

Apparent disadvantage of such a roof is the presence of "accessibility" zones in the attic, in the lower part of skates.

Sometimes architects are trying to make some variety in the design of gable roof. For example, one of the methods is to create the underlined asymmetry skates, and, both in their slope and the length of the ridge to the eaves.

The original solution - roof slopes are different and the angle of inclination to the horizon, and the length

The original solution - roof slopes are different and the angle of inclination to the horizon, and the length

Such an approach opens up additional opportunities useful attic. However, self-correct design and construction of a gable roof for the unprepared person - a problem of discharge impracticable, so in this article, such a structure will not be considered further.

With a certain degree of conditionality to include gable roof planes with broken rays.

Polyline shape of the roof ramps is usually done in favor of the beneficial use of attic space

Polyline shape of the roof ramps is usually done in favor of the beneficial use of attic space

However, such design and have features in the design and mounting. this type of truss system deserve a separate detailed consideration.

dvu5Roof sloping ceilings - the perfect solution for residential attic

To build a reliable truss system of this type, it will be necessary to hold a series of calculations, carefully consider the sequence of work, used processing methods. All this detail - in a special publication of our portal "Mansard roof with his hands".

Structural elements of frame of roof gable roof

To further can be, as they say, "speak the same language", you need to consider some of the main parts and assemblies made up the general construction of a gable roof. Attention to the scheme:

The circuit structure simple in structure gable roof system

The circuit structure simple in structure gable roof system

Outset that this scheme is, of course, may not reflect the diversity of all possible structures of roof systems, but the main parts and components on it shows clearly enough.

1 - mauerlat. This board or beam, which are rigidly mounted on the upper end of the external load-bearing walls of the building. His mission - even load distribution on the entire roof system on the wall of the house, to create conditions to secure the rafters at their lowest point support.

2 - rafters are installed in pairs. They are the main structural parts of the roof throughout the system - namely the rafters set the slope ramps, will be the basis for fixing the battens, roofing and insulated if the roof is planned - something else and all the thermal insulation of the "pie".

quality boards or beams used for making rafters, and logs can be used. About timber section which is sufficient to guarantee the holding of all possible loads - will be discussed below.

Rafters can end mauerlat, but often go beyond the perimeter walls of the house, forming eaves. However, and lighter parts can be used for this purpose - the so-called "grasshopper", which build rafters on the desired width of the eaves.

For the formation of eaves rafters overbuilt

For the formation of eaves rafters overbuilt "filly"

3 - ridge pole. It can be a timber, board or component design. Run extends across the ridge line and serves to connect the upper pair points rafters, truss pairs of connection in order to impart the overall rigidity of the entire roof structure. In various embodiments, the roof can run hard to rely on the rack or be linked only to a connection node rafters.

4 - Tightening (fights, crossbars). Horizontal parts amplification system further binding pair rafters together. It can be used several puffs, located at different heights.

5 - joists, which will serve as the basis for the installation of the floor in the attic and ceiling from the room.

6 - and this beam simultaneously serves as sleepers. This beam extending over the entire length of the roof, which is a support for the installation of additional parts strengthening truss system. Sill can be mounted as shown (by type joist) or fixedly laid on capital septum inside the building.

7 - rack (grandmother) - additional vertical support rafters to prevent their deflection under external loads. Desk top may abut the rafters themselves, or in an additional run longitudinally binding rafters at a certain height.

The illustration shows the additional well-runs linking the rafters along the entire length of the roof.

The illustration shows the additional well-runs linking the rafters along the entire length of the roof.

8 - struts. Often at great length rafters of their load-carrying capacity is not enough, and the amplification of the pillars does not provide the required strength. In these cases the diagonal reinforcing elements based on bottom sill, creating an additional point of support for the rafters. The number of struts and their place of installation may vary roofs of varying complexity.

Some of the differences and the hanging system naslonnoy gable roof

Gable roofs can be divided into two types of designs - with naslonnymi and hanging rafters. Also, combined systems are widely used, in which two combined construction principle. What is the fundamental difference?

Naslonnaya rafters system

This truss system design is characterized by support for the capital internal partition in a building. On the upper end of the partition is mounted sill, on which rest drains supporting the ridge pole. Thus, the rafters "nasloneny" on a vertical support, which makes the whole system as much as possible solid.

The roof structure with rafters naslonnymi

The roof structure with rafters naslonnymi

Such a scheme is the most popular because of its reliability and relative simplicity in design. If there is an opportunity to create additional sharpen support for the center, then why not take advantage of it? However, if the attic is planned occupancy of residential premises, the uprights can sometimes be a hindrance. However, their presence too, sometimes "beat", using, for example, for internal partitions easy mounting.

Depending on the number and placement of the internal baffles naslonnoy truss system design may vary. Some examples are shown in the illustration below:

Various embodiments of system design with naslonnymi rafters

Various embodiments of system design with naslonnymi rafters

On fragment "a" shows the simplest embodiment, which incidentally in small lengths of rafter (5 meters) may not be shown strut - sufficiently under some central ridge pole racks

With increasing width of the building system, of course, complicated, and there are additional reinforcing elements - tightening and struts ( "b" fragment).

Fragment "in" demonstrates that the inner wall of the capital does not have to be located exactly in the middle, under the ridge. It is possible and an option, as shown in the illustration, but with the condition that the displacement with respect to the ridge Lezhnyov not exceed one meter.

Finally, fragment "d" shows how the system can build trusses in large building, but having two capital partitions inside. The distance between such parallel sleepers can be up to one third of the width of the building.

with hanging rafters system

Graphically, this roof scheme can be represented like this:

The roof structure with hanging rafters

The roof structure with hanging rafters

Immediately apparent that rafters rest mauerlat only on the bottom, and then connected to each other on the ridge. Additional support in the middle is missing, ie rafters as if "hanging" that determines the name of the system. This feature places certain limitations on the use of hanging trusses - typically this scheme is practiced when the distance between the carrying walls, on which is mounted mauerlat, no more than 7 meters. Installable tightening only partially remove load from the outer walls.

The following illustration shows several embodiments hanging system. However, some of them are rather can be attributed to the combination.

Variants of roof system with hanging rafters

Variants of roof system with hanging rafters

Fragment "d" - Hanging rafter linked to a coupler mauerlat level or fastened to a powerful beam overlap, forming with it a triangle. No other reinforcing parts. Such a scheme is allowed when the distance between the walls to 6 meters.

Option "g" - for the same size house (up to 6 meters). Tightening (bolt) in this case is shifted upwards, and is often used for filing the ceiling attic.

Options for the "e" and "s" are designed to span between walls up to 9 meters. Few puffs may be used (or the top-tightening in combination with the lower beam overlap). Another approach - installation of racks under the ridge pole, similar to naslonnoy system. Just as the lower pivot point is not used on the sill of the capital wall, and rack based on the tightness or joists. Call this option purely "hanging" - it is difficult, because there is - obviously a combination of parts of both designs.

In an even greater degree such combination of the two schemes is expressed in the embodiment "and", which is designed for large spans, from 9 to 14 meters. Here, in addition to the stand-grandmother, involved more and diagonal struts. Often these farms in general are going on the ground, and only then lifted and set in place, communicate with each other, thereby forming the entire roof frame.

So, it is necessary to study the principles of the structure of a system to assess their advantages and disadvantages, choose the best for their conditions and make a graphical operating scheme in preparation for the construction of a gable roof. She will need and the acquisition of the necessary material for the production of own installation. However, the composition of the drawing still has to be preceded by some calculations.

The calculation of the basic parameters of the gable roof truss system

Let's take another look at the concept of a gable roof device to select the parameters that need to be calculated.

The circuit for visual display of the calculated parameters pentroof

The circuit for visual display of the calculated parameters pentroof

So, in the calculation process, we need to determine the following values.

Input data - is side dyne Housing according gable portion (highlighted in blue - F), and the length of the ridge house (violet color - D). It is assumed that the owners have to determine in advance the type of roof covering - as there are certain restrictions on the steepness of the roof ramps. (A corner).

To be calculated:

  • Ridge height above the plane mauerlat (H - green), or, conversely, to determine the angle of slope, starting from the planned height of the ridge.
  • Rafter length (blue - L), and if necessary - and an elongation rafters to form eaves necessary width (l).
  • Calculate the total load falling on the truss system to determine the optimal cross section for the production of timber trusses, their installation step (red - S) and the allowable length of spans between the support points. All these parameters - are closely interrelated.
  • When the hands are the calculated values, it is not difficult to make a flow chart to determine the need for and the optimal location of the gain elements to calculate the amount of material to make them.

We expect the slope of the slope and height of the ridge

The angle of slope of ramps may be defined on various hosts evaluation criteria:

Planned roof slope angle α (degrees) Risunok2

By the way, the calculator will solve both direct and inverse problems. For example, if it is necessary to start from the planned height of the ridge of the roof, it is possible by entering once to start the triangle base length f, then change the angle of slope of the roof (gradation change calculator - 1 degree) to quickly arrive at a desired value. It takes just a few seconds.

We expect the length of rafter

To calculate the length of the rafter, which in this case is the hypotenuse of a right triangle (with legs and f H), the easiest way to apply the well-known Pythagorean theorem.

L = √ (f ² + N²)

A calculator for calculating the working length of the gable roof rafter

 Enter the requested value and press "Calculate the length of the hypotenuse (rafter)"Leg 1 (triangle height H), m , Figure 32 cathetus (base of triangle f), m Picture 1

This result has given us a "working" the length of the rafter. If you plan to another due to the rafters once to form the eaves, it is necessary to do to increase the length of - l. According to the laws of trigonometry this "appendage" will be equal to:

l = K / cos a

By - paniruemaya wide eaves, by the house wall to the edge (horizontal).

a - angle of slope of the roof slope.

Even if the eaves will be formed at the expense of "grasshoppers", then the calculation will determine the necessary working length of the design details. The calculation is easier to carry out with the help of our calculator:

Calculator for extension rafter to form the eaves.

 Enter the requested information, and click "Calculate elongation rafters (filly working length)"The planned width of the eaves K m 2017-03-11_204338The magnitude of steepness of slope α, degrees 2017-03-11_204422

At small angles of roof slope of this extension is very slightly different from the proposed width of the eaves. However, with the growth of the slope, rafters elongation begins to increase rapidly, so ignore this value - it is impossible.

Will only sum the values ​​obtained and to get the total length of the blank for making rafter. Of course, it is taken with a small margin of about 200 ÷ 250 mm - in the exact trim after installing and fixing rafter into place.

You can immediately evaluate - whether for sale workpiece (timber) to length. On the roofs of large size sometimes have to resort to merging the rafters in length.

calculation of loads on the truss system, the definition section of the rafters, and the step of setting

We turn to the most difficult stage of the calculation. It is necessary to assess what the total load will fall on the roof structure, as they are optimally distributed along the length of the carrier elements, varying the installation step rafters. From this it will be possible to choose the desired material which will provide structure stability without deformation or fracture, to determine the details of the gain, i.e. in Scheme arrange additional support points which reduce free span rafter.

The selected type of roofing Asbestos cement slate conventional Profile Asbestos-cement roofing reinforcement profile Pulp bituminous sheets ( "Euroslate", "ondulin") Roofing iron (galvanized steel) Soft shingles Metal, corrugated ceramic tile Tile Cement-based The resin-sand tile Roof - roofing material on the asphalt mastic in two layersDefine the map diagram and specify the zone for your region level snow loadIIIIIIIVVVIVIIIdentify on the map and select your region by region level wind pressureIaIIIIIIIVVVIVIISpecify the location of the building zone Zone "A" - Open terrain (steppes, deserts, plains), the windswept coast of large bodies of water. Zone "B" - Crossed, wooded terrain with natural obstacles for the wind or with artificial plantings, up to 10 meters, the territory of the villages and small towns. Zone "B" - dense urban areas with tall artificial barriers for wind of 25 meters or more villages or houses, surrounded on all sides by forestSpecify the height of the roof ridge above the ground- no more than 5 meters- from 5 to 10 meters- from 11 to 20 meters- more than 20 meters The following will be prompted for the intended installation step rafters. By changing this parameter, you can optimize the value of the distributed load on the rafters.
Opora_skolzyaschaya_dlya_stropil__5Step installation rafters, meters

Since the received input values ​​in a table and determine the sectional boards for making rafter.

The calculated value of the distributed load
(Kilograms per meter of rafter) Cross-section of the timber for the manufacture of rafters
75100125150175board or barround timber
Board Thickness (timber), mmDiameter, mm
40506080100
Planned flight of support points between the rafters, mboard height (timber), mm
43.532.52160150140130120
4.543.532.5180170160140120120
54.543.53200190180160140140
5.554.543.5-210200180160160
65.554.54--220200180180
6.565.554.5---220200200
-6.565.55---240220220

For example, the value is issued by the calculator 92 kilogram per linear meter. The closest to the next higher value in the table - 100 kg, it means working with this column.

It is planned to install the rafters so that they span between support points will be up to 4.5 meters. We find the intersection of the selected column with the same value.

Now you can write out the right side of the table all the dimensions allowable timber that is guaranteed to withstand such a load. In this example, the board 40 × 200; 50 × 190; 60 × 180; 80 × 160; 100 × 140, and the beam diameter of 120 mm.

Possible in the planning mode to try to change the amount of free flight, yet virtually installing additional point of support (braces or grandmother) to see what kind of material will be more profitable.

In this section of the article dedicated to carrying out independent calculations we will finish - it's time to move on to consideration of the practical example of creating a roof system gable roof. But still &# 8212; a few words in conclusion.

Algorithms of calculation and design of roof system, of course, simplified, and their use is acceptable for not too large-scale construction. If a full-fledged residential house is being built, then you can not do without a professional architectural design of both the building and its roof structure in particular.

EXAMPLE installation trusses pentroof - incrementally

Work on the construction of the roof always - very time-consuming and difficult, as most of the operations have to be carried out in very uncomfortable conditions at altitude. As a general rule, it requires the use of assistants. But those interested in the following description that the master, using specific processing methods, all the work is done completely independently.

For a start - a project of the future roof system, composed after the necessary calculations. It is made using available «SketchUp» application, which is to find and easy to master even the novice.

It will be installed this truss system - naslonnogo type

It will be installed this truss system - naslonnogo type

House with polumansardoy, ie the second floor more than half removed from the wall silicate blocks, and only the upper third of the side walls and the ceiling will replace the roof structure. Gables - all out of the silicate blocks. Central space of the second floor attic located capital partition dividing it in two, and this partition three rows masonry block above the side walls. This solution provides a roomy loft even with a relatively small slope of the roof ramps.

A presence of the central capital partition enables to apply a more simple mounting scheme naslonnnyh trusses.

Table &# 8212; Illustrated assembly instructions rafters gable roof

All pictures are in the table-instructions - clickable, that is, increased at a mouse click.

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
mnk1Delivered and unloaded necessary for lumber.
The first thing they should do is - folded in a neat pile, to prevent deformation of the wood, make the necessary treatment.
mnk2Treatment will be applied in special impregnation, which has antiseptic properties - gives wood shock resistance to biological degradation and defeat the fungus, mildew and insects.
Furthermore, many of these formulations enhance wood resistance to fire.
mnk3Antiseptic primer may be in ready to use or concentrate form.
In this example, it required dilution water in accordance with the appended instructions.
mnk4To improve the quality of treatment, the surface of the boards and beams is recommended prior to applying the composition thoroughly obmesti - to remove dust and fine dust.
mnk5Antiseptic impregnation liberally applied using a roller, on all sides of the board, which in the course of its processing sequentially inverted.
To narrow end faces is more convenient to use a brush.
mnk6After processing boards are left in the stack until complete absorption and drying of the primer.
At this time, you can start preparing the base for laying mauerlat.
mnk7The upper end of the side walls of gas silicate, which will be laid and fastened mauerlat - board of 50 × 200 mm.
To board against the wall throughout its plane surface of the base in this case it is necessary to straighten a few.
mnk8For this master threw construction adhesive which was used for silicate masonry blocks.
Then, using a wide spatula it was covered with a thin alignment layer.
mnk9A similar operation was carried out, and on the opposite wall ...
mnk10... and then - on the central wall-wall, which will be laid sill.
mnk11The board after the treatment is completely dried out, leveling layer on the face of the wall stood - it is possible to come for further action.
First of all, on the end wall waterproofing layer is laid.
In this case, it uses the chopped tape-polymer bitumen roll roofing material. Laying can be carried out "dry", as illustrated, or with the corresponding mastic - waterproofing quality only benefit from this.
mnk12Thereafter, a waterproofing layer is laid on the required length trimmed mauerlat board.
Its width in the present case corresponds exactly to the wall width - 200 mm.
mnk13Board mauerlat carefully aligned to the wall line.
mnk14For fixing the wall boards mauerlat be applied here, such the anchor bolts, and a length 150 of 12 mm diameter.
For greater reliability, mounting anchors installed yet and thick washers 25 mm diameter.
mnk15To anchor installation point does not fall on the future site of installation rafters, it makes sense to immediately carry out the corresponding markup.
mnk16installing trusses Step figured out beforehand, the thickness of board is also known (50 mm).
On board mauerlat outlined rafters exact location - they are marked with a crossed two borders area between them.
A mauerlat fasteners can be positioned between the rafters. The recommended spacing between the anchors - from 600 to 800 mm.
mnk17The process of fixing mauerlat.
To start points identified in drilled through holes in the board-drill pen 12 mm. Sawdust sweep immediately, so they do not fall into the drilled channels.
mnk18Then, using a gun drill 12 mm right through holes drilled in the wall of the channels for setting anchors. 
These channels are cleared as much as possible from the dust formed as a result of drilling.
mnk19Installed anchors.
Each anchor is first gently hammered into a hammer lock washers channel dollars in a tree ...
mnk20... and then wrapped the Allen key, until it clicks.
mnk21Installing mauerlat on one wall is finished.
A similar series of operations carried out on the opposite wall.
mnk22Next, you need to install on the sill of the central partition walls.
Initially, just as before, it is placed a layer of waterproofing material.
mnk23Then the stacked boards - are the same, 50 × 200 mm.
However, for the length of the sleepers standard boards was not enough, and it is necessary to spread the two.
Furthermore, given that in such a construction, the roof system is in the middle sill fall highest load, it decided to make the power in the two layers of boards, i.e. with a total of 100 mm thick.
mnk24But first spreading and fastened anchors the first layer boards - all in the same way as when the mauerlat on the side walls of the building.
mnk25Lower board sleepers fixed, but part of anchor protruding parts will interfere with laying of the upper layer.
Hence, in the top board to be cut "nests" in which will hide apex anchors.
mnk26To make an accurate layout for these "nests" upper board placed on the place where it should lie, and carefully aligned.
Then, the anchor locations on top of the board hammer rap.
mnk27The projecting portion of the anchor left on the top board of a clearly visible mark on which will be held drilling.
mnk28For drilling nests applied down the drill diameter of 25 ÷ 27 mm, so that the hole can accommodate anchoring washer.
mnk29The through hole is not required - is sufficient depth of "nests" in 25 ÷ 30 mm.
mnk30Laid top row of boards in advance primereniya place.
If everything was done quickly and accurately, the top board perfectly lie down to the bottom and immediately get a certain fixation due to protruding parts of anchors - random offset can no longer be afraid.
mnk31Connection between two layers of boards are made by means of universal galvanized screws 6 × 90 mm.
They are screwed in staggered increments of 250 ÷ 300 mm.
mnk32All sill is ready for further assembly work.
mnk33The next step is to lay out a master rather block wall gables, considering that at this stage it will make it more convenient to everything.
Masonry gables not included in the plan review of our publication, and we'll skip this step - just show what happened in the end.
Subsequently, the side of the gable will be cut in the level of the roof, irregularities - smoothed.
mnk34As for exactly the rafter system, the next step will be the installation of racks for sleepers and installation ridge pole.
The first will be installed extremely resistant.
For the manufacture of racks will same board as that for mauerlat with Lezhnyov - 200 × 50 mm. They immediately cut the right amount exactly to size.
mnk35The number of racks and their location in exactly the same number and placement of pairs of roof trusses.
On sleepers made accurate markings - similar markup mauerlat.
mnk36It sets the first rack.
It has in advance at both ends yellow galvanized screws 6 × 40 screwed steel perforated corners (50 × 50 × 2 mm).
mnk37Installed Front baits right through the corner to the softwood sleepers.
mnk38It is very important to achieve verticality of the uprights starting while they are still not completely fixed. Moreover, this test should be performed in two planes.
Initially checked vertically in a transverse (relative to the axis Lezhnyov) plane - for an equal exposed construction perfectly vertically.
mnk39In this example, to ensure that such a situation had to resort to the use of a small wooden wedge.
mnk40Now it is necessary to achieve vertically in the perpendicular plane.
To fix the desired position it is best to use a temporary brace of trimming boards (slats). One end of a softwood black struts attached to the side face sleepers.
mnk41Then, on the construction of persistent accurately exposed vertical ...
mnk42... and fixed in this position by means of a temporary strut of the second screw.
Now stand is here to shift.
mnk43Exactly the same operation is done with the reception and at the opposite end of the sleepers.
The last stand with temporary props and become the basis for laying planks ridge pole.
mnk44As already noted, for laying and fastening runs on highly persistent in advance were bolted steel mounting corners.
mnk45Board ridge pole rises up, fit to the exposed extreme rack, carefully aligned.
Board applied all the same - 200 × 50 mm.
mnk46Then, using the screwdriver ridge pole is fixed to the corner posts.
Until finally tighten a few screws is not necessary - you may have to make minor adjustments. Suffice one metal screws on each side (6 × 40 mm).
mnk47All board ridge run has taken its place.
You can proceed to install the intermediate posts.
mnk48On the cut exactly in size rack bolted steel angles, with one ...
mnk49... and then with the other hand.
mnk50The reception is set right on the markup, and its edges are aligned with the sleepers and the ridge pole.
The lower bracket is fastened to the sleepers until that one screw.
mnk51Then, using a spirit level shall be verified upright rack ...
mnk52... and it is attached through the corner to the ridge pole, as long as one screw.
mnk53While and left - one screw.
Final fixing will be done after the installation of rafters, as is the need to make minor adjustments.
mnk54On the back of the corner stand also yet - he will be placed necessarily, but later.
mnk55All racks are installed.
If done correctly, and stand are of equal height, the ridge pole into a horizontal position.
mnk56The next stage - setting the rafters themselves. But before going on to it, you need to check and compare the length of the resulting rays.
The idea is that it should be equal, but the tree is still a tree, and sometimes run over small mistakes. Check Easy - with a tape measure the distance from the corner to the corner ridge runs mauerlat.
The same is done on the opposite side of the run.
mnk57If accumulates a small error in the range of 25-30 mm, it can be in the right place, unscrew the very single screws, make the necessary adjustments and tighten them again.
And to this position when installing trusses remained unchanged between mauerlat ridge pole and set temporary struts of fine solid board.
mnk58Fastening of the auxiliary time elements carried by conventional ferrous screws.
mnk59Of course, the location of the temporary shoring is selected so that it does not interfere with installation of rafters.
A similar pair of struts mounted on the opposite end of the ridge of the span.
mnk60Now we can move on to installing the rafters.
Recommended for mounting each regular pair to establish here is a temporary reference bar, right on the scribe line. He did not give the rafters move when installed, and in addition, it can be temporarily fastened heavy board clamp or the same screws to make it to the final fixation are not pushed down.
Beam mounted a pair of black screws, and it is easy to dismantle by no longer needed, moving to the next mount.
mnk61Board rafter rises up and locks into place, along the lines of the previously applied layout. Its length is typically 50 ÷ 80 mm larger in each direction - for subsequent accurate prirezki.
mnk62While the board is based on the angles of the ridge runs and mauerlat.
It is possible to temporarily fix the clamp from slipping to the support beam.
mnk63Now you need to perform layout tapping rafter in the ridge pole and mauerlat.
The most convenient way to do so. At run plane rafter is applied to processed well bar 50 × 50 mm (as illustrated) ...
mnk64... and on its upper edge a horizontal line is drawn with a pencil.
mnk65Then applied to the end face run-gon, and a vertical line is drawn to intersect the horizontal.
mnk66As a result, it blocked out the triangle that will need to be cut.
mnk67Exactly the same markup held and at the intersection of rafter with mauerlat.
mnk68Further, the clamp is removed, the board removed, and thereon a manual hacksaw or jigsaw electric slits made on the executed markup - two triangular piece removed.
mnk69Rafter foot is placed back in place, and at the same time it should be "like a glove" to connect with the ridge pole and ...
mnk70... and mauerlat.
mnk71Further, in the same manner and the second fitted, steam rafter foot. It's time to fit them together.
Initially, the master used the method of simultaneous prirezki two rafters.
One board is installed exactly according to the markup, the second - on her lap, and between them they pulled clamp.
Exactly in the center of the ridge line is drawn run ...
mnk72... and then it with the help of the construction level is transferred to the vertical truss boards.
This line will be cut at the same time the direction of the two rafters using a hand hacksaw.
mnk73The cut is made, but it turned out that this approach is not very convenient.
Use for such prirezki electric tool - does not work, and manually, especially in uncomfortable conditions at a height exactly to saw just two 50-mm board - not an easy task.
mnk74Furthermore, boards overlap when cutting inevitably gives a small but nevertheless error.
Over the next truss pairs will be used a different approach.
mnk75But while it is necessary to permanently fix the rafters in place, connect them with the ridge pole, mauerlat and among themselves.
- for mauerlat and plates 60 × 200 × 2 - for mutual fastening perforated corners 50 × 50 × 2 for the run, 80 × 60 × 2: On this metal connection elements are used.
mnk76With parts and galvanized screws 6 × 40 mm rafter foot is attached to mauerlat ...
mnk77... then to the ridge pole.
mnk78After both rafters are installed, they are bonded to each other by perforated plates and screws.
mnk79After installing the first pair of rafters, mount the next - on the opposite end of the roof.
Then, between the outer rafters on each ramp stretch cords - on top, down and around the middle.
These cords can help navigate when installing the remaining intermediate truss pairs.
mnk80By the way, as already mentioned, to the follow-Cutting rafter pairs was used a different approach.
The angle is marked in the same way as before, and then applied to a vertical line ...
mnk81... which is projected from the ridge pole center with the help of a spirit level.
After this board is removed, and the cutting and the angles, and rafter top of the line is carried out in an easy-to such an operation position, and for this it is already possible to use an electric hand circular saw.
mnk82The same operation is performed with the second rafter foot, and the result - is shown in the illustration, all matched perfectly accurate.
mnk83In the same way the work goes on and on, until it is put up and secured all the "suite of" truss pairs.
mnk84Now you need to arm themselves with screwdriver, a good supply of screws, perforated corners and plates, and a final binding posts and rafters to mauerlat, sleepers and ridge pole.
Corners and plates are now installed already on both sides of each of the fixture, and the necessary number of screws are fixed: to corner 50 × 50 - at least three on each side, for corner 80 ÷ 60 - four,
mnk85... and for the plate - five or six on each half.
You can then remove any previously installed temporary braces - they have already played their part and are no longer needed.
mnk86The next phase - installation of the lower number of puffs.
This tightening will also serve as a basis for the filing of the ceiling of the attic space, that is, they must be installed at a certain height - in this case 2500 mm from the floor level of the second floor.
To make things easy, you can prepare a template of the board - Tightening center from his position to take the necessary adjustment.
The template can be temporarily fastened to the rack with one screw, and repositioned as the installation of regular puffs.
mnk87Tightening board (150 applies × 50 mm) mounted on a support template and softwood nazhivlena one in the middle.
As can be seen, to the horizontal position it is far - require alignment. To do this, first dismantled stand template.
mnk88Then, gently turning the board with respect to the axis of the screw-seeks its exact horizontal ...
mnk89... and fix this situation with one self-tapping on any of the rafters.
mnk90Pulled together by tightening will not only screws but also the M12 × 120 bolts rafter.
mnk91Drilling bolt hole using a drill down to 12.
mnk92At the intersection of the tightening of the board area of ​​the rafter foot, approximately in the center, is drilled through hole.
It is set bolt with a broad washer, this washer also strung on the other hand, baits and then finally twisted via nut wrench.
As a result, connection node with the lower tightening rafter looks like - and three self-tapping screw 6 × 90 mm.
mnk93At the intersection of tightening and the central pillar will be enough five screws.
mnk94Then lines are drawn - the outer edge of the rafters ...
mnk95... and conveyers with a hand tightening on both sides cut off flush with the plane defined by the rafters.
mnk96This sets the entire series of lower puffs.
mnk97For maximum strength generated by the system, and for the final "pinching" ridge pole, the bottom has set the upper tightening.
With them - it's simple. The special construction of the alignment is not required - a floor board (50 × 100) is tightly pressed from the bottom to the ridge purlin and fixed with screws to both the counter and the rafters, as shown in the illustration.
Then, in the same way as with the lower puffs, are marked and trimmed edges projecting outwardly boards, flush with the plane of the rafters.
Such tightening is placed on each rack and truss pair with one of the parties - that is enough.
mnk98Get Durable design, but in order to eliminate even the slightest play it along the axis of the roof, it makes sense to add a pair of diagonal struts between the first and second racks (rafter pairs).
There can apply board 50 × 100 mm pre-cut blank and measuring the required length.
For fixing such struts enough screws. A similar pair of set and on the other side of the roof, between the last and penultimate racks.
mnk99In this installation of trusses can be considered almost complete.
mnk100However, the outer edges of the rafters outside the perimeter of the house and required to form a neat eaves, has not trimmed - as we know, they were left with a small margin.
mnk101To work in this case, it took forests construction.
To schedule a vertical line cutting, it is possible to produce a bar-template, set the width of the walls of the eaves level.
Then the intended risk level is drawn by a vertical line.
mnk102For the binder rafters an end will be used fascia board width 100 mm.
So, on top of the roulette on the planned line is delayed distance.
mnk103Then, through this point it is carried out using a level horizontal line.
Edge rafters scheduled.
mnk104Now we need on each rafter cut groove, which will be stacked banding board, becoming the basis for the further setting-drip profile.
This board must stand level with the surface of the rafters. As will be used board 100 × 20 mm, and the groove must be the same (assuming the intended stop edge).
mnk105After marking out all the rafters, using a hand-held power conveyers producing crop.
mnk106As a result, an outwardly projecting edge of each rafter gets here this form.
mnk107Shut down the rafters with possible mounting and securing the strapping and front boards.
mnk108Now we can move on to the stages of the deck waterproofing membrane, creating a roofing insulation "cake", the installation kontrobreshetki and crates under the selected roofing and other work, the final establishment of a sound pitched roof for the house.
All these questions - are discussed in detail separately in the pages of our portal.

We hope that after studying this detailed step by step guide readers developed answers to many of facing inexperienced builder questions. Of course, this way of installing the rafters - just one of many, but it looks simple enough for self-fulfillment. Well, to expand the scope of the information received, we suggest you review a few movies on this subject:

Video: Installation of roof gable roof system under metallocherepichnoy

 Video: Some useful technological advice on the exact installation rafters

Gas heaters for garden

Gas heaters for garden

Have a summer residence or in the country - a cherished dream of many people in modern cities. Fresh air, calm, moderate physical work at the site, the lack of urban bustle of crazy - what else is needed for a good rest! Therefore, the happy owners of the cottages are trying to spend there as much time as possible, and often completely move out of the city for the entire summer season. And later, in the nature very well, and a trip to the cottage on weekends or holidays is practiced throughout the year, and often suburban possessions and did become the main "residence" of the hosts.

Gas heaters for garden

Gas heaters for garden

But the fresh air and calm, soothing environment - are not the only components of the home comfort. The premises shall be maintained for a comfortable living temperature level, and it often becomes a problem. This is especially true when visiting the garden in spring, autumn or winter, but the summer of 2017 shows that no one is safe from the cold and in a seemingly favorable period. This has a brick oven in the country is not at all, and for a long time to tinker with it is necessary to heat the premises during the period of short-term accident. Electric heaters - rather "greedy" in terms of spending valuable energy. But there is a very good solution, which provides a modern heating appliances - a gas heaters for questioning.

Let's get acquainted with them closer - they are classified, what principles work in them laid as to approach the selection of the optimal model.

Varieties of gas heaters and how they work.

Approximate classification of gas heaters, their general advantages and disadvantages

It would seem - device such heaters have in common, and based on the principle - burning flame heats the air, which in turn provides normal room temperature. However - it is not so. Apparatus many modern devices based on the use of modern technology and production of heat transfer. So that the design and principle of operation for different types of gas heaters can vary dramatically.

All gas heaters can be classified into several groups:

  • Thermal gas guns (powerful heaters).
  • Ceramic gas heaters.
  • Gas convectors permanent installation.
  • Heaters gas catalytic action.
  • Compact, portable gas heaters.
  • Street infrared heaters.

Despite the differences in design and function, all devices of this type are characteristic about the same advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages include the following:

  • Natural gas, liquefied or network, is the most affordable in terms of cost with all other types of energy. That is such a heating system does not require significant maintenance. Some models require connection to the mains, and, for example, for the fans and operation of the control bllokov, but their power consumption - minimal, and did not lay down an additional burden on the family budget.
Like it or not, gas remains the most affordable source of energy, if, of course, not be considered completely free solar energy

Like it or not, gas remains the most affordable source of energy, if, of course, not be considered completely free solar energy

  • The design of most gas heaters - is quite simple, no complex parts, which increases the reliability of these devices.
  • Modern heaters have a very decent efficiency, that is, it speaks of the efficiency and effectiveness of their work.

With a few exceptions, gas heaters are characterized by high mobility - they are small in size, can be easily moved from place to place, are transported in a car. Many models can even take a hike, go fishing or just at departures on nature.

Many models of gas heaters are so compact that they can be handled with for outdoor recreation, hunting, ice fishing, backpacking

Many models of gas heaters are so compact that they can be handled with for outdoor recreation, hunting, ice fishing, backpacking

  • Working gas heating apparatus causes minimal damage to the ecology - full gas combustion products are practically harmless.
  • Devices are usually uncomplicated to operate.
  • Warming premises is carried out very quickly - such devices is not peculiar to the inertia in the work. For the same reason - gas heaters are very sensitive and react quickly to change the settings.
  • Modern products of this class are equipped with multi-level protection system that minimizes the risk of dangerous situations.
  • Most devices differ enviable longevity - they are able to serve faithfully for 10 years or more.

However, despite the many "pluses", can not do without the negative side:

  • In all gas appliances is impossible to completely remove the fire hazard problem, since use flammable fuels, and work is accompanied by a high-temperature heating. These heaters require special precautions. It is unacceptable to leave them unattended, if a family has young children.
  • By itself, the unburned natural gas - very toxic, and any of its leak can cause very serious poisoning, including the most unfortunate consequences. That is, it imposes additional requirements to the safety of operation.
  • The process of combustion gas requires a constant flow of oxygen, which in many models drawn directly from the premises where the appliance is installed. And that means - you need to think carefully about the system of supply and exhaust ventilation in the rooms to avoid creating an uncomfortable, heavy and sometimes dangerous for the atmosphere on human health. By the way, in the requirements for the organization of ventilation is directly referred to the additional volumes of air circulation, if the premises are planned gas appliances. And if the water or electric heating to these questions sometimes look "through fingers", in the case of gas heaters &# 8212; dismissive approach to ventilation sovrshenno unacceptable.

Gas heaters for gardenWhat ventilation rules must be respected in an apartment building?

It is - not an idle question, and ventilation requirements are not taken "from the ceiling" &# 8212; they are clearly regulated by existing regulations. More information can be found in a special article of our portal devoted to problems natural circulation in a private house.

However, with proper maintenance, such devices are reliable and loyal assistants, able to quickly and efficiently create and maintain the necessary comfort in suburban living conditions.

And now look at the main types of gas heaters in more detail

Gas heat guns

These instruments are indeed vaguely resemble cannon - a large metal cylinder is placed on the "carriage" &# 8212; stand.

Say what you like, and even the physical resemblance with guns - definitely seen

Say what you like, and even the physical resemblance with guns - definitely seen

One of the easiest types of gas heaters. The principle of operation is simple - the cylinder is placed inside the gas burner, and it is mounted behind a conventional electric fan, which creates a directed flow of heated air flame. The electrical part of the gas gun may operate on AC power or battery. Typically, these devices are designed for connection to the tank with liquefied gas (propane).

An advantage of such heaters may be mentioned low cost and design simplicity. They are mobile - they can be easily rearranged to the right place, and it usually provides a special pen on the cylindrical casing.

The photograph shows a good simple principle of operation of the gas heat gun

The photograph shows a good simple principle of operation of the gas heat gun

Such devices are usually equipped with pezorozzhigom system. Provision is also certain degree of protection, and ensure safe operation. Thus, special sensors monitor the presence of the flame, the temperature of the body, the oxygen content in the room. In case of emergency situation - the device will shut off automatically with the gas supply to the burner overlap.

However, deficiencies in many of these heaters. First of all, they are quite cumbersome for the dwelling. Direct combustion gas requires a large volume of constantly supply air and the combustion products provide not particularly pleasant smell. In addition, an open flame - a big minus security.

Another significant shortcoming in the work of such heaters - a rather high noise level. It can reach up to 70 decibels, which is for a comfortable environment in the home - is clearly too much.

In short, in a residential area such heaters are trying not to use. But warm, say, a workshop while working, garage, construction site or some selhozpostroyku (greenhouse) - this is a very good option. By directing the flow of hot, warm, even on a large volume of the room will be provided very quickly.

Ceramic gas heaters

But such devices can be "put into the house" has a wave. The security level of their operation - much higher, due to the different heat transfer principle.

Ceramic infrared gas heaters - the leaders in popularity among this type of devices

Ceramic infrared gas heaters - the leaders in popularity among this type of devices

This device also has a gas burner, and it creates numerous but very small flames that heat the surrounding air is not, and the special ceramic emitter. It, in turn, being heated to very high temperatures (600 to 800 degrees) becomes a powerful source of infrared rays. Well-known advantages of infrared heating - the heat energy can be transmitted over long distances without being scattered in the air, and, being absorbed optically opaque objects (including - and the human body), to cause their heat. Well warmed objects, in turn, including, for example, walls, floor, ceiling, furniture and the like, will "share" the heat by direct heat transfer from the air in the room. No fans, that is, the device work differs substantially complete quietness.

Such devices can be connected to the network or working gas from the gas cylinder. Incidentally, the body design of many models provides concealment of a standard bottle in it.

Standard gas cylinder is often installed directly in the heater housing

Standard gas cylinder is often installed directly in the heater housing

The range offered for sale in the heater of this type - is very wide. Moreover, the model may vary and the size and power, and the external design, and the way they are installed in the room.

So, you can buy quite a miniature heater, virtually almost the desktop version, with a small gas cylinder inside. Such a device is suitable for creating a local heating zone, for example, in place of the traditional holiday hosts.

Ceramic heaters can be quite

Ceramic heaters can be quite "tiny" &# 8212; practically, desktop performance

For the full space heating are used more "monumental" devices outdoor location, the type of those shown in the illustration above.

Practiced and installation of heaters of this principle of action on the walls and on the ceiling - they have a specific form of the body, providing a directional infrared heat flow in a given sector.

Such ceramic infrared gas heater for placing on the ceiling or on a wall

Such ceramic infrared gas heater for placing on the ceiling or on a wall

Such devices are very effective for the full space heating as well as for the creation of zones of "superior." However, ventilation for they still have to provide - the burning of gas, anyway, requires oxygen supply.

security system, in addition to the above steps of protection, provides also the device off in the event of a rollover. There is a risk of overheating, for example, a floor surface with careless handling or the fault of rambunctious children - is minimal.

Video: gas infrared heater outdoor performance «Timberk 4200 M1»

Gas heaters catalytic action principle

This type of gas heaters can be considered the safest operation. The fact that there is generally no open flames - oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons occurs on the basis of the chemical, due to the special glass fiber heating element, wherein the catalyst provides the desired reaction used the thinnest platinum plating. Be that as it may, it is still a process of "burning", ie oxidation, with a corresponding thermal energy generation.

Flameless combustion (oxidation) of the gas is still accompanied by the release of a large amount of thermal energy

Flameless combustion (oxidation) of the gas is still accompanied by the release of a large amount of thermal energy

In such a combustion gas consumed minimum amount of oxygen which has a positive effect on the atmosphere in the room. Lineup - is quite broad, and can be purchased as a heater for a complete heating of quite decent size flat and compact mobile version.

Very original models of portable gas heaters Catholic

Very original models of portable gas heaters Catholic

100 watts per sq. mThe ceiling height in the roomto 2.7 m2.8 ÷ 3.0 m3.1 ÷ 3.5 m3.6 ÷ 4.0 mmore than 4.1 mThe number of external wallsnoonetwothreeThe outer walls are looking at: North, Northeast, East South, South-West, WestThe position of the outer wall with respect to winter "wind rose" - windward side - leeward - parallel to the direction of the windLevel negative air temperatures in the region in the coldest week of the year- 35 ° C and belowfrom - 30 ° C to - 34 ° Cfrom - 25 ° C to - 29 ° Cfrom - 20 ° C to - 24 ° Cfrom - 15 ° C to - 19 ° Cfrom - 10 ° C to - 14 ° Cnot colder - 10 ° CWhat is the degree of warming of external walls?Exterior walls are not insulatedThe average degree of insulationThe outer walls have a high-quality insulationThat is located at the bottom?Cold floor on the ground or above unheated roomsInsulated floor on the ground or above unheated roomsLocated below a heated roomThat is located on top?Cold attic or unheated and not heat-insulated roomWarmed attic or other premiseheated roomType installed windows Conventional wood frames with double glazing Windows with mono (2 glass) glass- Windows with triple (3 glasses) or glass-filled with argon No windowsThe number of windows in the roomThe window height, mWindow width, mDoor facing the street, or on a cold balcony: no one two

Explanations for the calculations

The calculation is made for a particular room, where the heater will be installed. It is necessary to consistently provide the following requested data:

  • Room area and ceiling height in it - to determine the amount of heated space.
  • Number of wall bordering the street: the more external walls - the higher the level of heat loss through them.
  • The walls facing the sunny side, get an extra "charge" of the heat, as opposed to those that never see the sun. You must specify in which direction the world is looking exterior wall.
  • In an open area about changes in the heat loss can make a permanent winter wind. If you know the location of the winter wind rose, it is also possible to specify one of the parameters. If such data are not available, leave the default - the program will calculate for the most adverse conditions. If the area closed, for example, dense urban, or, say, a house surrounded by tall trees, it is possible to consider the wall as a lee.
  • The next point - the estimated amount of normal for your region temperatures in the coldest winter of the decade.
  • Next, you must specify how well insulated the house wall. At the same time for high-quality thermal insulation it is accepted that, that has been fully implemented on the basis of a professionally conducted heat engineering calculations.
  • A considerable amount of heat loss falls on the floor and ceiling. It is therefore advisable to take into account what is above and below to calculate the location.
  • The windows are always vulnerable areas in the insulation system of the house. So they - special attention. You must specify the type of windows, their number and size. The program will make the relevant amendments to the final result.
  • Finally, the room can be a door opening onto the street or directly in the unheated adjoining room. Since it is - a kind of "bridge cold", especially in the part of the open during the day, it requires a corresponding adjustment and the result of this fact.

The resulting value will be expressed in watts and kilowatts. On it and should be guided in choosing a heater - a device with a power guaranteed to provide a comfortable indoor climate even at the height of winter cold.

Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices

Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices

Air heating private houses in our area is not very widespread - often resort to it for arranging the heating plant and factory shops, and other industrial facilities, warehouses, garages, workshops and other facilities. Meanwhile, such a heating principle has good profitability and convenience in operation. And the host device such a system is an air-heating unit.

Air-heating units, in fact, are the same as fan heaters, but differ from them familiar to every household varieties increased heat output, thanks to which are capable of providing heating for large areas. The difference also lies in the permanent installation of heat generators. On sale you can find models that differ in their technical and operational characteristics. And while manufacturers usually do not attach much importance to the appearance of these devices, as they are mainly located hidden and used in a production environment.

Air-heating unit - types, characteristics and average price

Air-heating unit - types, characteristics and average price

Nevertheless, in our time, there has been a steady growth of interest of the owners of suburban housing to the air heating principle. Many of them, at least, get acquainted with the information on this issue, to look after their possessions respective devices. To help them understand the nuances of such systems, as well as the characteristics of the required equipment, devote publication of this particular topic: air heating unit - types, characteristics and average price.

What you need to know about air heating?

Not many people know that, along with water and steam heating with conventional heat exchange devices in the form of radiators or convectors, there is an air option, which by design is largely similar to the ventilation system.

Unlike conventional heating systems, air does not require the installation of radiators, since the warm air flows directly into the premises or at special pipelines coming from the electrical air-heating units depending on the heating source.

The principle of this type of heating is forced by means of fans blowing the heated heat exchanger of a particular type, and then supplying the heated air into the premises. The advantage of this system is the ability to easily control the level of heating the coolant (air), and to adjust, while maintaining the required temperature and intensity parameters of the air flow, if necessary.

Varieties air heating systems

Air heating systems can be classified by several criteria on which selection unit will depend on the "filling" the entire circuit. Thus, the heating system is separated by type, by circulating the heated air method, the structure and scale of applications.

The scope of application of air heating system

Air heating by this criterion of evaluation is divided into two types - local and centralized. For each of them used their own equipment, which is referred to, respectively, or a local channel.

  • local It referred to the option when the heating is carried out of the room (and sometimes - even a certain designated area in the room). For this purpose, use local equipment, which include heaters of different designs and degrees of difficulty - it may be curtains, wall, floor or tabletop devices, often - with electrical heat generation.

Moreover, this type of heating may serve as an additional heating to the central or the autonomous system that is included in the off-season, or at the peak of the winter cold, when the main system is unable to cope with their tasks. Such appliances are used and as the core heating, but in this case the apparatus must have adequate thermo-power calculations. Furthermore, it is desirable that the local heating of the room air maintained, for example, the electrical system "warm floors".

Fan heaters - devices to create a local hot-air heating system in any room of any home

Fan heaters - devices to create a local hot-air heating system in any room of any home

Due to the fact that the organization of such local heating - is not particularly difficult (thing in this issue - choose the right one or more heaters required power), in the future will focus on centralized type air heating. Especially that of a fan heater on our website already paid enough attention.

Air-heating units: types, specifications and pricesHow to choose a home heat fan?

This device is able to become an indispensable tool in any time of year - it happens that night, and summer and like heat, not to mention the autumn and spring "off season." How does such a device, which heating power is required, and what criteria is used to select the thermal fan - read the special publication of our portal.

  • centralized air heating is used for heating the entire structure, and for such a system, you must install the equipment channel, ie, wiring ducts or pipes that connect to one or more heating units. The amount of heat generators will depend on the heated area and power devices.
The system of centralized air heating the house - a set of heating units and a network of hidden communication to move air and coolant

The system of centralized air heating the house - a set of heating units and a network of hidden communication to move air and coolant

Boiler or any other kind of heat source heats the air or water, which is the intermediate coolant. Next, the heated air through the channels and the water in pipes backbones distributed to rooms. In each of the heated space temperature sensor is installed, through which you can monitor the current settings and, where appropriate, to submit the appropriate command basic equipment and devices, distributing air, water or steam flows.

It should be noted that the air heating systems can be operated in combination with ventilation systems and (or) air-conditioning, as well as without them, depending on the selected scheme.

Properties of heating and circulating air masses will be discussed hereinafter.

Methods of heating the air

According to the method of heating air heating systems are divided into electrical, as well as water and steam, which, in turn, can receive heat from almost any kind of heat sources, including from conventional oven with an integrated circuit.

In addition, when heated air directly sent through the channels can be used by any unit operating at a relatively pure fuel, e.g., gas or electric equipment.

Powerful heaters (also often referred to as

Powerful heaters (also often referred to as "heat gun") are able to quickly warm up the room with a large internal volume

  • Electrical equipment, equipped with ceramic heating element, Taine or metal spiral, is most often used for domestic heating, ie one of the rooms. The reason is simple - a centralized system that works solely by electricity, it would be too costly.
Such local air heaters powered by mains do not require any additional communication connections, in addition to centralized control of devices

Such local air heaters powered by mains do not require any additional communication connections, in addition to centralized control of devices

Equipping local air heating using electrical appliances, do not have to carry out complex operations. It will be enough to set them on the floor or mounted on a wall or ceiling, and then plug it in. However, in this case, will have to think carefully install ventilation. There are variations in which are combined into one and the heating and ventilation system. Such schemes are discussed below.

Air heating water heat exchanger units

Air heating water heat exchanger units

  • Water or steam air heating - is the most popular option, which is often chosen for residential buildings. It has already proved its efficiency, performance and reliability for heating private houses. Installation of this system is similar to conventional heating systems, in which hot water flows into the radiators. The difference lies in the fact that water or steam, which play the role of an intermediate heat transfer medium entering the heat exchanger special units equipped with fans, through which heated air is distributed throughout the room.
Heating of air may pass and centralized, e.g., with a special gas boiler

Heating of air may pass and centralized, e.g., with a special gas boiler

  • air heating Improvement is performed by means of heated gas or electric boiler air flows which are fed into the room by the air guide channel system equipped with fans and air cleaners.
The heated air from the boiler room on the paved highways airway delivered to the premises

The heated air from the boiler room on the paved highways airway delivered to the premises

The heated air enters the room through specially provided window or vents in the walls or ceilings, as well as the channels can be installed in an underground space along the external panoramic glass walls or have a large number of windows. Location channels will depend on the chosen heat distribution circuit.

It should be noted that the air heated by the gas equipment is the most economical one, since the heat medium heated by the heat exchanger surface heated by burning gas. This factor eliminates heat loss which occurs when the intermediary heating water in the water systems. Also excluded problems that often arise in the water heating operation - is leaking, corrosion of the outer and inner tubes, or even their defrosting.

Applicable circuit circulation of heated air

The air channel space heating, carried out by a gas or a solid fuel boiler, separated by the method of circulation of the air mass. There are several such schemes.

  • Heating with full recirculation.

The operating principle of this system lies in the passage of air from the room through the air-heating unit without adding it to the air in the street. By the same principle used by a regular heater, that is, takes the air masses from the room via the built-in fan circulates through a heat exchanger, heats and sends them back to the room.

Local air heating scheme with complete recirculation.

Local air heating scheme with complete recirculation.

1 &# 8212; Blue arrows - cooled air, due to its higher density goes down.

2 - Electric heater with built-in fan.

3 - Red arrows - streams of heated air.

If settling heating system with full recycling, the ventilation ducts is carried out separately, independently of it. In this case, the most commonly used ventilation system with natural circulation.

Air-heating units: types, specifications and pricesHow to equip a natural ventilation system in a private home?

Despite the fact that this system is considered to be the simplest, it is also subject to a number of mandatory rules, it requires a competent selection of equipment. With all the details about it - in a special article of our portal dedicated to the creation of natural ventilation in a private home.

  • partial recycle system.

In this case, the heating and ventilation can be connected into one system. It will work about as follows: - ventilation device produces air intake from outside, which then passes through air filters, air heating units, which it is heated. After that it gets to the fans, mixing it with retsirkuliyuschimi air masses in the room. Exhaust air slowly rises upwards towards the suction channel with a fan mounted therein, which is partially ejects it out.

air heating space diagram organized partial recirculation of air

air heating space diagram organized partial recirculation of air

1 &# 8212; Air mass takes away from the street.

2 - Cooled air, creating a partial recirculation of flow.

3 - Air filter.

4 - heater (heat generator or a heat exchanger).

5 - Supply fan operating at injecting air into the room.

6 - stream of heated air.

7 - The exhaust fan.

In this case, a flow of air from the outside can not worry, but be aware that the heater capacity should exceed the corresponding parameters of the hood, or the room just will not have time to warm up.

  • Ramjet heating

This option heating functions as follows:

&# 8212; The air coming from outside, is warmed in the heat exchanger of the ventilation system and passes through the fan into the premises;

&# 8212; Then, after passing through space to the opposite wall, and giving a "thermal charge", the air drawn into the exhaust duct and discharged to the outside.

One of the simplest schemes of combining air heating and ventilation. - co-current airflow with equal volumes Incoming and hoods.

One of the simplest schemes of combining air heating and ventilation. - co-current airflow with equal volumes Incoming and hoods.

1 - The air drawn from outside.

2 - Air purifying filter.

3 - heater or heat exchanger.

4 - Supply fan.

5 - The stream of heated air.

6 - Exhaust fan duct facing the street.

Air-heating temperature must be designed so that it can compensate for heat losses which occur through constructions. For example, if necessary to maintain the room temperature at 20 degrees, the air flow should be warm and have at the output 25 ÷ 30 degrees. The difference between the heated and the desired room temperature and is designed to compensate for heat loss.

In once-through the local system as the heaters are usually installed special air heating units.

Of all the schemes is such a different minimum efficiency. To remove this drawback, the system of "enriched" recovery loop.

  • Straight-through system with heat recovery.

The main distinguishing feature of this scheme - is the presence of a special device - the heat exchanger. It is arranged so that it occurs intersection cold air flow taken from outside and the heat discharged from the exhaust fan facilities.

Installing heat recovery dramatically increases the efficiency of air heating system connected to the ventilation system

Installing heat recovery dramatically increases the efficiency of air heating system connected to the ventilation system

The intersection of a purely "geometric" rather than literal - flows shares a special heat exchanger. As a result of this "contact" through heat exchanger plates, the flow of exhaust air can "share" with its warmth supply flow. Thus the air masses pass through the filter for the heating unit is already in a heated state. Therefore, for the final heating it requires less heat energy and hence energy costs. Savings in this case can be up to 30 ÷ 50% compared to conventional once-through system.

This diagram shows the air heating homes with partial recycling, recovery and ventilation.

This diagram shows the air heating homes with partial recycling, recovery and ventilation.

1 &# 8212; Fence cold air from outside.

2 &# 8212; Air from outside, gets in a partial heating of the recuperator (7).

3 - Air filter.

4 - Heater or air-heating heat exchanger.

5 - Supply fan, ensures the supply of air into the room. In addition, the second exhaust fan located in the recuperator or directly behind it. He removes the heated air, and passed through the room to the street, while providing heat in the heat exchanger.

6 - The heated air.

7 - Heat exchanger and located him exhaust vent.

As can be seen from the presented diagrams and descriptions of the mechanism of the system, it ventilation and heating are complex.

These schemes are a kind of basis for the development of air heating system for a particular home. So, they may well be some minor changes, but overall they help to understand the mechanism of such a comprehensive system.

The sequence of events on arrangement of air heating system

If after studying the information provided above has become clear about the principle of operation of air heating system, before turning to the necessary equipment, it is necessary to determine the sequence of actions.

Of course, the best option is to choose the type of heating system in advance when planning the construction of the house, to include it directly in the development of the project. But it is quite realistic to carry out the design and for the already completed project.

Stepwise conducting planning is as follows:

  • The first thing to do - is to determine the size of the area to be heated.
  • Then you need to make a calculation of the thermal power, which is necessary for a particular premises, and then the total - and for the entire building. This takes into account the mass of the criteria - the number of doors and windows, the material and thickness of the walls, the degree of thermal insulation, the climatic conditions of the region, especially the location of the building, etc. On the basis of calculations and the heater will be selected. we will introduce you to a few below with the algorithm calculation.
  • Next, you should determine the choice of a particular type of heating air system.
  • Thereafter, with reliance on plan home made development arrangement scheme, with the exact locations of the heating units, the size and placement of channels or pipes, supply and exhaust vents in short, to the preparation detailed installation drawings and specifications of parts required.

When all stages are complete, it will be clear which devices other than heat sources, and what materials will be required to carry out work on the installation of air heating. This process can be done on their own, but with no experience is likely to prevent a lot of mistakes. Better drafting and execution of installation work to professionals.

If the work is planned for yourself, then your design is still recommended to see a specialist, so they made an assessment of the project, to check the calculations and clarified the nuances. Mistakes can be very expensive if you have to redo some parts or even all of the air ducts or pipes with coolant.

100 watts per sq. mThe ceiling height in the roomto 2.7 m2.8 ÷ 3.0 m3.1 ÷ 3.5 m3.6 ÷ 4.0 mmore than 4.1 mThe number of external wallsnoonetwothreeThe outer walls are looking at: North, Northeast, East South, South-West, WestThe position of the outer wall with respect to winter "wind rose" - windward side - leeward - parallel to the direction of the windLevel negative air temperatures in the region in the coldest week of the year- 35 ° C and belowfrom - 30 ° C to - 34 ° Cfrom - 25 ° C to - 29 ° Cfrom - 20 ° C to - 24 ° Cfrom - 15 ° C to - 19 ° Cfrom - 10 ° C to - 14 ° Cnot colder - 10 ° CWhat is the degree of warming of external walls?Exterior walls are not insulatedThe average degree of insulationThe outer walls have a high-quality insulationThat is located at the bottom?Cold floor on the ground or above unheated roomsInsulated floor on the ground or above unheated roomsLocated below a heated roomThat is located on top?Cold attic or unheated and not heat-insulated roomWarmed attic or other premiseheated roomType installed windows Conventional wood frames with double glazing Windows with mono (2 glass) glass- Windows with triple (3 glasses) or glass-filled with argonThe number of windows in the roomThe window height, mWindow width, mDoor facing the street, or on a cold balcony: no one twoWill air heating system combined with ventilation? - No, the relationship is not planned - Yes, the need to incorporate additional heat output at a constant air flowThe exact ceiling height, mThe lower limit teperatury outside air, in which supply air is switched off, degreesThe planned number of air - half volume per hour - a one-time exchange per hour - one and a half hour in exchange - double exchange per hour
Explanations for the calculations

It often occurs Council to take the necessary heat output of 100 watts per square meter of room area. Let's face it - this technique is far from perfect as it does not take into account a number of important factors that directly or indirectly affect the amount of heat in the room. Now you will have a perfect case to verify this.

Thus, the user is prompted to enter the required parameters in the input fields:

  • Area in square meters. Immediately necessary to evaluate and ceiling height - the program will make the correction and to this circumstance.
  • You must specify the number of external walls in a room that is facing the street. The more, the greater the heat loss.
  • It plays its part and is where the outer walls look. If the south or south-west side of the building, even in winter receives significant heat potential from the sun, from the north side of this - really bad.
  • If there is such information, it is possible to take into account the prevailing direction of the winter wind. It is clear that located on the windward side of the wall will always be stronger than cool.
  • The next item asks you to specify which frosts are typical in your area for the coldest winter decade. Thus, the amendment will be made (very impressive) on climatic conditions. Important - minimal, but should be specified normal temperature, that is characteristic for almost every year. It is not necessary to delve into the mind that ten years ago, "pinned down to minus 30" - because these events are remembered and that are abnormal, and the calculation is from them - is incorrect.
  • Next comes a point where you want to assess the level of thermal insulation of walls. Under the fully insulated walls should understand, work on thermal insulation which is made in full on the basis of the conducted heat engineering calculations. Mid insulation - this, of course, vague criteria, but it is understood that the walls are made of or "warm material" (wood, brick foraminous two bricks, blocks 400 mm gas silicate, etc.), or a no insulation conducted, and winter frosts do not bring too much trouble. But the non-insulated walls in a house, in fact, there should not be. Taken for the establishment of any heating system in such conditions - it is simply throwing money away.
  • A considerable amount of heat loss falls on floors (floors, ceilings). Therefore, the following two points of data entry, with drop-down lists - assessment "neighborhood" space above and below.
  • Separate conversation - about the windows, because there are important and their type, and number and size. After you specify all of the data, the program will develop adequate correction factor for the presence and area of ​​windows.
  • Finally, the room can be the door (and sometimes &# 8212; not even one), which faces the street (or in unheated rooms), and which is regularly used. Naturally, this constant flow of cold air requires some compensation on the part of the heating system.

And now there is another nuance. We have already mentioned that the hot-air heating system is often combined with forced ventilation. Hence, the heating unit must cope not only with the completion of heat (they have already calculated), but with heating to a comfortable temperature outside air inlet volume.

There is a special formula that can calculate this "increase". But we will not give it - the calculator is provided and this subtlety. The user is prompted to select the path calculation.

  • If air heating system has nothing to do with forced ventilation, that if you choose this way of calculating (he, by the way, is the default), you can go directly to the "Calculate" button
  • If it is selected that the heating system is coordinated with fresh air ventilation automatically appears another group of data entry fields. They are few:

&# 8212; It is necessary to accurately set the height of the ceiling in the room

&# 8212; When severe frosts forced ventilation is usually severely limit or even temporarily overlap. The appropriate entry field must specify the temperature limit at which the outside air supply will be limited.

&# 8212; Finally, you must specify the number of air changes. Typically, a single exchange is calculated from the entire volume of air per hour, but there may be other circumstances.

After that - to the "Calculate" button. The result is displayed in watts and kilowatts, and it has already laid the necessary operational stocks.

Again, since this is important - such a calculation is performed for each room individually. By the way, it can help in the case if any of the rooms you plan to install a local heating system - you have a ready-made power value. But if the central unit is calculated, it is determined by summing the power, as mentioned above.

As selected air-heating unit

Basic structure of an air-heating unit

Electrical, water and steam heat generators - are devices that change the room temperature by heating and circulating air flows. They have simple, clear structure which, regardless of the model and size, comprises only a few basic parts and assemblies:

Approximately (with simplification) arranged most air heating units

Approximately (with simplification) arranged most air heating units

1 &# 8212; A heating element or heat exchanger. As it can be used heating elements, heating coils or electrical elements for the ceramic heaters, heat exchangers, water or steam.

2 &# 8212; Fan injects air flows, sending them through a heater or a heat exchanger in the direction of the room. Fans can seriously differ in their design. From their power and performance depends on the performance of the unit ..

3 &# 8212; Housing or console, which made the assembly of all structural elements.

4 - The front decorative panel if the heating unit is placed openly

5 - guides blinds intended to adjust the direction of air flow in a certain area of ​​the premises.

When the device flush mount bezel and blinds, certainly not - they provide appropriate adapters for ducts.

Apart from that, there are electric heaters control unit controls, which include switches, controllers, thermostats, sensors, switches modes, and other options. Depending on the functional saturation device.

Fans in any of the air heating units operate using the actuator. Thus, in any case, the system turns volatile.

Criteria for selection of the air-heating device

Before proceeding to a detailed consideration of the types and characteristics of these devices, it is necessary to determine the order to which you should pay special attention when choosing and purchasing.

  • Model type heat generator according to the principle of heat exchange, i.e. water, steam electric.
  • Device type of installation site - floor (usually only for local heating), wall and ceiling (may be selected for both local and centralized heating system).
  • Power unit - is selected relying on heat engineering calculations which were discussed above.
  • Performance - ie the ability to pump a certain amount per unit of time. Indicator, frankly, is not critical, but still it has a direct impact on the speed of the primary heating space.
  • machine functionality - is the presence of additional options, such as full or staged capacity control, thermostat (there are almost all), overtemperature protection, programmable modes of operation, ease of operation, etc.
  • Protection class if selected electric heaters for local heating - includes resistance to dust, moisture and corrosion.
  • construction of the body material - plastic or metal.
  • Form (elegant appearance) for openly spaced heaters, as well as the size and weight &# 8212; for hot-air heating units hidden installation.

Types of air heating units

It is important to understand that everything for air heating system at home, in principle you can use any heating appliance, having the power required for a particular building. This may be an electric heater or boiler operating on gas or any type of solid, liquid fuel, as well as conventional oven, to which are joined duct channels or water circuit. As mentioned above, it is preferable to choose a gas boiler embodiment. However, choosing this type of heating, in parallel with, or combine them together, you need to develop a ventilation system, otherwise the system will not be safe to use ..

Oven buleryan - its characteristic heat exchangers are ideally suited for air heating systems

Oven buleryan - its characteristic heat exchangers are ideally suited for air heating systems

Thus, according to the process air flow heating units can be divided by type heat exchangers - they may be electrical, water, steam, and the transmit heat directly from the heat exchanger or other gas boiler (furnace).

Units operating on electricity

Electrical devices are rarely used for central air heating (as in industrial environments, as well as in the private sector), as for this purpose there are a number of reasons:

  • For 1 kW of heat must be used at least 1 kW of electricity. Not every electric network is able to withstand such loads, and the property owner &# 8212; payment for such heating.
  • Another problem is the management of the heating process. Due to the fact that the work on the maximum load of the unit is needed very rarely, and for high power devices regulated smoothly, you need expensive equipment, so they usually use two or three-stage heating.

Therefore, electric heating devices often used in local heating systems for heating medium-sized or small-sized premises where no high powers are required.

Electric air-heating units AGE - large selection range of power and performance

Electric air-heating units AGE - large selection range of power and performance

As an example, we can reduce heating AGE appliances produced in Kazakhstan. They are made in six variants on a standard size, in the power range 3 ÷ 27 kW, and their productivity for the production of hot air is 450 ÷ 2900 t / h. Thus, such units are designed to heating area 30 to 150 m².

The heater in these apparatuses used heating element, made of steel pipe having aluminum fins on the outside, which greatly increases the heat transfer performance.

The unit is equipped with a control system and an axial blowing fan with aluminum impeller.

All components enclosed in a painted metal case, on the front side of which a lattice-shutters installed.

The table below shows the technical specifications of the products of this line of products «Juwent Kazakhstan» company:

Models agregataLineynye dimensions mmMoschnost heat transfer kVtProizvoditelnost air m³ / chTip ventilyatoraKol of revolutions / min.Massa kg
AGE -1-3502 × 300 × 2453450HXM-200130013
AGE -2-6502 × 365 × 2456850HXM-250130016
AGE -3-9502 × 465 × 25591450HXM- 300130019
AGE -4-12502 × 465 × 255121450HXM-300130021
AGE -5-18502 × 515 × 325182100FE031-4EQ140028
AGE -6-27502 × 575 × 375272900FE035-4EQ140034

It should, incidentally, be noted that the company also produces machines that are connected to the water or steam circuit.

Aggregates with a water heat exchanger circuit

Aggregates with a water circuit, or heater may be called the most popular, as they are the most economical one air heating. They are installed in industrial areas, as well as in private homes. 

The operating principle of air heating units with water heat exchanger

The operating principle of air heating units with water heat exchanger

The operating principle of air heating system at home this type is similar to a conventional water heating, in which the coolant warms up the boiler and sent through pipes to radiators.

In contrast, air heating operation is that the heat medium passes through the heat exchanger located in front of the heater, and an axial fan mounted behind it, as it pushes the accumulated heat in the body. Hot air comes into the room through a set on the front panel blinds that can be adjusted by directing the flow in the right direction.

Est heater circuit of the device with water heated air.

Est heater circuit of the device with water heated air.

Very popular water units for air heating Polish producer «Volcano». They are installed for home heating, greenhouses, garages, and industrial workshops and warehouses, picking, of course, the necessary power.

Devices can be set locally and heat a room or centralized, if the wiring is made of heating from the heating apparatus. «Volcano» are produced in a wide range of capacities, allowing you to select the desired option for a particular room.

Water-air heating unit «Volcano».

Water-air heating unit «Volcano».

These units have proven themselves only with the best hand as smoothly serve for a long time without repair, as well as in connection with the very democratic price.

Specifications range air-heating units «Volcano»:

Models «Volcano» Thermal power from and to air kVtRaskhod m³ / chMaks. range of air jet MFPCs of coolant in the air heater, the fan lMoschnost, VtMassa kg
V203 ÷ 202000141.051249.8
V255 ÷ 254800221.2532517.5
VR110 ÷ 305500251.748529
V4515 ÷ 464400221.9532519.5
VR230 ÷ 605200253.148532

The maximum coolant temperature in the heat exchanger of this apparatus may be up to 120 degrees, and the working pressure - up to 16 Bar.

coolant temperature in the heat exchanger device can be changed about the same as in heating radiators - via two-way-valve faucet.

coolant temperature in the heat exchanger device can be changed about the same as in heating radiators - via two-way-valve faucet.

Connecting these devices to the water circuit is performed using the two-way valve controlled by automation. This allows you to quickly and flexibly change the level of heating, to achieve good performance of energy saving ..

Units with steam circuit

Steam units operate on the same principle as the water, but the heat capacity of coolant at the outlet from them is much higher.

These devices are usually used in industrial applications where steam is produced for technical purposes, and is parallel to the heating system. The units may have different parameters for which they are selected and depending on the area to be heated.

Air-heating units of the Russian made SA line can run on water, and steam.

Air-heating units of the Russian made SA line can run on water, and steam.

JSC Russian units 2 &# 8212; is a range which is most often used in steam-air heating system, although they can also be installed in the water circuit.

Specifications AO 2 devices:

parameters agregatovAO2-3AO2-4AO2-5AO2-6,3AO2-10AO2-15AO2-20AO2-25
Air output m³ / h260040005000630010000150002000025000
Maximum power, kW24465573116170220.4306.2
Effective power, kW2547.75674117150170.3245
heat transfer agentWater / steamWater / steamWater / steamWater / steamWater / steamWater / steamWater / steamWater / steam
The temperature of the coolant inlet tmax150/70150/70150/70150/70150/70150/70150/70150/70
The air velocity at the outlet, m / s4.24.44.85.35.86.06.85.5
The temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the unit tmax51.651.851.851.350.8504952
Power consumption at nominal air capacity, kW0.250.370.370.550.750.752.72.7
Mass, kg6590100115155180245270

JSC Russian units 2 have a higher capacity, compared with the Polish instruments, which greatly increases their efficiency, but also causes problems with adjustment of heating the coolant, condensate-return process, as well as the operational life of the unit.

Boilers for heating air

special boilers, or any other, with some elements of the reconstruction is used for heating air in an air-heating system. That is what many homeowners, decided to alter the traditional heating system in its air option. To understand the difference between such boilers, it is necessary to consider the scheme of operation of the device installed in the hot-air heating.

Roughly the organized operation of the boiler in the air heating system

Roughly the organized operation of the boiler in the air heating system

In a simplified embodiment scheme of an air-heating unit is as follows:

  • Mounted in the boiler blower blows air from the premises where the boiler or in the street. It is better if the air will come from the street, or in the boiler have to organize a good ventilation system.
  • Air enters the boiler chamber within which is completely insulated from it, the heat exchanger - which, incidentally, may be furnaces and furnace chamber, for solid or liquid fuel. The cold air hitting the space of the chamber is heated by the heat emanating from the heat exchanger.
  • Next, the heated air is directed to the wiring channels, feeding it into the room. Through the installation of the fan of hot air flow in the pipeline increases.
  • To create sufficient thrust in the fuel chamber, in the aggregate it provides a special opening, analog ash in the furnace, for sucking fresh air. Ash-pit hole must be provided with a door with adjustable louvers that can help create the necessary thrust for normal combustion and removal of combustion products.
  • The products of combustion from the fuel chamber is output from a fully insulated chimney outside.
Another embodiment of a boiler for heating air

Another embodiment of a boiler for heating air

  • In some designs, the combustion chamber may be located at the bottom of the unit. Retraction of combustion products therefrom through a branched pipe system, passing through the space, where from them, as well as from overlapping the combustion chamber of the metal plate is heated cold air supplied by the fan, which is then also supplied to the channel system for the heating of rooms.
  • With this structure, maintenance of normal combustion occurs due to the primary air entering the combustion chamber via a special channel through a door, which can be used to regulate its intensity.
  • For the removal of hot air to the boiler may be connected one channel to the further wiring of the rooms, or several, which will take direct and guide the heated air flow in the desired direction.
The boiler is connected whole

The boiler is connected whole "bouquet" of air ducts, each of which is responsible for the separate room

I must say that this type of heating is completely safe for the residents. Even if a leak is formed in the pipe, it is not threatened by any "disasters". Well, except that slightly reduced heating power in this area.

As an example of such a specific technology can be considered specifically designed for air heating of private homes and cottages line units "Lennox G61MPVT », running on natural gas or LPG (made in USA). 

It looks like a gas boiler for heating air «Lennox G61MPVT-60C-110.

It looks like a gas boiler for heating air «Lennox G61MPVT-60C-110." But for the modest exterior lie great opportunities

Boilers of this series capable of providing air flows both upwards and downwards, and from left to right and vice versa. In addition, the heating system, heated by the unit "lennox G61MPVT"You can add electronic filters, duct air conditioners, air cleaners and humidifiers. All these elements turn the heating system in a full-fledged climate that will create a comfortable atmosphere in the house, regardless of the time of year, not only maintaining the optimum temperature, but also humidity, and air quality.

boilers "lennox G61MPVT"Equipped with the function of two-stage heat exchanger has two - primary and secondary. The boiler burner installed steel coated with aluminum, and arranged avtopodzhig flame sensor, is provided for an additional exhauster fan and an electronic control unit kiln functions. In order to increase the efficiency of use of the heat generated, the housing is equipped with thermal insulation foil of mineral wool, whereby the boiler efficiency is 93%.

Ruler units «Lennox G61MPVT» includes four models with the following technical parameters:

Name parametraG61MPVT-36B-070G61MPVT-60C-090G61MPVT-60C-110G61MPVT-60D-135
Output in kW17.917.931.035.7
Linear dimensions446 × 724 × 1016 533 × 724 × 1016533 × 724 × 1016622 × 724 × 1016
Mass, kg68828594
Natural gas consumption, m³ / h2.2 ÷ 4.53.7 ÷ 7.43.8 ÷ 7.65.2 ÷ 10.35
The pressure in the gas manifold (natural gas), kPa0,42 ÷ 0,870,42 ÷ 0,870,42 ÷ 0,870,42 ÷ 0,87
Power conditioning system that is compatible with the gas stove kW10.512.6515.717.6

A brief review of several models of air-heating units

The table provided below are some popular models of devices designed for home heating with hot air. Here you can get acquainted with their characteristics and learn the approximate level of prices in Russia.

Appearance agregataNazvanie heating unit, its main technical harakteristikiStoimost model in rubles (in May 2017)
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices«Nordyne G6RX120» - US production of the boiler is designed to operate in air heating systems of private houses. In addition, the unit can be used for heating of industrial premises with a suitable area.
The device is quite compact and can be mounted both vertically and horizontally.
Powered boiler for natural gas and LPG and has an efficiency of - 80%.
Useful power is 28.1 kW power -240 V, linear dimensions of 571 × 533 × 950 mm size of the chimney 105 mm, unit weight 70 kg.
This device can be installed in combination with electronic filters, ducted air conditioners and humidifiers. «Nordyne G6RX120» includes a fan for the heat exchanger made from steel and coated with aluminum, and a fan for forced exhauster.
The unit has an electronic monitoring and control unit, sensors that turn off when damping gas burners or lack of air. With a lack of capacity of the boiler, it can be combined with any other device.
95000 ÷ 110000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices«Goodman GMS91005D» - this unit is manufactured in the United States, is designed to be installed in the system with air heating, running on natural gas and LPG.
Device relates to channel type and has a closed combustion chamber. Due to the fan is provided with forced air.
The unit can be used both for heating private houses and cottages, as well as administrative buildings, service stations, offices, etc. 
Boiler efficiency is 93%, the effective power of 27.3 kW, the flue gas temperature is nominally 35 ÷ 55˚S, and the maximum - 70 ° C.
The unit can be mounted both vertically and horizontally, it operates noiselessly through deliberate insulation body and suspension spring, which is fixed on the fan.
The device is equipped with an electronic control board, which allows you to diagnose errors in the work. In addition, the device has an increased vibration, which ensures stable operation of automation.
137000 ÷ 150000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices"KEV-60M5W1" - this device (heater), Russian-made for water-air heating systems in public and private buildings.
The unit has an elegant plastic housing of gray color, that allows to install it in the interior of a living room with a modern design.
"KEV-60M5W1" is assigned to the degree of protection against dust and moisture IP 44, it is equipped with a thermostat, adjustable angle of rotation, the emergency water discharge system and a fan.
In addition, the heater has three modes of operation - without heating, at 50 and 100%, three motor speed.
Calculated device to work at an external temperature of -10 to +40 degrees. Included with the thermal fan is a mounting bracket and control panel.
Technical characteristics of the device: power - 60 kW, the airflow rate - 7,000 m³ / h, the linear dimensions - 880 × 555 × 780 mm, power consumption - 420 W, the noise level 59 dB, the air outlet temperature from 2 to 26 degrees, the jet length air is 25 m, weight of the device without water 28,2 kg.
20000 ÷ 22000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices«AERMAX A30 15-30kW» - water heat fan manufactured in Germany, is a reliable device for air heating system.
Elegant appearance and color of the unit allows it to fit in the room with any design.
Additionally, AERMAX A30 15-30kW has a fairly compact size, which is 730 × 765 × 385 mm.
Other technical characteristics: maximum flow of 6150 m³ air / h, the maximum flow temperature of 105 degrees, the noise level of 55.6 dB, the length of the air jet is 25 m, the amount of coolant in the heat exchanger of 1.8 liters, its weight without coolant 21 kg, protection class motor from dust and moisture IP 54, the power up to 30 kW.
33000 ÷ 34000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices"KEV-40T3.5W3" - the water heater of Russian production is intended for installation in a variety of industrial areas with low dustiness, administrative buildings, as well as in private homes and cottages.
It has a neat appearance and a pleasant light gray color.
The bracket device is equipped with swing-tilting mechanism which allows the housing to direct into the desired area of ​​the room.
The unit is equipped with a thermostat, three modes of heat and air flow, in commercially available bundled with the bracket and the control panel.
Technical characteristics of the device: linear dimensions exclude krepleniy- 480 × 365 × 410 mm, the air flow rate for various operating modes of 800, 1200 and 1600 m³ / h and the heat capacity depending on the temperature of the coolant (water or steam) from 8 to 22 kW noise level 47 dB, the air temperature at the outlet of the heater is between 29 to 55 degrees, the effective length of the isothermal jets 12 m, without coolant unit weight - 18.5 kg.
18000 ÷ 20000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices«VENTS AOB 30 TSDC" - Ukraine water production unit, intended for heating and cooling air, which is distributed by a fan on the room isothermal flow up to 12 m.
Just like other similar devices can be used for heating various structures with a suitable area.
The steel casing of the device having a polymer coating, a fan is mounted and an aluminum heat exchanger. The maximum temperature of the coolant for the unit is 100 degrees.
Other technical parameters: the linear dimensions of the device - 680 × 655 × 360 mm, capacity - up to 30 kW, the noise level of 55 dB, the degree of protection of the housing from dust and moisture IP 44, the weight of the unit without coolant - 40 kg.
27900 ÷ 31000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices"AO2P" - a machine, manufacture Russian heats air using hot water or steam passing through the heat exchanger.
The temperature of the coolant for the machine must not exceed 180 degrees.
The manufacturer produces a line of models with different parameters - it AO2-4P, AO2-6,3P, AO2-10P, AO2-20P, AO2-25P, AO2-50P above, but for heating private houses will be enough AO2-3P, AO2-4P having linear dimensions 720 × 755 × 810 and 835 × 920 × 1010 mm.
Values ​​of device characteristics also vary: air output 2600 ÷ 6000 m³ / hr of heat capacity from 16 to 400 kW depending on the type 9b and the coolant temperature), the mass is between 70 and 820 kg. 
Since the steam machines are not as in demand as the water, the manufacturer usually produces them on order.
24000 ÷ 25000
Air-heating units: types, specifications and prices«Wolf LH» - is a water heaters made in Germany, which are designed for air heating and ventilation of public buildings and private homes.
Devices are available in four sizes, so one can choose the most suitable for a particular area. For private homes rather fit the smallest of manufactured heaters Wolf LH - is the LH-25 and LH-40 with the linear dimensions of 500 × 300 × 455 and 630 × 630 × 475 mm.
Specifications: capacity from 4.8 kW to 20, air flow 2100 and 3500 m³ / h Noise level 54 dB ÷ 60, the heat exchanger has a volume of 0.7 and 1.0 L, the degree of protection IP54 dust and moisture, the length isothermal heat the air jets 15 m, weight 28 and 32 kg.
The devices can be operated from the boiler or electricity, to be mounted on a wall or ceiling.
57000 ÷ 83000

Recommendations for installation of air heating units

If the unit is in power and performance is chosen correctly, the second important point for efficient and safe operation of the heating system is a high-quality installation of all the elements included in its structure.

First of all, it should be noted that the installation work on the installation of boilers and stoves, fueled by natural gas or LPG, as well as electrical appliances must be performed exclusively professionals who have appropriate security clearance. Therefore, if there is no concept of the safety of the work, as well as relevant experience in this business, it is necessary to entrust to professionals holding this process.

However, information on some of the nuances of the installation of the heating system, do not put at least to maintain control over the work of masters:

  • If you select a system that will run on electricity, any of the units of this type has a capacity of not less than seven kilowatts, and these devices are connected to the network is not less than 380 V. To connect these devices to the home institution a three-phase line, and the work must a qualified electrician with a tolerance of working with such intensity.
  • Gas equipment is installed only by specialists. Therefore, the wiring channels through which heated air will disperse through the rooms, you can make your own to connect the boiler, or even after it is installed, but only when he is in the off position.
  • It is important to check whether the fan, discharge air from the room or the street, protective grille. If it does not, it must be purchased separately and installed on the inlet. If the air will be taken from the street, and the fan will not be protected from being hit by large objects, such as a rail or a branch (and it is - it is quite possible), it may be damaged not only the impeller, but even blocks of the heating unit. It turns out that saving on the little things, have to shell out more money to repair or purchase of a new heater. Typically, the protective grille is included in the equipment supplied, but check - yet does not interfere.
Wiring channels for the air is required to

Wiring channels for the air is required to "dress" in the insulation layer - this would prevent unnecessary losses of energy, and the system will run quieter.

  • For thermally conductive wiring channels, it is necessary to use only pipes made of galvanized steel, which put in a layer of insulating material. Insulation will help to keep the air temperature in the pipes close to the original, longer and, therefore, will be saved fuel.
  • You can not select the air guide channel arrangement for plastic pipes, as they will not withstand high temperatures. Furthermore, on their surface, due to the guidance of static electricity may accumulate dust.
  • If water is set air heating system to transport the hot water pipe to the fan heaters are selected to withstand the maximum coolant temperatures to which it can heat the selected heating boiler. For such a system suitable conventional polypropylene pipes for hot water heating, of course, appropriate quality and shelf label for high temperatures.
When installing the device on selected locations in the account must be taken of manufacturers recommendations for installation products

When installing the device on selected locations in the account must be taken of manufacturers recommendations for installation products

  • Installation heaters operating in the air heating system water from the boiler should be at least 300 mm from the wall. This is due to the fact that between the wall and the device, at the rear of which is mounted a fan, forcing the air must be free air space, or may happen overheating actuator.

Now, to understand with what types of units for air heating, there are and how they work, it will be easier to choose, both the system and the devices for its assembly. Criteria for evaluation of this article lists, and they can only add to the issue price and the financial viability of their own - as we have seen, should such equipment very much.

And at the end of the publication - a traditional video clip dedicated to the advantages of hot-air heating system "Antares Comfort".

Video: Warm and quiet - efficient heating system "Antares Comfort"

How to make electric floor heating under the tiles with their hands

How to make electric floor heating under the tiles with their hands

It is difficult to imagine furnish the modern home or apartment without the use of ceramic tiles. Its unique properties - strength, high hygiene, water resistance, ease of cleaning, excellent decorativeness and others, make such a material is extremely popular, particularly in environments with high humidity levels or high loads on the abrasive coating. For floors in kitchens, bathrooms, bathrooms, in bath rooms, probably nothing is better not to think of.

How to make electric floor heating under the tiles with their hands

How to make electric floor heating under the tiles with their hands

But there is one drawback - ceramic floor refers to the "cold" category, and with the onset of winter walk on it barefoot or in light house shoes becomes quite uncomfortable. And it's great that such a flaw in our time easily troubleshoot installation surface of the floor heating system. This process operation - is quite complex, but it seems quite feasible for any good host at home or apartment. So, how to make an electric floor heating under the tiles with their hands - we are all discussed in detail in this publication.

Why electric?

Modern technology offers owners of houses or apartments are two basic approaches - is the creation of a system of water heating floor surface, tied to the main heating system, and the organization of the electric "warm floor" of several types. In both cases the "Heated floor" under the tiles can be regarded either as a main source of heat in the room, or only as effective means of improving comfort.

At first glance, the optimal solution becomes heated water - both more economical in terms of energy costs. Perhaps this view is also fueled by the "hope" that the contours of the pipe connected to the risers quite central or autonomous heating system - and it will work. Alas, not all so simple - coming a very large-scale works, which can be complicated and even administrative problems for obtaining permission to create such a heating system.

2016-06-10_111225Warm water from the floor heating - a very challenging task!

Use central heating as an energy source to create water "warm floor" - a complex, and sometimes even completely impossible task. What are the challenges faced wishing to be make radiant floor heating by, and what are the possible solutions - read the special publication of our portal.

For many electrical items "warm floor" look much more attractive than water:

  • Water circuits, even the highest quality and flawless assembly - it is still a certain risk of leakage of coolant. The electric floors, it is clear that this is not even considered.
  • Most of the technologies of laying water "warm floor" requires a massive concrete screed - a very time-consuming operation, requiring a lot of time and effort. In addition, this tie is becoming a very large additional burden on the overlap. Some floors also require electric screed, but its thickness is already much smaller. And besides, many heating electrical permit and does dispense with screed.
  • Installation of pipe circuits - incomparably more difficult than the layout of the heating cables or mats.
  • Electric floor heating does not require complicated and cumbersome collector and mixing equipment. All limited to a compact control unit which, by the way, opens the possibility of a much more fine adjustment modes.
Even by its dimensions

Even by its dimensions "control group" of water and electrical "warm floor" &# 8212; absolutely not comparable. Not to mention the ease of installation and operation ...

  • Which is especially important for apartment dwellers - the creation of an electrical system "warm floor" is quite feasible initiative of any owner, without having to go through the tedious approval procedures and obtain a permit. The only condition - is to remain within the limits of the allotted limit power consumption (at home or apartment is necessary up to 15 kW) - but go beyond that is difficult even theoretically.

Electricity, however, is the most expensive, but a reasonable approach, high-quality thermal insulation and well-regulated system, under floor heating it is possible to achieve high efficiency.

The difference in the temperature distribution in the room when using the

The difference in the temperature distribution in the room when using the "warm floor" and a conventional radiator heating

Resulting eventually heated floor will contribute the most optimal distribution of heat in the room - with the maximum temperature at the bottom and its gradual decrease with increasing distance from the floor. Furthermore, ceramic tile, yielding "thermal charge", it has a property to accumulate and gradually transferred to the air, which also contributes to the smooth, the most economical operation of the system, minimizing the number of its inclusions.

What you first need to provide and perform before installing electric "warm floor"?

There are several types of electric underfloor heating systems. Each of the species is certainly involves own particular installation technology. However, there are a number of common requirements, and related preparatory operations, and to the choice of the necessary set of tools and equipment.

  • Floors should have the necessary degree of thermal insulation. expensive electricity will be completely unreasonable to spend on heating the cold floors, especially if located below the ground or unheated space. "Warm floor" should be laid on insulated base. The only exception may be the case when the bottom is situated a heated room, and large heat losses are anticipated. Still, generally and in this situation it is recommended to use a thin insulating material with a reflective coating foiled.
  • It should never be any style "Heated floor" on a surface which does not differ integrity and flatness, especially, it is assumed that the top flooring tiles, requiring stable base. If the old surface has a significant height differences, roughness, cracks, cracks in the corners, if marked, loose, unstable areas and other defects, then it should start with the repair base, usually expressed as a solid fill leveling screed. At the same time, if necessary, can be carried out insulation work.

2016-06-10_130752The floor surface for heating system installation should be smooth!

Universal method leveling floors is pouring concrete screed - about the intricacies of this process can be found in a special article of our portal. And another publication will deal with how to perform the Insulated screed with expanded clay.

  • To connect the electrical heating elements, stacked in a "warm floor" in advance provides a dedicated power line, which is best "tie" to your own machine and retrofitted protection device - RCD. In advance and determine the place of connection "warm floor", ie the placement point of the thermostat - it is here and should come the power line. Often for rooms with high humidity setting thermostatic control unit is provided in the next room (corridor), so that it is freely convenient access.
  • As practice shows, often acquire a thermostatic control unit with temperature sensor may have to - it is rare, he immediately included "warm floor". Do not worry - almost all of these blocks have uniform sizes and are designed for installation in standard podrozetnik. But it is possible to select the device on your own - from the most simple, inexpensive, with motorized adjustment, to more modern, with digital display, push-button or touch controls and programmable operating modes.
Despite the difference in the complexity of your device, practically all thermostatic control units are designed for installation in standard socket rosette

Despite the difference in the complexity of your device, practically all thermostatic control units are designed for installation in standard socket rosette

Signal cable length temperature sensor must be sufficient for the intended control unit installation space, especially if the installation is planned in the next room.

  • Since the assumed electrical work should prepare the appropriate tool. You will need to cut the wires to strip insulation from the ends, and that the bare fate - or pressed into the copper lugs, or qualitatively tinning using a soldering iron. For insulation need insulating tape, but better - shrink tubing. It is not necessary to hope that the segments "shrinking" is often included "warm floor" - to provide reasonable own stock. If there is a hair dryer building, it will greatly facilitate the operation of the warm-closed "shrink" sections of circuits.

And in the course of installation, and especially on its completion, before starting, you need to control the accuracy and reliability of the switch, matching the circuit parameters passport indicators. In this case, it is difficult to do without the tester - a multimeter. It is better to buy it right away - it costs less expensive, and in the household it is often in use.

To control a switched electric circuit required Multimeter

To control a switched electric circuit required Multimeter

  • Finally, the installation of electric underfloor heating and will be followed by construction works. To indent recess for laying wires or temperature sensor will need shlifmashinka- "Bulgarian" with a circle of stone, or a hammer. Some types of underfloor heating demand screed - it also requires a special tool. Since our final goal - to lay ceramic tiles to the floor, do not dispense with "Arsenal" for this operation: toothed spatula, a mixer for mixing glue rollers and brushes for priming a surface, the level control for correctly laying etc.

Fully understand what kind of tool is required in a particular case, it will be possible after reading the description of the installation work with different types of electric "warm floor".

The installation of electrical floor heating under the tiles

"Warm floor" with the heating cable

The main types of heating cables

This kind of electrical "warm floor" refers to the use of the heating cable. He expanded on the surface in a certain order, and then close the top coupler, which later became the basis for the installation of ceramic tiles.

There are three main types of heating cables for this purpose:

  • Single-core cables. As is clear from the title, is hidden under the insulation is only one wire, which also will serve and guide, and a heating element. For this purpose, a high resistance conductor having the ability to fast resistive heating. In fact - it's the same length of the "spiral" in the insulation, which is used in other heating devices.

In such cables attracts only low price. But here their installation may cause some difficulties. To complete the circuit loop cable will spread so that both ends of the bay converged at one point - at the installation site of the control unit. It seems to be - not terrible, but in practice it happens when the size of the room or close its special configuration makes this task extremely difficult, and sometimes - even not solvable. The fact that the rule must be met - under no circumstances heating cable loops must not overlap each other.

The principal difference in the structure of the solid core, twisted pair cables and a self-regulating semiconductor (downward)

The principal difference in the structure of the solid core, twisted pair cables and a self-regulating semiconductor (downward)

  • With two-core cable is already much easier - they have two conductors. The role of the heater can play both or one becomes a heat source, and the second is used only to complete the circuit. In any case it is necessary contact coupling, wherein the two conductors are wired together at the cable end.

Laying of the cable is not difficult, as to the connection point is supplied only one end, and then where would be the second, with a clutch - no longer has any value.

Both cable &# 8212; resistive action, that is, they are heated simultaneously and uniformly throughout its length, and adjusting the heat is produced exclusively on and off the power to the thermostatic control unit.

  • More perfect is an innovative self-regulating cable, in which the metal wires perform exclusively the role of conductors, and heating is due to the semiconductor array located Mezhuyev wires. End structure performs only the insulation role, as the two wires are not connected to each other. The flow of electric current is over the entire length of the cable through the matrix, which has very interesting property. In the cold state the conductivity reaches a maximum, so there is rapid heating. But as the temperature increases the conductivity decreases, and when it reaches a certain limit heating semiconductor virtually completely "locked." Moreover, this phenomenon can be traced to each individual section of the cable - so there is self-regulation process.

This gives a very sensitive energy saving effect - the cable will not consume more than he needed for heating to a certain temperature. In addition, it eliminates the possibility of overheating.

Such products yet are quite expensive, so did not get too widespread, but their time, for sure - ahead. In the meantime, the best option for the combination of affordable prices and convenient stacking can be called a two-wire resistive version, which are and will continue to talk.

Any cables, in addition to its "working" part, are also normal connection wire, which is not heated in the work, and is exclusively for switching. Such wires (usually referred to as "cold ends") are connected with the heating part of a special clutch. The other end is free - and it is connected to the corresponding terminals of the thermostatic control unit.

What was the scheme to lay the cable, and how much it is needed?

Work on the creation of a "warm floor" is always preceded by a circuit layout drawing of the heating elements.

We have already mentioned that the resistor cable is heated uniformly along its entire length, and it is an important circumstance eliminates many difficulties. Thus, if during installation water circuits necessary to use fairly complicated circuit - "snail", "Snake double" or "dual cochlea" and the like, which is caused by the progressive loss of heat as the distance from the collector tube, in our case - all much easier. The main thing - to ensure uniform heat distribution over the heated area, that is to choose the right step laying - the distance between the adjacent loops of cable.

In drawing up the layout of the circuit is required to take into account several important points:

EXAMPLE circuit layout of the heating cable

EXAMPLE circuit layout of the heating cable

  • Place setting the thermostat (item 1). - in principle arbitrary, but not less than 300 mm from the floor level of the future (based poured screeds and ceramic tiles to be laid). Very often it is placed on the same level with switches - get a general "ensemble". In any case, space must be such as to provide visual and control, and fast access to the device. Do not cover the remote control unit what else - furniture, carpets, curtains, etc.
  • Temperature sensor at its normal signal line (pos. 2) should stay exactly in the center of the cable loop, and the distance from the wall of about 500 ÷ 600 mm.
  • In the diagram, after laying a cable, it should be noted died out and the point at which the clutch will - connecting (3 pos.) At the transition to the "cold end" to the heating cable, and the end (4 pos.).
  • Never made cabling at sites (pos. 5), where the planned installation of stationary furniture (sofas, cupboards, cabinets, etc.), or household appliances (washing machines, refrigerators). Cable heat generated must be constantly discharged, otherwise it is possible overheating and failure of the whole system, and large items locally violate normal heat exchange floor and room air.

This requirement can be ignored only when laying self-regulating cable - overheating it is not terrible at all. However, does it make sense to spend the expensive cable in areas where heating is not needed "by default"?

  • When the layout of the cable the edge of its hinges on either side must be separated from the walls by at least 50 mm (pos. N). If set stationary heating device (radiator, convector oven, a fireplace or even simply passes the heating pipe), then this distance is increased at least up to 100 mm.
  • Mentioned rule of the categorical prohibition of crossing cables in the scheme of laying, even with the diversity of their height in the thickness of the screed!
  • The most convenient way to lay the heating cable is fixed on the special mounting bracket (pos. 6). Their necessary length for each specific location is also prompts prepared scheme.
  • It is believed that for the most comfortable floor heating is necessary to "close" the heating cables about 75% of the total floor space.

Cable acquired, usually as a finished product, that is certain the meter, but with already established transition and terminals. There are self-installation technology such couplings, but this requires some skill and special electrical work accuracy.

The length is calculated from the requirements of the space in the thermal energy per unit area (Ps, W / m²) and the specific heat capacity of selected cable (ores of). This value is always specified in the specifications on the product (W / m).

The required amount of heat Ps It may be taken as:

Features of the premises and planned operation of heating systems "warm floor" is considered as the main source of heating "warm floor" is created only to improve comfort
Paul "on the ground" or above unheated rooms180 W / m²130 W / m²
Paul over the heated room150 W / m²110 W / m²

Thus, the required length of the cable is easy to calculate by the following relationship:

Lc = S × Ps / ores of

Where S, Accordingly, the area in which the cable will be laid.

2016-06-10_194257Experiencing difficulties with the calculation of the area? We come to the rescue!

It happens that the land on which will be posted "warm floor", are taking very intricate configuration. No trouble - they can be divided into several simpler shapes (rectangles, trapezoids, triangles) and then sum the values ​​obtained. Fast calculate the area of ​​the room even for the most difficult cases, help article from our website, which, incidentally, are placed very handy calculator.

To calculate the required length of the cable allows the calculator placed below:

A calculator for calculating the heating cable length for the "warm floor"

 Enter the requested value and specify the planned functionality "underfloor heating".
Then click "Calculate the length of the heating cable"Purpose floor heating - a warm floor - a main heating in the room - a warm floor is needed to improve the comfort of the roomFeatures of the location of the room 1 - on the ground floor or above unheated rooms - the floor of the heated roomFeatures of the room layout 2 - on the ground floor or above unheated rooms - the floor of the heated roomThe calculated area of ​​the heating cable laying (m²)Passport value of the specific heat capacity of selected heating cable (W / m)

The calculated value allows you to choose the store closest the parameters set finished cable or acquiring it by the meter - if you plan to self-installation "cold ends" and insulating sleeves (this approach &# 8212; not welcome).

There are situations where the calculation carried out for a spacious room gives the length of the cable that pick set is simply impossible. As a way out - it's breaking the room into two (or more) zone, with independent heating circuits. However, each will have to provide a separate thermostat unit.

After the desired cable length has been acquired left finally reach its stacking scheme, which requires to compute the increment value (the diagram - a «D» letter). It is calculated by the following formula:

The length of the selected set of the heating cable (m)

If the stacking step is obtained over 300 mm, it may appear "zebra effect" - a clear alternation of hot strips on the floor. So, you will have to buy a few more cable length.

Now everything is ready for the final preparation of the scheme laying "warm floor". It is best to perform to exact scale, and in the process constantly have on hand.

When the circuit is ready, all the materials and tools - available, you can proceed to translate the project into reality.

Carrying out installation work

An example will be examined step by step process of laying floor heating cable on a prepared base insulated.

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
kb2To begin with - once again check the items below:
1 original packaging;
2 - a passport, which is usually applied, and detailed installation instructions. It should advance to thoroughly examine - in a particular model may have their own nuances.
3 - two-core heating cable in the bay.
4 - "cold end". Him when absolutely necessary, it is possible to build up a wire of the same cross-section, with a thorough insulation compounds, but better, of course, do "staff" length.
5 - Polymer corrugated pipe for laying the temperature sensor with the signal cable.
6 - assembly of a metallic belt plate - is cut to the desired size of the installation. 
7 - cap stub.
kb4As already mentioned, have to separately buy your favorite model of the thermostatic switch and control unit, complete with temperature sensor.
kb3Example of finished stacking scheme, made in the scale on lined paper - very convenient for installation purposes.
kb6To start preparing a slot for installation of the thermostatic unit.
To do this, the selected point is drilled crown nest under standard podrozetnik.
About the height of its installation - as described above.
kb7From the cut nest vertical line is drawn down - until it intersects with the floor surface.
It will be the benchmark for cutting indent, 20 × 20 mm in cross-section - it will hide the mounting "cold end" and a pipe with a temperature sensor.
You can provide a way to fix the cables at once - for example, to fix the cut in a few indent wire or plastic straps - they will help later to pull the cables and tubing in a neat bun.
kb8The next step is carried out a thorough cleaning of the premises of small debris.
If disposal is a powerful vacuum cleaner building, then it is useful to take advantage of it.
kb9The next step - a thorough priming the concrete floor surface.
This is usually used deep penetration compositions - it gives excellent effect of dust removal of the surface and is guaranteed to create a good grip ties with the foundation of the future.
kb10Although in the present embodiment, the floor has a thermal insulation, good supplement to it will foil insulation, reflective layer laid to the side of the room.
The reflection of heat flow up required subsequently affect the efficiency "underfloor heating".
kb11The strips of foil material are stacked tightly butt.
Line joints are glued special foiled tape.
kb13In accordance with scheme cut mounting bracket.
They have holes, and secure the strap on the floor surface using dowels or screws simply - the problem will not be.
These strips will not experience any significant loads - they only need to layout and fixing of the cable to his screed.
Step installation planks - arbitrary in the range of 0.5 to 1 meter.
kb14Work with mounting plate - very convenient, but in some cases, have to give them. For example, the floor structure such that the base surface closely adjacent waterproofing layer, and break it punching - is strictly forbidden.
In this case there is another convenient approach - on the basis of fiberglass reinforcing mesh blanketed with large cells (50 × 50 mm or more). 
Cable during installation can be tied up to the net, and she also will serve to strengthen ties finish.
Steel reinforcing mesh is not recommended - just for safety reasons, as the electrical cable with high voltage and fittings - not the best "neighborhood".
kb15You can proceed to the laying of the cable.
Start with fixing in the region of the coupling.
Once estimated remaining length "cold end"So that it with a margin enough to switch on the terminal block of the thermostatic unit, without stretching and completely excluding the intersection with the heating portion of the cable.
Usually "cold end" accurately positioned along the wall - it can be hidden in the gap between the wall and the layer of insulation foil.
kb17"Drawing" layout is constantly checked against the schema.
Fixing the cable to the mounting plate is made with the help of available to them is bent "mustache".
In the case of the mesh - the cable is tied thereto using, for example, plastic puffs. 
The main objective - to ensure that the cable is laid down precisely by the planned scheme, and loops are not bristled up, so it did not prevent further screed.
kb18Rounding laying process reliable fixation of the sleeve end.
kb19Cut off the desired length of corrugated pipe, and it is introduced gently sensor.
kb20The sensor itself must necessarily reach the opposite end of the flutes, which is then closed immediately available to complete a stub.
This plug will not allow the solution to get into the tube by pouring screed.
kb21The finished corrugated with the sensor fixed end plugged strictly in the middle between the two threads cable paralleno them, so that the probe appeared at approximately 500 mm from the bending laid cable loop.
The free end of the corrugated tube - is put in a slotted indent in the wall and extends until it nests under thermostat setting.
It is very important to prevent crease of the tube - its bending radius should be less than 50 mm.
kb22After that, once placed in the indent and "Holon end".
Often, in the same channel and are suitable to thermostatic power supply wire 220 V.
All wires and Corrugated neatly collected in "pigtail" - in indent for this have already been fixed clamps.
After that it is possible to immediately close up the channel with wires rasvorom construction (cement, gypsum - depending on the type of wall finish and estimated future).
kb23Before proceeding to further operations, be sure to test the electrical parts for correct switching function and safety.
Prozvanivatsya tester cable and Gaugeable its total resistance - this figure should not deviate significantly from passport characteristics.
Preferably on the same stage to ensure insulation reliability - but to fathom its resistance is possible only with the use of Megger, and he is not at all (maybe we should still invite electrician?) 
Then switching is performed on the wiring terminal block thermostat (according to the enclosed scheme).
When cutting the wires in their desired size of the stripped ends recommended immediately proludit or copper crimp lugs.
After the switching can try to connect the mains supply and make a trial run, but only short-term, just 40 - 60 seconds. This time should be enough for it to make sure the functionality of the control unit, and the cable will be clear signs of heat.
After that, the system is completely de-energized. And that is guaranteed to eliminate even the accidental activation, the best solution would be to do again to dismantle the thermostat unit and remove it to the full completion of all construction and installation work.
His subsequent installation - a matter of minutes.
kb24Before laying the screed, it is recommended to double-check the reliability of the cable entry.
There is one caveat - some manufacturers of heating systems, one of the conditions for granting guarantees expose the existence of the exact scheme of laying, and even assign to this special page, the form in the passport.
This scheme has finally, with the exact "bound" the parameters of the premises, and applied himself laying pattern, and key elements of the circuit arrangement of the point - the temperature sensor and thermostat, terminals and couplings.
kb25You can proceed to the final stage - to the screed.
In order to ensure its contact with the ground, in foil in a heater bands are cut between the thread of the cable "windows", Rectangular or rhomboid shape, a length of 200 and about 50 mm wide.
Slot Spacing - about 1000 mm in the same row and adjacent rows do with an offset of half steps to get "chess" placement "windows"
kb26Around the perimeter of the room in the corners between the wall and the floor, glued elastic damping tape, which will be the compensator of thermal expansion of ties.
Sleduyushy step of - setting the beacons in such a way that the resulting thickness of the screed is at least 30 mm (optimum - 50 mm).
Next - kneaded the selected solution is spread on the surface, directly over the cable laid and leveled on beacons using the rules - all the same way as a normal screed.
kb27We can not allow the abandonment of air bubbles in the solution thicker, as they can seriously reduce the effectiveness of the system.
In addition, they are often the cause of overheating and burnout cable.
kb28Minimal lines to solidify ties, during which the general should not be venturing no work - week.
And in the early days it is desirable to regularly moisten the surface to concrete uniformly branded gaining strength and is not cracked.
After moistening the screed is recommended to cover with plastic wrap.
kb29Only a week later, in the best case, you can go by the tiling, of course, after spending the necessary priming.
Special nuances of the installation of tile is no longer in sight, except that you should use only special adhesive adapted to the operating conditions "underfloor heating".
Term glue point - in this case has not yet said anything, and can not be a guide to run the heating system. In any case, we will have to wait about a month to buckle scored the required strength.
In this unacceptable attempt to speed up the process by including the heating cable!
Running the system of floor heating with full readiness to make not just for the rest of planned capacity, and in stages. On the first day of the thermostat set 15 ° C by night - added five degrees, and so on, until the output to the payment mode.

Installation of "warm floor" with the use of mesh heating mats

Features mesh mats

This type of heating elements for a "warm floor" won very wide popularity - thanks to a significant simplification of the process of laying.

By itself, the mat, in principle, is the same heating cable (most often - twisted pair), but he was already at the factory is laid out on the ground in the form of a glass fiber mesh and fixed on it to meet the necessary steps. It is necessary to unroll a length of the mat on the floor surface - and at once provides more closure area.

The use of mesh heating mats can significantly accelerate the installation work

The use of mesh heating mats can significantly accelerate the installation work

Another important advantage: such a "warm floors" enables to perform surface facing tiles even without screed - directly laid on and fixed mats having increased certainly, and the thickness of the adhesive layer to 8 ÷ 10 mm. Glass fiber reinforcement did not give too thick layer of adhesive necessary strength.

Moreover, if you plan to upgrade the old tiled floors and at the same time give the floor heating function, you can avoid some of the very labor-intensive operations. If the old coating &# 8212; stable, and under it to ensure the proper insulation, the heating mats are laid out right at him, and then close the new tiles. The only thing that would need to be provided - is to ensure the necessary adhesion of glue to the bottom ceramic layer, but the problem is solved simply enough - abrasion or even easier - the application of the type "Betonokontakt" primer.

It is possible to mount the floor heating in the old ceramic coating, without having to dismantle it

It is possible to mount the floor heating in the old ceramic coating, without having to dismantle it

The cost of these mats - slightly higher than normal heating cable - but they are worth. they are ready sets fixed length typically implemented with specified in passport heat output rates - can select a particular room. Standard diameters are used a heating cable: about 3 and 5 mm - it is important to consider at the finish tiling.

The order of installation work is shown in the example in the table, the instructions below.

installation execution

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
MT1As usual, we begin with the acquisition of the necessary mat and thermostat unit with a sensor verification of completeness.
MT3The following operation - this preparation nests under thermostat unit and indent recess vertical to it (as well as in the installation of the cable).
But here further require another indent - on the floor surface, which will be laid Corrugated with temperature sensor.
MT4Indent cross section - is the same, 20 × 20 mm, length - about 600 ÷ 700 mm from the wall.
The most convenient way to begin to penetrate its borders sander.
MT5After that it is not difficult to choose the "core" by a punch.
mt6Both indent converge in the corner, and are a continuation of one another.
mt8Further, the cleaning is carried out, and then - priming the floor surface.
After drying the primer must be immediately put in the appropriate place sensor.
Corrugated He is introduced into the end of which is suppressed by the stopper (all the same as in the case of cable).
Laying begins with the horizontal portion from the planned point of placement of the sensor.
Corrugated tubes can be temporarily fixed in the indent, e.g., silicone 'hot glue' gun using.
mt9Then stacked and a vertical portion, accurately, avoiding tube fracture in the corner.
mt10Before laying the mat is recommended once tightly seal the horizontal indent from Corrugated adhesive for tiles that are not subsequently left unfilled cavities.
The solution was aligned to the level of the base surface.
mT 11Moving to laying mat - on the previously developed scheme.
Key styling nuances Reserved - inadmissible cable crossings.
Parallel strip mats are placed with an interval between them of about 50 mm.
When laying the mat in place of the temperature sensor installation, you must provide it to the sensor itself is located in the center of the cable loop, both in width and in step.
mt12Change the direction of laying - simple.
To do this, carefully cut fiberglass mesh, so as not to affect the cable.
mt13Next - you can continue to lay a mat in the right direction.
mt14Fixing to the floor mats can be produced by the same silicone Melt.
Some models have a self-adhesive layer on the bottom that provides the necessary fixation on the primed base - would be enough of pressing the mat to the floor.
mt1311There are also special types of mats - made of mesh-based flexible, allowing it to stretch across the floor surface, changing the pitch of the cable loops.
Complete with such mats usually are special hooks with adhesive pad (in the illustration, they are marked by arrows).
The hooks are installed in the right place, and then he mat stretched between them.
mt13111Hooks must be placed at the beginning and end of each strip of the heating mat.
The rest of the styling does not change the principle.
mt132Heating mats of this type are also those that make it possible to close the complex plots: they can be pulled diagonally or, for example, to give them the shape of a trapezoid.
mt15After the mats are stacked, electrical parameters is checked, switching to the control unit, the test run - all in the same way as in the case with the cable.
If all goes well - de-energize the system and go directly to the laying of ceramic floor coverings.
mt17Kneaded required number of tile adhesive (adapted to "warm floor" conditions).
Adhesive is laid directly on the portions of the mats, and it is desirable to initially distribute a conventional trowel so as to obtain a thickness of 8 to 12 mm (depending on the cable diameter).
Then, a notched trowel to crest height of 10 mm formed by raised surface of the adhesive layer and laying tiles produced.
mt19When you operate with a notched trowel should be careful not to damage the cable insulation.
In the process, it pays special attention to the inadmissibility of leaving even the smallest cavities, especially in places where the heating cable itself.
mt20Tile gets accustomed to the surface, in compliance with the relevant gaps and providing a common horizontal coating - all as in conventional wall.
After laying the floor can be moved to after the specified period by the adhesive manufacturer.
But this, again - no reason to immediately start the "warm floor"!
The optimal solution would be to pause for at least 20-25 days, and then to carry out a gradual, step-deduction of the calculated power.

Consumption of tile adhesives is definitely higher than when laying tiles on a flat surface of the screed. But it is justified by the necessity of getting rid of the screed and long waiting its maturation.

Personal consumption tile adhesive will be discussed in more detail later in the article.

Video: animated demonstration of how to install the "warm floor" of the mesh mats

"Warm floor" with the use of infrared rod mats

design Features

This is - another kind of eclectic systems underfloor heating, perfectly combined with a ceramic finish.

Each heating element - independent of the other

Each heating element - independent of the other

Constructively such a mat consists of two current carrying bus located parallel to one another at a predetermined distance. Between them are installed heating elements themselves - carboxylic special rods, which by passing a current capable of generating infrared radiation transporting thermal energy over long distances, prior to meeting absorbing barrier (in this case, such a barrier would just tiles).

The rods are connected in parallel, ie each of them is completely independent from the others. In addition, they have the ability to self-regulation, that is able to "lock up" when a certain heating temperature. This gives a number of advantages - for example, the system "warm floor" can be set for the entire area of ​​the room, and in the future to carry out a permutation of furniture and other interior items at its discretion, without regard to the circuit layout of mats.

Est rod mats switching circuit is shown in the illustration:

Typical layouts and circuit switching rod heating mats

Typical layouts and circuit switching rod heating mats

1 - the heating element - carbon rod.

2 - the current-carrying conductor - the tire.

3 - wire, providing switching circuits.

4 - compounds of switching the current-carrying wires to the tire mat.

5 - "cold ends" of the mat.

6 - insulating sleeve on the end of the current-carrying tire mat.

7 - the standard sensor.

8 - thermostatic control unit system, the terminal switching block.

9 - wire feeding mains voltage of 220 V.

Working with such mat - is simple enough, but it would require switching operations with the implementation of reliable isolation of compounds. All the details - in the table below.

Installation works

IllyustratsiyaKratkoe description of the operation being performed
SG 1Standard kit rod "warm floor":
1 - rod mat may be acquired the desired length, to close the entire surface of the floor in the room.
2 - Product data sheet with the factory warranty and with the attached instructions for the installation.
3 - switching is carried in the bay - will serve to create the "cold ends" and for connecting the mats together in the electrical circuit.
4 - corrugated pipe for temperature sensor and plug for her.
5 - Terminals for switching - usually a metal sleeve in the insulating sheath.
6 - shrink tubing for the insulation of connecting joints.
SG3Do not forget to immediately purchase a thermostat with a temperature sensor
SG2Besides all this, we need a foil heater, on the size of the room.
Without it will not work properly on infrared mat.
SG 4It provides a thorough cleaning, the surface of the filter and its deep penetration primer composition.
It is recommended to perform a two-fold application of the soil.
SG 6On shtrabirovanii and cutting sockets for thermostat - it makes no sense to stop: all the same, as in the case of resistive mesh mats.
Immediately fit and sensor in Corrugated.
The only difference - the horizontal indent in place of the temperature sensor head position solution is not sealed.
SG 7Lay foil insulation, reflective surface to the side of the room.
The joints are glued canvases waterproof, better - foiled tape.
ik8Rolling the mat more convenient to start with the place of the temperature sensor installation.
The sensor head has to come to the center of the mat and to stay strictly in the middle between the two parallel bars.
Mats are rolled in a straight line from wall to wall.
The distance from the walls (and the front and side view) is maintained at about 100 mm.
SG 9Upon reaching the opposite wall is necessary to change the direction of the further rolling mat. 
For this current-carrying wire cutters snacking bus, opposite the center of rotation. 
ik11An important condition - section must be performed at the center portion of the cable between adjacent bars
ik10The mat is rotated in the proper direction and continues its rolling.
As a rule, most of these systems allow the overall length of the mat up to 25 meters - this is usually enough to fully cover quite a large room.
ik12It is necessary to provide for the fixation of the mat to the surface of the foil. 
It is easy to perform stripes tape, pasting them along ...
ik13... and if necessary - and across the mat.
ik14After laying transferred to a switching operation using the supplied cable.
ik15To begin with - should immediately connect the cut sections of the current-carrying bus.
The first step is removed from the cut end of insulation - about 10 mm.
SG 16Take the crimp terminal from a kit, and the stripped conductor gently introduced into it from one side. Next, the crimp to obtain reliable contact connection.
ik18Preparing a switching segment cable of desired length, and with its ends removed insulation, also about 10 mm.
ik19On wire worn shrink tube, is available in the kit.
Temporarily she moved to the side, so as not to interfere with the crimp.
ik20end of the cable is put on the opposite side of the sleeve-terminal, and also carefully crimped.
The result is a quality connection conductors.  
ik21Now it is necessary to provide heating crimped sleeve - its insulating sheath and will sit tight obozhmet connection.
Heating is useful for the construction hairdryer.
ik22After that, the terminal connection further retracts previously dressed shrink tubing.
After her warm obtain reliable and tight two-layer insulation compounds.
ik23Turning to the second cut ends of the tire - and repeat the operation with the other end of the switching wires. Interrupted chain - again restored.
Similar actions are carried out in all areas of the tire section.
In addition, very often have their own switching and "cold ends": The principle of connection and isolation - is exactly the same.
ik24Now it is necessary to provide a high quality insulation to the farthest ends of the two current-carrying bus.
Such insulating sleeve is easy to perform from shrinking, which after warming carefully crimped to obtain a fully sealed cover.
It is possible (even preferred) perform a similar isolation in two layers.
ik25Execution of audits conducted on the thermostatic switch unit, a trial run - without any special features, all in the same way as described above.
ik26Making sure your system, de-energize it and go to the tiling.
In the first place in the insulation foil are cut windows, rectangular or diamond-shaped - about the same as in the case of the resistive cable.
These windows should be placed only between the rods, not finding them. 
ik27It turns out something like this.
ik28Mandatory requirement - a cut has to come to a head temperature sensor!
ik30Next, you can do one of two ways.
The first - it fills the thin (about 20-25 mm) tie.
However, it is possible and right to lay ceramic coating.
ik31The prepared adhesive composition distributed on the surface layer sufficiently thick, while ensuring that the absence of voids and of uniform density.
Then performed with a notched trowel furrow, which already made laying ceramic tiles. 
ik32The solution is prepared glue dense enough that it did not spread under its own weight and the weight of the tiles.
The layer thickness should be such that, taking into account the thickness of the ceramic coating overall height was approximately 30 mm - a condition for correct operation of the infrared rod floor.
Running the system in operation - in compliance with all the same requirements as referred to earlier.

A few words about the expense of tile adhesive to electrically "warm floor"

As already mentioned, the glue for floors with electric heating should be specially adapted to the specific operating conditions. It must necessarily be indicated in the passport data and on the application of the specific composition of the instructions.

Popular brands of adhesives for ceramic tiles adapted to the

Popular brands of adhesives for ceramic tiles adapted to the "warm floors"

If the tiles will be laid on floor heating, indoor solid tie, the flow rate remains common, beyond to a greater extent only on the geometric dimensions of the tiles. The situation is different when laying is planned directly on the mesh or rod mats &# 8212; consumption in this case is already much higher and to assess in advance the scale acquisition is not easy.

To facilitate the task of the reader, below is a handy calculator that helps you quickly and reliably, "estimate" how much tile adhesive is required in a particular case.

Calculator for tile adhesives for electric consumption "underfloor"

 Enter the requested information, and click "Calculate the required amount of glue "Floor area in m²as will be laid tiles? to "warm floor", the screed closed or filled with a mixture of self-leveling directly on the heating matsize tiles (on the long side) not more than 50 mm from 60 to 100 mm from 110 to 200 mm from 210 to 300 mm from 310 to 500 mm over 500 mmmat type mesh with resistive cable rod infraredthe diameter of the heating cable - 3mm - 5 mmthe thickness of the tile, mm

At the end of the publication is worth looking into yet another nuance. The fact that there is a special kind of electric "floor heating" in which elements of the infrared film heaters are used.

In this paper, they are not considered for the reason that the film does not matter "in harmony" with ceramic tiles. This is due to difficulty in ensuring the reliability of tile, since it will not provide good contact of the adhesive layer from the floor foundation. And in general, in truth, such a warm floor was originally designed for other purposes - it is perfectly compatible with laminate, linoleum, solid wood, parquet, etc.

However, we do not impose their views, as the network can be found examples of laying tiles and a heated floor. Another question - how appropriate, if there are other solutions, as discussed in the publication, and ensure the stability of the ceramic coating, and high operational performance.

Video: An example of the infrared film stacking "warm floor" under the ceramic coating

How to insulate a roof bath with his hands

How to insulate a roof bath with his hands

Have their own bath-house in the suburban area of ​​dreams, probably, any owner. Too many owners like dreams do not leave in the "dream" discharge, and actively put into practice. To the best of their financial capabilities and their own knowledge and skills, they build baths of various levels of complexity, from small house, designed for intermittent use only for its intended purpose, and to as much as "complexes" that allow, in addition of bath procedures to organize a kind of "relaxation center "- with a spacious waiting room, swimming pool, lounge, kitchen, and even residential guest rooms.

How to insulate a roof bath with his hands

How to insulate a roof bath with his hands

However, no matter what room was, the general requirements for its construction and equipment are retained uniform. And one of the main issues will always be a high-quality thermal insulation of building structures of this building - if only because of the specific conditions of its operation. It requires a special approach slab and the roof - in this direction marked the most significant heat loss from any buildings.

The purpose of this publication - give the visitor a clear idea of ​​the portal is to insulate the roof of the bath with his hands, what a way to rationally choose, depending on the characteristics of construction and design of the planned conditions of use.

The importance of proper thermal insulation of the roof bath

Any room - it's always a combination of high temperatures and severe humidity. It is, in fact, determines the basic requirements for the insulation of protecting designs of the building, and the roof is no exception.

The warm air and hot steam under the laws of physics always rise upwards. If on their way will be a surface without the necessary thermal insulation, that is expressed by the boundary between warm and cold, it is inevitable, several negative aspects.

  • Never in such a sauna room is not really comfortable environment, especially in the winter - no matter how much heat their, still heat will quickly leave.
  • As is clear already from the first point - attempts to maintain the desired sauna climate in these conditions will lead to very considerable consumption of fuel (wood, coal) or of energy (power, gas). Each "trip to the bath" is weighty affect the family budget. Simply already once to allocate funds to secure thermal insulation.
When meeting with a cold barrier vapor condenses, and such drop anyone spoil the pleasure of a bath

When meeting with a cold barrier vapor condenses, and such drop anyone spoil the pleasure of a bath

  • Inclining the steam in contact with the non-insulated ceiling surface will condense almost immediately, and overhead washable people hang cold water droplets. Little pleasant that from time to time, these droplets are broken down, making a clear discomfort in bathing procedures.
The owners of the roof obviously did not pay attention to its reliable thermal, hydro, and vapor barriers.

The owners of the roof obviously did not pay attention to its reliable thermal, hydro, and vapor barriers.

  • That is to say, the apparent disadvantage of condensate, but much worse imperceptible for the time its effect - waterlogging of building structures, leading to the beginning of the process the debate, rotting, corrosion, erosion, appearance and rapid spread of pathogenic organisms - mold and mildew. Such a casual attitude to integrated thermal insulation, waterproofing and vapor barrier, can end up very sad - the roof structure would require major repairs or even a complete replacement.

In a word, to whatever side we approach, insulation of the roof in the bath is an extremely important task. And, we will add, rather difficult, as should always include questions not only the thermal insulation, but also create a reliable barrier to vapor.

What approaches are suitable for roof insulation bath?

Technology of warming of the bathhouse roof can vary very seriously, and it primarily depends on how you plan to use the attic space.

  • In the case when the attic is expected to remain "cold", not to use it at all, or be seen as an unheated storage room (for example, the same bathhouse switches), then spend money to create a thermal insulation on the slopes of the roof - is superfluous. In such an embodiment, operation baths do better focus on high performance insulation attic floor and on the roof confine reliable waterproofing. In this case, it is sure to provide natural ventilation of the attic, and in such circumstances, all the wooden parts of roof systems will remain dry.
If the attic is not used, the roof slope can not insulate by providing only reliable waterproofing and efficient ventilation under-roof space

If the attic is not used, the roof slope can not insulate by providing only reliable waterproofing and efficient ventilation under-roof space

  • Limited space in the suburban area often encourages owners to ensure that over the bath to build another habitable "floor" - the attic. Even if it is not connected to the heating system, and will not be scheduled to "winter" use - to insulate the roof slopes have, and "full program". The value of the thermal insulation to maintain a comfortable environment in the attic in summer, with the arrival of hot period - no less than in winter.
If the bath is planned over the useful space unit - the attic, you have to insulate the roof and ramps, and attic floors

If the bath is planned over the useful space unit - the attic, you have to insulate the roof and ramps, and attic floors

In this case, still can not escape from the attic floor insulation, then there will have to "build" two thermal insulation system. The first - under-roof, similar to the attic on the other buildings, and the second - horizontal on the floor of the attic or ceiling baths (in some cases - a combination, in which the heater is to be mounted both above and below the ceiling).

The only "relaxation" in this case - a layer of insulation on the ceiling may be reduced somewhat, since the overlap will not be in direct contact with cold outdoor air.

Applied insulation and calculation of thermal insulation layer

To insulation system has been quite effective and has not become a waste of money, or worse, did not bring more harm than good, it must meet certain requirements. And the main ones - the thickness of the insulation is chosen so that the total thermal resistance of a particular building structure corresponds to normalized values ​​set for a particular SNP region (taking into account climatic features).

Any insulation system should be established from the adequacy considerations on the basis of the calculations

Any insulation system should be established from the adequacy considerations on the basis of the calculations

Of course, this can be achieved only by using materials with low thermal conductivity is expressed. But you must not forget about the other criteria - a comprehensive safety of insulation, its ability to tolerate specific bath conditions (high temperatures and humidity). The material should be light so as not to burden the construction of roof system or attic floor. Also important is ease of installation work with the selected heater. Finally, always an important issue is the cost of a set of materials.

Calculation of the thermal insulation of the system - it is a complex undertaking that usually spend the appropriate specialists. However, no claim to absolute accuracy, we take the liberty to offer the reader the calculation algorithm that takes into account all the major existing requirements. It will be presented in the form of universal calculator to determine the thickness of insulation for the roof bath skates and for attic floors. But before you go directly to the calculations, it is necessary to give some explanation.

Thermal insulation materials

One of the first items in the calculator will be asked to specify the planned heating material. Elaborate on each of them will not - that the subject of a lot of articles from our website, but a few words all the same deserves each.

  • Mineral wool - is presented in the calculator in two varieties: on the basis of glass and basalt fibers.

Both of these types have approximately the same thermal insulation characteristics - their coefficient of thermal conductivity, depending on the operating conditions, in the range of 0.038 to 0.045 W / m × ° C, which is a very good indicator. Glass wool is somewhat cheaper in value, but the wins, perhaps, only in this. For thermal insulation of the roof and even more so - bathing facilities, the best option would still be a kind of basalt.

Baseline characteristics - are very similar, but the preference is still better to basaltic mineral wool (right)

Baseline characteristics - are very similar, but the preference is still better to basaltic mineral wool (right)

Fiber basalt wool - less brittle, and this greatly simplifies working with her. In addition, it's the quality of the material makes it more durable - it has a much less pronounced tendency to caking and gradual compaction, with the loss of insulating qualities. Another advantage - basalt wool generally has a less pronounced hygroscopic, that is not saturated with moisture.

And both wool incorporates synthetic binders capable of releasing harmful fumes in the air, especially at elevated temperatures. Leading technology manufacturers have succeeded in reducing such emissions to a minimum, and for baths should select materials most "pure" - is usually indicated on the package admission to use in private homes, and even in children's and medical institutions.

An important advantage of the mineral wools is their flammability, and ability to withstand fire while not release hazardous combustion products.

In a word, all it allows us to consider quality mineral wool (basalt better) as one of optimal options in a bath.

2016-07-24_103215The versatility and efficiency - fibrous mineral insulation

For those who wish to become better acquainted with the characteristics of different types of mineral wool, there are a few detailed publications on our website. For example, telling about the products leading manufacturer of basalt heaters ROCKWOOL, of domestic brands BASWOOL, as well as the best, perhaps, among all brand fiberglass materials URSA.

  • Next on the list is ecowool heaters. This is - a relatively new and not yet as widely known material, is a product of natural cellulose.

It would seem that cellulose - it is a fire hazard, and a tendency to a gradual biodegradable. However, in the case of ecowool everything is exactly the opposite. Special processing fluff fibers and the presence in the material of boric acid and sodium tetraborate (borax) dramatically alter its properties. Ecowool not only decomposes sama¸ but also becomes a powerful antiseptic, a beneficial effect on the surrounding wooden structural elements. Its not privechayut rodents and insects, had it not go and spread the fire of mold or mildew. A drill is an effective flame retardant - wool does not ignite even when exposed to an open flame.

Ecowool cavity can be filled or the coating is made of walls and partitions

Ecowool cavity can be filled or the coating is made of walls and partitions

Ecowool can be stowed in the cavity to insulate structures "dry" manner, but in this case it is more susceptible to a gradual shrinkage. Another method of application - this coating on its surface by a "wet" technology, using special equipment. With such laying insulation becomes more durable and efficient, but independently, without experience and without the availability of suitable devices, to perform such an operation will be impossible.

  • The next item - polyurethane foam. It may justly be called one of the most effective options for warming. Possessing excellent adhesion, it creates a thermally insulating solid porous "coat" on any surface - vertical or horizontal, even with a negative angle - on the back side of the roof slope. In this case the thermal conductivity can be as low as about 0.030 W / m × ° C.
One of the best thermal insulators - sprayed polyurethane foam

One of the best thermal insulators - sprayed polyurethane foam

The wide dissemination of this method of insulation prevents probably only need special equipment, that is, have to resort to quite expensive specialist services. At the sale there and disposable kits for self-application of the material - with all the necessary components and accessories. However, their price is also affordable yet can not be called.

napylenie-ppuEffective insulation with polyurethane foam

What are the main advantages of this material, and if he has any shortcomings? On the "pros" and "cons" of polyurethane foam - in a special publication of our portal.

  • Heaters on the basis of polystyrene.

These include widespread and very inexpensive foam, as well as more advanced species - extruded polystyrene (a typical representative - the popular "Penoplex"). These materials themselves are quite good thermal insulator, but to use them for warming the bath can be with a certain caution.

Foam and extruded polystyrene - not the best option for warming bath

Foam and extruded polystyrene - not the best option for warming bath

Firstly, the materials do not possess the thermal resistance - temperature in all + 80 ° C already begin to act on them destructively. Polystyrenes - unstable compounds and are not excluded depolymerization process with the release of a very hazardous to humans gases, and this phenomenon increases with increasing temperature. Thus, the use of space inside the sauna speech should not even go. Secondly, the material becomes extremely dangerous in case of fire - it is able to burn spread "liquid" flames in melting and secreted while smoke - deadly. For these two reasons, in many countries it polystyrene outlawed in any residential building.

In the context of our publications can be viewed polystyrene (better - extruded) only for thermal insulation of the roof over the bath rays, if you can not apply a different material.

  • Next - loose mineral wool insulation. To this category we refer expanded clay and vermiculite.

Both of these materials are more commonly used for thermal insulation of horizontal structures, ie attic floor. Very often, but nevertheless sometimes used to create them and insulation layer on the slopes of the roof with a small slope angle.

The main advantage of bulk mineral insulation, expanded clay and vermiculite - ecological purity and complete safety in operation

The main advantage of bulk mineral insulation, expanded clay and vermiculite - ecological purity and complete safety in operation

Natural mineral structure and the absence of any kind was "chemistry" makes these heaters is absolutely "clean" from an environmental point of view, non-flammable, not subject to decay, rot. They will never be the nests of insects or rodents.

Expanded clay cheaper, but its thermal insulation qualities are still considerably lower than most common insulation mentioned above. That is, to create an effective thermal insulation, require a sufficiently thick layer of material.

Vermiculite has the same thermal conductivity, comparable, for example, with mineral materials. Another advantage - the ability to absorb moisture from the air and with the same ease to give it - so it serves as a "regulator" humidity while maintaining the optimum mode. The disadvantage of vermiculite can only be called a high price - not everyone can afford to create a complete thermal insulation structure based on it.

verrnVermiculite - a little-known interesting facts about a heater

Its existence, by the way, do not even know all novice builders. What is vermiculite insulation, and as it is commonly used - in a separate publication portal.

  • Finally, natural organic materials traditionally used for thermal insulation of attic floors. For this purpose has long been used sawdust, shavings, dry pine needles, some types of peat moss.
The advantage of this insulation - a material often can be found at virtually no cost

The advantage of this insulation - a material often can be found at virtually no cost

Sawdust can simply fill in the cavity (e.g., between the joists), but this material may eventually cake, down in thickness and, respectively, in insulating qualities. Of course, it needs special treatment that will prevent the processes of decay of organic matter or the appearance therein fungal infections, insect or rodent nests. More often than not do not just dry filling, and mixed with a binder material - in this role may be a clay or cement.

Cheapness (and sometimes - and the complete "Freebies") of the material makes it quite attractive, although the insulation quality is still far away, for example, mineral wools, and closer, rather, to the expanded clay. Drawbacks too much, so you must carefully weigh the feasibility of this method of insulation.

2016-07-24_121452Sawdust - a natural insulation

Along with other natural materials, wood waste has long been used for housing insulation. How can we apply sawdust as insulation - a special publication portal.

Video: variant insulation attic floor bath with sawdust

Basic principles of thermal insulation system for calculating

We have already mentioned that in order to maintain a comfortable indoor climate, building construction (wall, ceiling, floor and coating) should have a certain resistance to heat transfer. Most structures have a multilayer structure, and one (or more) layers of time and serves as the heating material.

Thermal resistance of any of the layers, no matter what material is made is determined by the relation:

What insulation will be used? - mineral wool Basalt - glass wool - ecowool - drawing \"wet \" - ecowool - filling in the cavity - polyurethane foam sprayed - polystyrene eksrudirovanny - bespressovanny polystyrene (styrofoam) - Charging keramzit - Charging vermiculite - dust with clay (cement) with an average density of the mixture to 500 g / lSignificance (-scheme of the map) to the desired resistance to heatSignificance (-scheme of the map) to the desired resistance to heat Specify the parameters of the inner skin of the attic spaceMaterial inner skin (trim)board or natural liningplywoodOSB sheetspaneling or MDF panelnatural corkchipboard or fiberboard sheetsgypsum plasterboardgipsovolokonnyh sheets GOLSPlating thickness, mm1000 - to convert to metersInsulated degree loft - cold attic - insulated attic loft Specify an overlap plating parameters from the attic and on the part of the premisesplating the attic floor materialboard or natural liningplywoodOSB sheetschipboard or fiberboard sheetsgypsum plasterboardgipsovolokonnyh sheets GOLSThe thickness of the floor sheathing, mmMaterial headliner from the premisesboard or natural liningplywoodOSB sheetspaneling or MDF panelnatural corkchipboard or fiberboard sheetsgypsum plasterboardgipsovolokonnyh sheets GOLSThe thickness of the headliner, mmWill it be used as a vapor barrier foil insulation (penofol)? - No, not used - yes, usedPenofol Thickness, mm - 3mm - 4 mm - 5 mm - 8 mm - 10 mmwindage

The resulting value is provided to the standard thicknesses of insulation, if used roll or block materials. It should always be kept in mind that it is best to use a two-layer stacking insulation, in which the second layer overlaps the joints and additional frame elements of the first - so minimizing the presence of "cold joints".

Roof insulation baths with their own hands

Warming rays from the roof

So if over the bath warmed planned to equip the attic, placing it later residential or utility room, the insulation work is primarily carried out on the roof slopes.

Thermal insulation of the roof in the bath, to be honest, a little different from similar operations in other buildings with loft-style rooms. The general scheme of such insulation may be represented approximately as follows:

Schematic diagram of the thermal insulation of the roof skate

Schematic diagram of the thermal insulation of the roof skate

The base support structure is the roof rafters (Pos. 1). From inside the thereto attached sealed continuous layer of vapor barrier membrane (pos. 2) or foil heater. This insulation layer is further firmly fixed to counter-rafters (Pos. 3), which define a ventilation gap, and becoming the basis for the carcass mounting interior trim attic (pos. 4).

Between rafter insulation layer laid material (pos. 5) tightly without leaving gaps and crevices. Top plank waterproofing (item 6). - diffusive membrane that performs several important functions - is an insurmountable barrier to the water (which under certain circumstances can penetrate the roof covering during the rains or melting snow), protects the heater from wind action and at the same time It did not interfere with the free evaporation of condensed moisture in the insulation.

To set the vent lumen to the top of the membrane are mounted counter-rafters (pos. 7). Already installed on them required lathing (8 pos.), With sparse necessary step or a solid - depending on the type of roofing (item 9.).

Of course, this scheme is given a great simplification and variations may be more complex. For example, at the recommended two-layer insulation skates second insulation layer can be rendered as a top, above the rafter, and being located underneath, from the attic. In any case, this will be installed additional frame battens perpendicular to the rafters.

Embodiments arranging the second layer of roof insulation

Embodiments arranging the second layer of roof insulation "cake": lower (left) and above rafters

The rest of the structure of the principle of the insulation roofing "pie" is maintained.

Detailed work on warming the roof slopes will not be considered in this publication. This is not because they do not deserve attention - quite the contrary. Just this subject in a separate article of our portal, and better than, again hard to tell it.

2016-07-24_153051How to spend the insulation of the roof ramps

The works can be carried out in different ways: from the top down, and vice versa - it all depends on the specific conditions of the construction. With all the details of operations on insulation of the roof slopes It is available in a special publication of our portal.

Warming bath roof by attic floor

The attic floor bath needs insulation in any case. But if even a loft in the building is left cold, not warmed to the slopes, the thermal insulation slab design altogether is the only "top foreign" to maintain optimum microclimate in the bath.

Suitable hardware insulated overlap may be different. Since our publication involves consideration of bath buildings, then we will not spend time on the strong overlap of the finished boards - we are only interested in light-frame wood structures.

Insulated ceiling boarded type

This is perhaps the most common type of design - quite simple and universal. Suitable for both cold attic, and for insulated attic.

Already from the name, probably, it is clear that the ceiling will be filed, and the basis for it will be the joists. Typically, the beam are calculated in advance so that the timber-section or diameter of the timber was allowed to lay attic floor movably thereon and creating habitable attic space.

Consider for the beginning of a typical overlap scheme podshivnoy type:

hem rights

Floor beams (pos. 2) rest on the main walls bath (pos. 1). The walls seem abstract, though the baths often used timber or timber. Beams are secure (embedded, imbedded, etc.), and warmed in places fit to the walls.

Bottom to beams sutured plank ceiling (pos. 3). This - somewhat simplified version, and often runs a little differently - this will be discussed below.

If the boards are also filed and ceiling finishes, then under them have to accommodate vapor barrier membrane (pos. 4). Sometimes this is done using a conventional thick polyethylene, but it is better to buy a special film or foil insulation, which has already been mentioned above.

heating material (Pos. 5) is laid between the joists.

Above the insulation must be vapor permeable paved diffuse membrane (pos. 6) which will be his reliable waterproofing the case of accidental ingress of water from above, and will not impede the free evaporation of moisture.

Further, joists may be stacked on top wooden plank or sheet coating attic floor (pos. 7).

Driving - simple and straightforward, almost without flaws, with the exception of those of a large enough solid material consumption and the amount of work. But the output - and finished ceiling Bath and insulated ceiling and finished floor in the attic.

Installation work is usually performed in the following sequence:

  • First, you need all the wooden parts of the future structure be treated special impregnations that increase resistance to rotting wood and fire. For a bath - this is especially important! By moving the workpieces after drying.
  • Bath room presupposes the bathing furnace. Hence, it is necessary to consider immediately chimney extending through the roof. The most convenient way is as follows:

&# 8212; To acquire a store aisle or manufactured independently sleeve (box) of stainless steel or galvanized.

This pass box for a pipe-heater stove can be purchased in a store or order a tinsmith

This pass box for a pipe-heater stove can be purchased in a store or order a tinsmith

&# 8212; Between the beams in the desired location are mounted two jumpers, so as to obtain a "nest" for the installation of the flow duct.

Landing

Landing "nest" for the installation of the flow duct. The dimensions "A" and "B" correspond to the size (length and width) acquired passage.

&# 8212; Sam box until the place is not placed, removed to the side and a window under it will not close the membranes lining, insulation, etc.

  • The next step - is to install a vapor barrier layer. It is attached to the beams staples stapler, be sure to plant on the wall at least 200 mm - to further their tight coupling with a vapor barrier.

If necessary to use several webs, the vapor barrier membrane plank overlap by about 150 ÷ ​​200 mm with a waterproof sealing tape. Optimally - used foil material. But it has already laid the edges butt and seam sealed foiled tape. Naturally, the reflective layer should be directed towards the room.

Sealing of vapor barrier tape foiled

Sealing of vapor barrier tape foiled

  • The next step - is the filing of the bath ceiling boards. The simplified version of that shown in the diagram above, is used is not always. It is certainly easier - from beams to fix the decorative trim, but it is expensive and not very good in terms of preservation of wood. It is better to do so:
Driving ceiling filings with rough freewheeling and front paneling

Driving ceiling filings with rough freewheeling and front paneling

The position of the walls (1 pos.) And the floor beams (2 pos.) - no change. Bottom on beams spanned vapor barrier film (key 3. In this case -. Namely film).

Goes below Vol reel (pos. 4). It may well be third-plank thickness of 25 ÷ 30 mm, with no outstanding decorative qualities.

And now, from the bottom of it already attached foil insulation (pos. 5), which will be one more steam insulating abroad. to its installation requirements - are the same as mentioned above - with a stop on the wall and with sealing joints of adjacent webs.

This foil layer further fixed to the Draft counter-Nakatu (pos. 6), which establish a necessary step for further mounting the finish plating. For example, for lining (pos. 7) will be optimal distance between the laths 400 ÷ 600 mm.

Rounding out this stage of the installation of siding (usually combined with the corresponding wall finishes).

The illustration shows a well layer foil heater, and finishing counter-headlining clapboard

The illustration shows a well layer foil heater, and finishing counter-headlining clapboard

  • After plating the ceiling surface in left window is inserted and fixed with screws duct for the passage of the flue-gas tube.

The bottom job completed - other operations have to be carried from the attic.

  • Proceed to installing insulation material from the top, between the joists.

And here very often make one common mistake, which, incidentally, is widely replicated in the online instructions for the insulation of floors. Let's face it.

If all is normal in this picture?

Incorrect use of a vapor barrier for insulation of floors on beams

Incorrect use of a vapor barrier for insulation of floors on beams

It would seem - all well executed vapor barrier. But pay attention to the scheme, which was cited at the beginning of this section, and compare it with the one that is located below:

The same - in a schematic illustration

The same - in a schematic illustration

Obviously, the vapor barrier layer is a film launched not under joists, and on top of them. What is the result? Powerful wooden beam "wrapped" vapor barrier, and typing moisture during bath procedures, has absolutely no opportunity to get rid of it! That is, even in the period when the room is not used, the output for the excess moisture out of this strong wood element is not there. This is a direct path to rapid decay, to the emergence of fungal infections.

You ask - and how the board runup and facial Binder? Yes, they are in contact with moisture and biological decay in them over time is inevitable. But one thing - to replace the binder, do not perform any load-bearing function, and quite another - the need to replace the joists, which is associated sometimes with very large-scale works, until the dismantling of the entire structure.

Floor beams do not have to close vapor barrier on top!

Floor beams do not have to close vapor barrier on top!

When properly installed the entire insulation covering system, the layer of diffuse membrane laid over the insulation beams and will not interfere with the free evaporation of moisture, and the beam will normally ventilated. But steam from above &# 8212; absurd!

Insulation keeps sweaty as possible between the beams, without leaving gaps - mineral wool or bulk materials allow it to do, and the use of styrofoam plates in this embodiment generally contraindicated.

If necessary, the thick insulation, its spread in two layers tamping on joists perpendicular extra bars of appropriate thickness, which later will play the role of lags for sheathing the attic floor.

  • In any case, after the laying on top of a heater recommended lay diffuse vapor-permeable membrane. Further, between it and the topcoat is desirable to leave a gap for ventilation (small enough to 10 ÷ 15 mm), for which a lag (beams) counter-stuffed desired thickness. According to him it is already possible to mount the boardwalk or plywood covering the attic floor.

As a result, after the boards or plywood sheathing gets full attic floor covering and insulation - protection against any mechanical damage and to freely ventilated by getting rid of excess moisture trapped therein.

Insulated floor plank type

This approach - much simpler to implement, requires less material, but rather limited possibilities of application. Plank ceiling mount allowed only in bath rooms, that have a width of about 2 meters (in extreme cases - 2.5). Moreover, the flooring must be based exactly on the main walls, rather than light interior partitions.

It will be clearer if we consider the diagram:

Schematic diagram of the insulated ceiling plank type

Schematic diagram of the insulated ceiling plank type

  • The distance between the main walls, supports (pos. 1) should not exceed 2500 mm.
  • floorboard - quality, not less than 50 mm thick. They are usually picked planed, so as to ensure a tight fit decking. On a support, any of the planks should go at least 50 mm on each side. Usually mounted on top of the board with screws directly to the wall beam.
  • Further, a vapor barrier layer stacked (pos. 3).
  • The next step is laying insulation (pos. 4). If it rolls, mats, plates, then they are placed just as much as possible tight, without leaving gaps, and no additional structural elements in this case is not required. In the case where the planned use of granular materials, it is possible to fill the additional bars (they are shown in Scheme pos. 5 by the dashed line, since they are not mandatory design details). Their purpose would be only the creation of the bulk layer of necessary thickness.

By the way, in this embodiment, it is possible to use self-made insulation mats. For this a dense waterproof fabric sewn flat bags, stuffed them available insulation material (e.g., foam or padding polyester waste, dry needles, red moss, etc.), and then tightly placed on top of the finished flooring.

  • Plank ceiling usually not intended useful loft movably thereon, so dispense with additional lag and the attic floor.
Insulation can not even close the top of the membrane

Insulation can not even close the top of the membrane

Since the attic - a desert, then the qualitative performance of the roof of the probability of an accidental spill of water on the floor - extremely small. This means that you can save more and vapor-permeable waterproofing - membrane (shown yet in the scheme -. Items 6) is quite acceptable not to lay. A ventilation and paroobmen have uncovered anything on top of the insulation will only get better.

Roofed boards can immediately play the role of finishing the ceiling cover - if used deliberately for this high-quality material. But it is more suitable for "dry" areas, such as for the rest rooms. For rooms with high humidity, and especially - the steam room, it is better to do the same, as shown above. That is, floorboards bottom foil is fixed insulation, then it is urged counter-, which has selected the decorative covering is mounted.

Video: sauna ceiling plank type

Insulated ceiling panel type

This method of creating insulated floors baths - a rather complicated and time-consuming, but it also has a number of significant advantages. It combines the advantages of both of the above structures, and its main feature is that most of the installation work is carried out in comfortable conditions - on earth.

In fact, it is going to the bottom of the finished shield consisting of two overlapping beams and wooden flooring. If conditions permit, here, on earth, is conducted and the necessary insulation, and only then finished structure is raised and set into place. Several such panels will create the necessary overlap insulated bath.

mounting process is carried out at about the following sequence:

  • Shield assembly using two powerful beams. For example, it may be a material section 100 × 50 mm - and strength requirements are met, and insulation thickness of 100 mm is often sufficient.
  • The boards are laid on a flat surface with a distance from each other of 500 mm (the outer surface as shown in the diagram). Their edges are trimmed on the same line.
Start shield assembly - two parallel beams clapboard

Start shield assembly - two parallel beams clapboard

  • Cut boards for flooring. Their length shall be such that each of the segment sides of the board stood for 50 mm beam. That is, in this case it will be 600 mm. Boards stuffed (screwed screws), continuous coating to form a shield. Usually on each board is sufficient for the two fasteners on the side - that the component was stable, without any backlash.

For this flooring does not necessarily choose the first-class material, especially if the ceiling in the bath will be further break off clapboard. As a rule, in the course are cutting lumber, which is usually quite a few on any construction. The main thing is that they are of the same thickness, e.g., 25 mm or 30 - this is sufficient. The width of the stuffed pieces of no importance.

  • Knit inverted shield bars upwards. The next step can immediately spend laying isolating film - it lay on the inside of the shield and the side surface of the timber. Note that, as mentioned above - the top bar to close vapor barrier should not!
Vapor barrier membrane may be attached to the shield clamps - conventional staple gun

Vapor barrier membrane may be attached to the shield clamps - conventional staple gun

  • Very cool, if a sufficient number of assistants or lifting equipment makes it possible to carry out on the ground, and packing a heater (of course, if mats or plates, rather than the bulk material). For example, mineral wool blocks will form perfectly, and a structure is not particularly weighted, but this process is not the most "pure", can be carried out in the most comfortable conditions.

Vraspor units are installed between joists (the elasticity of the material allows it). Stacking is carried out to complete filling of the shield, without leaving spaces between the blocks of insulation.

  • Before lifting the assembled modules to the height you can give it a gain, stuffed some time skew bridges.
Collected and insulated ceiling panel is ready to rise and set to the proper location

Collected and insulated ceiling panel is ready to rise and set to the proper location

1 - stacked blocks of insulation.

2 - Temporary bridge to provide additional rigidity of the assembly when it is lifted to the height.

  • To install pre-finished panels is preparing a place. They can be placed directly on the crown, stacked in the selected specifically for their groove, or by a strong supporting bar, 50 mm in thickness is fixed on the perimeter or more, which will be distinctive for panels "shelf." But before installing necessarily provide a seal (item 2). - this usually laid jute tape, which is used to mezhventsovogo warming.
Stacking panels assembled into a common ceiling structure

Stacking panels assembled into a common ceiling structure

  • Assembled Modules (pos. 3) are placed close to each other, are attached to the base. Temporary bridges can then be removed. As can be seen, among them it is empty space: it is done is not in vain - here is laid insulation material for the joints between the panels.
  • Beginning along the bottom and walls of each of the apertures such vapor barrier film is placed. Then block cut from the mineral wool fragments (bands) of desired thickness (pos. 4) and the maximum density in the stacked over the entire length of the cell.
  • Panels must be linked with each other. For this purpose, first they dim diffuse membrane, and then mount the board at least 30 mm on each edge (Pos. 5). It is desirable that the board was a long, and at the same time connects all stacked panels. Board fastened with screws to each intersecting beams. The same board-screeds must be installed and set up in the center of the design - in increments of no more than 1000 mm. They, incidentally, it can be used as a log for the flooring of the attic floor by setting a pitch of about 600 mm.

The result is a reliable and attic floor is well insulated ceiling. Well bottom panels can be further covered with a layer of insulation foil, fill and counter-hold lining trim - all in the same way as in the embodiments discussed above.

So, in this work were considered variations of thermal insulation of the roof above the room, both from the roof ramps, and by creating a well-insulated attic floor.

Master planned for the construction of baths should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of each of these technologies, to weigh the complexity of the execution, to calculate the estimated costs, evaluate open operational capabilities or lack thereof. The decision should be thoroughly thought out as non-insulated roof will cast doubt on the possibility of a comfortable wash in the bath at any time of the year, as chosen unwisely or improperly assembled structure will necessarily lead to the need for costly works on alteration.

Oil boilers – principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumption

Oil boilers - principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumption

Quality heating own house - one of the most important issues facing his master. And its solution is often a dilemma, what kind of heating unit will be the best in the prevailing conditions. Of course, if the house is brought gas pipeline, preference is given to boilers fired by natural gas - at the cost of operating such equipment equals does not. But in that case, we have unwittingly find other when such a possibility does not exist (the gasification of the village in the near future is not expected), or for its realization requires a completely "space" waste (as well as often happens when you need to perform a liner from the trunk to a specific building) solutions.

Oil boilers - principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumption

Oil boilers - principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumption

One solution could be the use of liquid fuels - mostly in the diesel fuel as used, but variants are possible with waste oil or fuel oil. This option, of course, requires specialized equipment which should be able to choose, and at the same time - and even correctly predict operating costs. Therefore, today's publication topic: oil boilers - principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumption.

Briefly - about the advantages and disadvantages of oil-fired heating equipment

So, if heating is required, "here and now", and no way to get access to the network gas or organize a permanent supply of liquefied natural gas is not available, it is considering options for wood boilers or other types of solid fuel, electrical heating or the use of equipment operating on liquid hydrocarbons . What is the last stand for the better?

TO benefits include the following:

  • Installation of the boiler on liquid fuel does not require a very long and "boring" conciliation with the collection of documents, drawing up and approval of the chain of command of the project. This can be considered its distinctive advantage of gas appliances - owners spend setting "at your own risk." However, fire safety is also pohlesche, so there may be friction if not with the gas industry, as a fire inspection.
  • The advantage of solid fuel boilers - it's easy fine adjustments, and no need of frequent intervention in the boiler room. Needless to conduct regular loading of wood or coal, which can not do without even long burning boilers.
  • Compared with electric boilers liquid fuel less dependent on the "vagaries" grids. Most of them still can not be considered nonvolatile - are present in the circuit for the air blowing fans, pumps for feeding fuels and often electronic control units. However, the problem with possible temporary interruptions can be solved installing an uninterruptible power supply or a backup generator at the same conditions as electric heaters or other heaters become completely inoperable.

In addition, for all-electric heating is often necessary to increase capacity at the entrance of a house, that is stretching new or additional lines, which can be very costly. Oil boilers of such events is not required, but they have their "chips".

  • Equipment for liquid fuels generally has a very decent degree of efficiency comparable with that of the gas appliances and even the electrical system or equipment. This is particularly true of modern models that organized additional selection of heat released by the condensation of water vapor, always in considerable quantity generated by the combustion of all hydrocarbons, both gaseous and liquid.
  • Most boilers operating on liquid fuel, a high degree of versatility. In fact, their combustion chamber rich, and the burner allows to change depending on the type of fuel used - whether kerosene, diesel oil, working, energy, etc. Moreover, virtually without any significant alterations over time, the boiler can also be a gas - again, only by changing the burner. Thus, if viewed in the long term is still planned laying of gas pipeline to the house, that is, you must endure a couple of years, this type of boiler is simply "magic wand". You do not have to purchase and reinstall the new unit, to change his piping "on the water" - is enough to choose and install a gas burner with a standardized mounting flange assembly. Incidentally, there are multi-fuel burner, such as gas and light types of liquid fuel (diesel fuel).
A particular advantage of this execution boilers: they are easily translated into a change of fuel type burner or a general purpose (multifuel) class burner

A particular advantage of this execution boilers: they are easily translated into a change of fuel type burner or a general purpose (multifuel) class burner

In the development of a theme can be added that such unified by fastening the burner for gaseous or liquid fuels and often suitable to certain rulers wood boilers.

Boiler one and the same solid fuel «Wirbel Eko-SC», but installing a suitable burner and automation necessary converted into a gas, diesel or pellet

Boiler one and the same solid fuel «Wirbel Eko-SC», but installing a suitable burner and automation necessary converted into a gas, diesel or pellet

However, not all of the oil-fired boilers so "rosy". disadvantages they too serious, and they need to know:

  • First of all, the cost of high-quality diesel fuel can not be considered low. A consumption for heating the house a great mercy, but taking into account the duration of the heating season in our area, obtained considerable. That is, the annual heating costs will be far not everyone can afford.
  • It is necessary to create conditions for the storage of a large amount of fuel. If we add here its flammability, the problem is all the more difficult. In addition, at low temperatures, diesel fuel in the pipes, and in the vessel itself, can begin to thicken, "grab" the frost, which means the need for thermal insulation and storage lines from it to the boiler. Therefore, under the fuel tanks are very often try to place directly in the boiler room, which will require considerable floor space (including and quite "impressive" size and the boiler itself).
In our time, the problems with the acquisition of a fairly compact and capacious tanks for diesel fuel is not present, but all the same this

In our time, the problems with the acquisition of a fairly compact and capacious tanks for diesel fuel is not present, but all the same this "colossus" need somewhere to attach, and worth it - cheap.

  • Petroleum products always have a peculiar smell, and poison the atmosphere in it no one wants to rooms. So, the question can not go about placing the equipment in a residential area or in neighboring areas that do not have sealed walls or doors. It turns out that the best solution would be the construction of a dedicated boiler.
  • A similar conclusion brings another circumstance - the work of oil-fired heating equipment is usually very noisy.
  • Unlike gas, oil products when burned emit a considerable amount of soot and fine soot, which is pretty fast start scoring heat exchanger of the boiler and flue system. Therefore, the maintenance work for cleaning the boiler will have to spend much more often.
  • Liquid fuels often require pre-treatment (filtration) and heating. This complicates the boiler unit, often requires additional on the filter element costs.
  • It is believed that there is no sense in buying the boiler that runs on liquid fuel, for heating small (say, up to 100 m²) home. It would be wise to find another satisfactory solution.
  • The cost of this type of boiler or replacement burners for them - very high.

The principle of the device and of the boilers on liquid fuel

If we talk about the design of the boiler as a water heater, print "of the brackets" fuel burning equipment, its design is nothing special, as a rule, is no different.

Despite the very significant differences in the layout of the boilers, the principle of the device overall, and very similar to the units operating on natural gas.

Despite the very significant differences in the layout of the boilers, the principle of the device overall, and very similar to the units operating on natural gas.

The unit usually consists of a metal body (pos. 1), under which the hidden layer is a reliable insulation (pos. 2) (usually the basalt wool), completely covering the entire "stuffing." Due to this, the generated heat is consumed most efficiently without wasted on unnecessary heating of the surrounding air, and the surface of the boiler will not heat up to the dangerous temperature.

The internal layout can be very different in different models, even more so - from different manufacturers, but the principle remains the same.

combustion process (no matter what) in such aggregates takes place in a special combustion chamber (pos. 3). It is enclosed in a heat exchange "water jacket" (pos. 4) through which coolant is circulated.

Incidentally, active heat exchange occurs not only in this chamber. Red-hot combustion products pass through a tube or plate heat exchanger is disposed above (pos. 6), wherein on the way to a chimney (pos. 7) is also given to the heating of the heat carrier.

Heat exchangers in boilers using liquid fuel may be iron (or of a conventional ductile iron) or steel.

The boilers can be fitted with iron or steel coils. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages

The boilers can be fitted with iron or steel coils. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages

Cast considerably bulkier inert under heating and under stress with heat, without fear of corrosion. But the weak point is the fragility of the metal, both mechanical and thermal. Therefore boilers with cast iron heat exchangers must correctly fasten (with the creation of a small loop) and operate, especially in the start-up of the primary warm-up period. Subject to the rules of operation of cast iron heat exchanger can last 50 years or more.

Steel extreme temperatures is not afraid, but burns much faster and, anyway, is subject to corrosion. The service life of steel heat exchangers - are not as significant as iron, and is usually limited to 15 ÷ 20 years.

Some models also provides the condensing heat exchange stage, where potential energy is further shown by the condensation of water vapor, which are obligatory component of the combustion of any fossil fuel products.

Condensing heat exchangers are installed in many modern boilers offer quite a significant increase in the efficiency of the equipment

Condensing heat exchangers are installed in many modern boilers offer quite a significant increase in the efficiency of the equipment

The hot coolant leaves the boiler through the pipe (Pos. 8) in the main home heating circuit. Return is carried via conduit "return line", which nozzle is not visible in this figure (located at the bottom of the back).

All the above elements of the boiler practically does not differ from their "brothers", running on gas or solid fuel. Moreover, as already mentioned, in addition to units, calculated on diesel fuel or other liquid fuel, are widespread universal boilers, in which the combustion chamber has a neck with a suspension system which can be mounted desired burner - gas, pellet or oil.

A striking example of the universal boiler - «De Dietrich GT 227 'may operate with a whole line of burners designed for different types of fuel

A striking example of the universal boiler - «De Dietrich GT 227 'may operate with a whole line of burners designed for different types of fuel

Thus, the main node that distinguishes boiler operating on liquid fuel, from all others, is its "heart", i.e. a special burner (Pos. 5), provides mixing of fuel with air, mixing ratio when applied to the injectors, ignition control flame necessary adjustments and other functions.

A feature of this type of boilers is that they always the master node - a special burner operating on one or more liquid fuels: diesel, waste oil, fuel oil, biofuel

A feature of this type of boilers is that they always the master node - a special burner operating on one or more liquid fuels: diesel, waste oil, fuel oil, biofuel

Diesel (or other fuel oil) burner - is a very complicated device to understand which device layman - very difficult. By and large, in this and there is no special need, the more that the burner of different manufacturers can significantly differ in their technological features. But the basic structure of the most important element of the liquid fuel boiler it is necessary to know everything.

The illustration presents one of the burners in section, the indication of the parts and assemblies. A below will be briefly considered its basic elements.

Diagram showing the device one of the models of burners operating on diesel fuel

Diagram showing the device one of the models of burners operating on diesel fuel

So, the basic structural elements of oil burners can be considered:

  • Fan for forcing air required for forming flame of the combustible mixture and for complete combustion of the liquid fuel. The fan is equipped with its own electric motor.
  • Fuel pump, which should ensure the flow of diesel fuel from the tank to the burner via line, creating the desired pressure.
  • Fuel preparation unit, which typically includes a filter for removal of impurities from slurries and heating unit, which is particularly important during the intense cold. Diesel fuel (or other fuel) should be supplied to the mixing with the air at a certain temperature - the so ensures complete combustion of the mixture. TAN may be heated, have their own regulation system. And indirect heating practiced when toplivoprovodnaya tube gets heated by operating the boiler due to deliberate configuration of its location.
  • Injector nozzle that provides mixing and spraying a mixture of fuel and air, in fact, forms a torch, ensures its ignition and maintenance of a stable flame during the operation of the boiler. Around the nozzle on a mandatory basis is the ignition device, is automatically activated when starting the boiler.
  • Dosage air and diesel fuel in the injector is made due to the choke valve, and a fuel controller that controlled servos associated with the burner control unit. The stability of the combustion flame is provided and control of secondary air fed into the combustion chamber.
Oil burners are equipped with their own electronic or electromechanical control and management bodies

Oil burners are equipped with their own electronic or electromechanical control and management bodies

  • Certainly, any modern burner unit equipped with an electronic monitoring and control. There is a thermostatic regulator, which sets necessary temperature mode. For the presence of flame in the chamber following special photosensor. Special devices continuously monitor the degree of afterburning of fuel and soot and harmful compounds in the flue gases. There are several degrees of protection against abnormal operation. burner control system is usually associated with most boiler control unit - there are special connectors for the signal cable.
  • Burner necessarily has a flange through which is fixed in the neck portion of the boiler combustion chamber.
Burner flange with refractory lining can reliably and tightly secure it to the boiler drum after installation into the combustion chamber

Burner flange with refractory lining can reliably and tightly secure it to the boiler drum after installation into the combustion chamber

Thus, the burner - it is quite a complex "organism", therefore, was only superficially addressed. Climb yourself in it, beyond the established manufacturer of frame possible intervention (adjustment, cleaning, prevention, laid down in the passport products) - is not recommended, as the careless actions it is possible to deduce the complex mechanics and electronics of the system and result in deteriorating the entire burner as a whole.

What you need to evaluate when choosing a boiler, operating on liquid fuel

If circumstances are such that the diesel boiler becomes the only reasonable alternative, you should be able to choose the optimum model correctly.

  • Boilers are distinguished by the type of execution. Most of them are designed for permanent installation on the floor. However, you can meet and compact wall-mounted imported models. That is, when you select should be guided by the existing capabilities of the device placement - where and how it can be allocated a place.

However, hanging oil boilers are rare, very popular not enjoy, and basically all opt for floor models. And if so, the important point is the size of the boiler, and weight - for some models may have to strengthen the floor surface prior to installation, to expand the doorway for the introduction of equipment in the boiler room.

  • The thermal power of the boiler must meet the needs created by the heating system. This option, by the way, is very closely linked with the consumption of liquid fuels, we will look at just below and in more detail.
  • Whether built-in or removable burner is used, you should pay attention to the number of modes of operation (power). So, they are single-stage, two-stage, three-way and even works on the principle of flame modulation depending on changes in environmental conditions. The more stages, the more you can adjust the operation of the boiler, the less will be the start and stop cycles, the lower the fuel consumption. However, in proportion to the number of steps increases and the cost of equipment.
The three-stage oil burner model «Uret U12VTTU»

The three-stage oil burner model «Uret U12VTTU»

  • Of course, the acquisition of the boiler or burner is required to know in advance what kind of liquid fuel type to be used. The vast majority of consumers prefers Local - means it is diesel fuel must be specified in the data sheet.

Burners for waste oil are profitable on autoenterprise where this "good" is abundant and virtually free. Fuel oil is also not in demand from private owners, although not as high as that of diesel fuel, the price. For biofuels, it is necessary to believe, a great future, but it is still in our area is seen at the level of "exotic".

Oil boilers - principles of operation and the calculation of fuel consumptionWhat are biofuels and how to get your own?

Many technical crops, food production and wood wastes contain oils and other organic compounds which after suitable processing can be converted into a completely full fuel similar to diesel. What is the recycling process, and if you can get biofuels with their hands - read the special article of our portal.

Incidentally, cheaper than fuel, the lower the calorific values ​​and the higher the cost of the burner and boiler, designed to work with its use.

And yet - there are such burners which can operate with different types of fuel. Universality - it is certainly good, but that's just not really praise such devices, including too overpriced for a low reliability and a clear reduction in efficiency. So make the choice for yourself ...

What a boiler is installed? - normal -kondensatsionnyEfficiency of the boiler (for a lower combustion temperature, Hi)For what type of fuel to settle?

It should, perhaps, be recalled that this value should be regarded as the most likely forecast. The actual conditions sometimes unpredictable, and the final figures, especially for the separately taken a short period (eg, day, week, month) may differ from those estimated. Nevertheless, the scale of the heating season, most likely, the error will be small, and the value obtained is quite possible to navigate in the planning of the acquisition of the capacity for storage of liquid fuel, and in the preparation of an estimate for the heating season.

At the end of the article - an interesting video about the merits of the liquid fuel boiler «DanVex B January 30", capable of running on waste oil.

Video: Boiler «DanVex B January 30" - diesel fuel or used oil

How warm the roof of the house with his own hands

How warm the roof of the house with his own hands

A calculated and accurately assembled truss system, durable, reliable, and not leaking roofing - all wonderful. But we should not forget about another - an effective thermal insulation of their homes from the upper direction, ie from the side of the roof and attic floor. Inadequate or improperly executed insulation of building elements is not only a cause of little comfort living in the house, but what is especially important, sharply reduces the normal life of many building materials and structures of these structures.

How warm the roof of the house with his own hands

How warm the roof of the house with his own hands

Typically, issues of thermal insulation of the roof thought out at the design stage truss system or attic floor, and she insulation system is mounted parallel to the construction management. But if all of a sudden, because of various circumstances, it turns out that the roof is in the acquisition, for example, the house - completely insulated, or the effectiveness of insulation - is clearly insufficient, the owners will have to come to grips with this issue on their own. And then it is useful information on how to insulate the roof of the house with his own hands, contained in this publication.

Why is it necessary to insulate the roof?

First of all, you need to very accurately represent - how important is the need for roof insulation.

  • The climatic conditions in most regions of Russia can not be called "soft" &# 8212; even in the southern regions often fall very severe winters. for heating in the cold season costs tend to become more prevalent, and "eat" a large part of the family budget. But when poor-quality thermal insulation in energy expenditure converted literally "money for air."

Look at the approximate scheme of heat loss is not insulated or insufficiently insulated private house:

losses

Has no effective thermal insulation of the roof with a roof simply "steal" almost a third of energy consumed in the housing heating. Of course, neither of which economics, even it can not go. But even with this totally unjustified spending, create a really comfortable microclimate in the house will be almost impossible.

  • With the arrival of summer heat and the lack of thermal insulation is becoming a serious problem. A large area of ​​the roof functions as a kind of "solar collector", warming up in the sun and then transferring the thermal energy flow down into the premises of the house. The result - in the rooms of his years can not breathe, or air conditioning equipment running with high intensity, which, again, leads to a completely unjustified expenses.
  • Lack of insulation negatively affects the state of building structures. Normal human activity is always accompanied by the release of large volumes of water vapor that on the boundary of heat and cold, in a so-called "dewpoint 'condenses, turning into water. Glut moisture roof construction wooden parts leads to increased decay processes for destructuring wood due to freezing and thawing cycles with the advent of deep cracks, the appearance and development of colonies of pathogenic microorganisms - mold and mildew, the appearance of insect nests.
The lack of insulation can significantly shorten the life of the entire roof structure

The lack of insulation can significantly shorten the life of the entire roof structure

Installing insulation allows to shift the dew point outwards, in the upper layers of insulation, so that the condensed moisture is virtually not directed at the basic bearing elements of the roof structure, and freely evaporate into the atmosphere.

  • Finally, the thermal insulation of the roof opens up the possibility of more rational use of available space. Insulated loft may well become a very convenient utility room, and at a sufficient height and is connected to the heating system - a full living room.
Even a small size it is quite possible to turn the attic into a cozy living room.

Even a small size it is quite possible to turn the attic into a cozy living room.

Excess space never hurts. And the deficit areas - the more, because to build attic into living space in any case, it will be easier and cheaper than to build from scratch a capital extension.

General principles of roof insulation

First of all, the owners of the house should be defined in advance how you will be warmed roof structure. There are several options.

Different variants of the thermal insulation of the roof at home

Different variants of the thermal insulation of the roof at home

  • Flat roof, which does not involve any general attic. In the private construction of residential houses, this approach is used very rarely, so this issue in the framework of this article will not be considered.
  • The second option - attic is not considered hosts as a useful additional area. In this case, the emphasis is on high-quality thermal insulation of attic floor, and to create good ventilation under-roof space, to avoid the accumulation of moisture in it. This option is warming and "taken out of the brackets" &# 8212; he devoted a separate publication.

2016-05-04_114633What should I do if the attic is scheduled to leave "cold"?

In this case, the insulation is subject to the attic floor. How to properly insulate the ceiling under the "cold" attic - read the special publication of our portal.

  • And finally, the third option - attic is fully insulated. In this case, the insulation system will be mounted directly under the pitched roof. This scheme can be considered optimal as providing normal and degree Insulated housing from the upper direction, and as giving, with correct installation, the maximum protection of truss system from external factors.

It is this pattern of warming in the ground and will be devoted to this publication.

First of all, you must understand the principle of insulation roofing rays. There is such a term in everyday use - "roofing pie". Such a name could not be better symbolizes the multi-layered thermal insulation system, each of the layers in its own way important as perform a certain role. Consider the structure of "roofing pie" is not on the most complex example.

Basic design

Basic design "roof pie"

"Fundamentals" are always the rafters (item 1). - they serve as a support structure for the roofing and insulation for the entire system as a whole.

Between rafter maximally tightly without gaps, is placed insulating material (pos. 2).

Bottom heater layer must necessarily be covered with insulation film (pos. 3) so that the material is not saturated with moisture, water vapor, and is not lost because of their qualities.

Bottom insulation film holds the crate (pos. 4), which becomes the basis for fixing interior decoration attic (attic).

From above, the part of the roof, the insulation is also locked special film-coated (Pos. 5), but it has a totally different properties. This layer is designed to create a waterproofing barter (at random roof flowing water does not fall into the insulation), thermal insulation protection from the effects of wind erosion. But at the same time, the coating should not become an obstacle to the free exit of steam - condensate formed at the intersection of heat and cold in the "dew point" must have free access to the atmosphere. This is achieved by using special membranes and the creation of air gaps. This diagram shows kontrplanka (pos. 6) which creates a clearance between the insulation and the membrane. There may be other solutions - this will be explained below.

In any event, between the waterproof and windproof membrane roofing itself must always be created ventilating gap. For this rafters stuffed kontrbrus (pos. 7) is not less than 50 mm thick.

Further, there is a crate (Pos. 8) for the concrete roofing (Pos. 9). Crate can be sparse, ie boards or boards are mounted with a certain step. For some roofing is mandatory continuous crate. Accomplished, for example, water-resistant plywood or OSB. In any case, a ventilation gap will be provided.

As already mentioned - is the basic scheme. In practice, there may be other embodiments, more complex or, alternatively, several simplified (e.g., without kontrplanok pos. 6), but the principle is not changed.

Materials for thermal insulation of roofs

The choice of materials for thermal insulation of the roof - a separate issue, as on the type of insulation often depends on the design "roof pie". We begin with heaters.

Insulation materials for roof

  • First of all, you need to immediately "put aside" bulk materials, such as vermiculite or expanded clay. There are no words, good materials, clean from an environmental point of view, and are perfect for many thermal insulation of building structures. But use them for pitched roofs - which means significantly complicate his task. To ensure a uniform distribution of particulate material in the cavities of the roof structure, especially if a significant slope of the ramp, over 20-25% &# 8212; not so easy.
Scheme roof insulation via haydite

Scheme roof insulation via haydite

Of course, it is impossible in this matter. However, it should be borne in mind that the thermal conductivity of the same audio keramzita pales in comparison, for example, mineral wool or expanded polystyrene, i.e., in order to achieve equal thermal insulation parameters require a very considerable backfill layer. And when you consider that the density of the expanded clay is still significantly above the insulated roof construction will unnecessarily thick and massive.

Bulk materials are good for walls, floors or ceilings. And for the roof there is still a simple and effective solutions.

  • For thermal insulation of the roof may well be used polystyrene. This material is characterized by high levels of thermal resistance, it is light, easy to install, easy to process.

bespressovanny, better known as foam, and extrusion - for insulation of two varieties based polystyrene can be used. Although extruded polystyrene and higher cost, preference should be given to all the same to him. This is due to the special structure of the material with closed pores - the panel is much stronger, have better insulating qualities, parovodonepronitsaemy, that is, for them, in fact, you can not even use a waterproofing membrane.

The foam is cheaper, generally refers to the most affordable insulation material. But its low mechanical strength, water absorption has substantially more. In addition, the foam is very fond of wind nest rodents and insects.

Comparative characteristics of the foam extruded and foamed polystyrene with an average thickness of 50 mm

Name characteristics materialaEkstrudirovanny foam penopolistirolBespressovanny
Illustrationpenopleksi
Water absorption in% by volume for 30 days, no more than0.44
Water absorption in% by volume for 24 hours, no more than0.22
Permeability mg / m × h × Pa0,018-
The thermal conductivity in the dry state at a temperature (25 + -5) S (W / m × ° C) of not more than0,028-0,0350,036-0,050
sound absorption coefficient, dB23-27 42-53
Tensile strength at static bending, MPa0.4-1.00,07-0,20
Compressive strength at 10% deformation MPa, not less than0.25-0.500.05-0.20
Density, kg / m2 within28-4515-35
Temperature range, ° C-50 to +75-50 to +70
combustibility From G1 (malogoryuchy, self-extinguishing) to G2 (low flammable) T4 (combustible)

Both material ideally virtually impossible, without cracks or gaps in fit "nests" intended for it between the rafters, i.e. require additional sealing insulation layer by foam.

Thermal insulation of a roof rays extrusion polystyrene foam in two layers. Clearly visible areas filled with foam material to fit the rafters

Thermal insulation of a roof rays extrusion polystyrene foam in two layers. Clearly visible areas filled with foam material to fit the rafters

But the main drawback of the heaters based on expanded polystyrene still remains a high fire risk, which is extremely important especially in terms of roofing system. None of the types of expanded polystyrene can not be considered completely non-flammable, and many kinds of foam in general belong to a class G4, that is fine, and burn, melt, spread the fire.

Expanded polystyrene is not only capable of burning, but allocates to this extremely dangerous toxic substances

Expanded polystyrene is not only capable of burning, but allocates to this extremely dangerous toxic substances

Moreover, the burning of any polystyrene is always accompanied by the release of extremely toxic products that can cause severe poisoning and chemical burns to the respiratory system. In humans, a similar inhaled the smoke, the chances of escape in case of fire people are minimal. This should think very carefully before making a decision in favor of expanded polystyrene.

  • Optimal in all respects looks use mineral wool insulation. But here too we need the right approach.
Slag wool as insulation for the roof should not be considered

Slag wool as insulation for the roof should not be considered

&# 8212; Completely eliminated the use of slag wool - this material is short-lived, strongly absorbs moisture quickly become caked badly holds its shape, but also - a very controversial chemical composition of which depends on the quality of raw materials - blast furnace slag. Very often in this mineral wool is extremely high percentage of acidity, which leads to increased corrosion processes on the building structures.

High-quality wool - the material is not bad, but still not without serious flaws

High-quality wool - the material is not bad, but still not without serious flaws

&# 8212; Good insulation can be wool - it is relatively inexpensive, has good resistance to heat transfer. All would be good, if not for its significant disadvantages. And those can be attributed to the weak elasticity of glass fibers - they are brittle, crumbling, that creates a lot of problems not only during installation. Even during operation it is difficult to prevent ingress of micro particles into the atmosphere premises - which is prerequisite to the emergence of allergic reactions, especially in people with a predisposition.

Another its drawback - strong water absorption, which is not good for the under-roof insulation. In addition, glass is still prone to caking gradual, subsidence, and this in turn leads to a decrease in its thermal insulation characteristics.

&# 8212; The optimal use for this can be considered as a heater basaltic mineral wool blocks. Basalt fibers are characterized by strength and elasticity, so the material is not sags with time, it is easy to stack between the guide rails, beams, rafters and the like Allergic reactions such wool is almost does not. Special hydrophobic impregnation of the material reduces water absorption to a minimum. However, basalt wool well lets water vapor, which is very important for the normal balance in the thermal insulation structure.

Optimal variant for thermal insulation of the roof - the use of basalt wool blocks.

Optimal variant for thermal insulation of the roof - the use of basalt wool blocks.

The material is easy to process, keeps excellent in shape and size to it. Special elastic properties often allow you to set blocks of basalt rock wool without any additional fastenings - vraspor between the guide battens or rafters.

Moreover, some manufacturers, in particular, ROCKWOOL, produces extremely convenient for panel mounting with spring-loaded edge ( "Flexy" technology). Such blocks after installation independently securely fixed between the bearing frame members.

Laying insulating plates equipped with spring-loaded edge

Laying insulating plates equipped with spring-loaded edge "flexi"

The most important advantage of the mineral wool - fire. Material is non-flammable and does not emit category during heating hazardous to human health.

One of the best options - insulation ROCKWOOL Light Bats

One of the best options - insulation ROCKWOOL Light Bats

As an example, the characteristics of insulating boards made of basalt wool ROCKWOOL Light Bats. This is - a universal material, suitable for various kinds of thermal insulation works. It is the best suited for them and warming rays of the roof.

Operating parameters materialaPokazateli
Coefficient of thermal conductivity (W / m × ° C):
- calculated at t = 10 ° C0,036
- calculated at t = 25 ° C0,037
- operating at "A" conditions0,039
- operating under the conditions of the "B"0,041
Group of combustibilityNG
fire classKM0
Water vapor permeability (mg / (h × m × Pa), not less than0.03
Water absorption by partial immersionnot more than 1 kg / m²

  • Excellent results show deposition technology of thermal insulation materials on the inner surface of the roof ramps. In particular, more and more home owners opt for the use of sprayed polyurethane foam.
Spray polyurethane foam insulation on the inner surface of the roof slope

Spray polyurethane foam insulation on the inner surface of the roof slope

In the context of this publication, this option will not be considered, since the emphasis is on self-insulation of the roof. A special equipment is required, equipment, raw materials for such technology. Yes and no work experience to perform such thermal insulation will be difficult.

2016-05-05_152022Modern insulation technology - the application of polyurethane foam

For such a technology of thermal insulation of building structures stretches "tail" as the enthusiastic and highly critical comments. understand the advantages and disadvantages of polyurethane foam insulation It helps special publication of our portal.

Films and membranes

Creating a "roofing pie" involves the use of films and membranes for various purposes. In this issue you need to be clear about what role a particular barrier, as a violation of the order of installation will not only reduce the insulating quality of the generated design, but also to quickly bring it into complete disrepair.

  • Let's start with gidroparoizolyatsionnoy film, which is attached to the side of the room. Its purpose - to prevent the penetration into the insulation layer the water vapor concentration and the pressure are in premises where people reside, is usually much higher than outdoors.

For these purposes may be used conventional polyethylene film of at least 200 microns thick. Well hold pairs foil material that, in addition, can reflect the heat flow to the side of the room. Issued and the special-vapor barrier film constituting the multilayer structure of polypropylene, and woven polypropylene fabric with a special coating viscose component, which does not allow condensate dropwise to slide downwards - it at normal air dry directly on the surface. Incidentally, such a film under certain conditions may be employed to create the upper moisture barrier - this will be discussed below.

One of the examples of vapor barrier film

One of the examples of vapor barrier film

In order to create a vapor barrier had no "loopholes", overlaps paintings, as well as their contiguity to the surfaces will be sealed with waterproof tape.

Define map diagram and specify the desired thermal resistance coating Specify the parameters of the inner lining material of the attic (attic)Material inner skin (trim)board or natural liningplywoodOSB sheetspaneling or MDF panelnatural corkchipboard or fiberboard sheetsgypsum plasterboardplaster cement-sandplaster cement + sand + limeplaster of lime and sandplaster gypsum-basedPlating thickness, mm1000 - to convert to meterswindage

The obtained value is rounded and lead to a standard issued by thickness selected insulation material. It is often necessary to use a two-layer insulation - this will be discussed below.

Carrying roof insulation

Usually calculations of the future system of roof insulation are held in advance, even at the stage of designing the roof structure itself. The fact that it is much easier to foresee the dimensions of thermal insulation material and in accordance with the set step installation rafters. For example, the scheduled use blocks basalt wool 600 mm wide. The rafters are mounted in the same step, but due to the thickness of the timber lumen therebetween is approximately 550 mm - fine setting to vraspor maximally dense bed thermal insulation.

It plays a role, and the height of the beam rafter. It should be sufficient for laying the insulation and leaving, if necessary, additional ventilation gap. There are situations when the timber has to build up, nailing it to the extra racks (one of these options has been shown in the diagram "roofing pie").

All wood elements of the roof structure must undergo predetermined processing corresponding special structures provide increased resistance to biodegradation of wood and fire.

Processing truss system antiseptic and fire impregnation

Processing truss system antiseptic and fire impregnation

Embodiments of the work sequence

In what direction to work towards the creation of "roofing pie"? On this account there is no consensus. It seems to suggest a sequence from the bottom up, in which the roof deck will be the final "chord". However, such an approach is necessary podgadat a sufficiently long period of fine weather, as unlikely to succeed fully installed insulation, lay his diaphragm, perform the necessary crate (and sometimes more - and kontrobreshetku) and lay a roof for one - two days. But even a sudden storm cloud is able to completely ruin all the work - through wet insulation to bring it into disrepair. Furthermore, with this approach the major work on the roof insulation will have to spend at a height that is not always convenient and safe.

Different approaches to work: first, insulation, waterproofing and then (on the left), or vice versa (right).

Different approaches to work: first, insulation, waterproofing and then (on the left), or vice versa (right).

From this point of view seems to be more profitable and reliable initially to provide reliable waterproofing of the roof structure - mounted membrane assembly lath and possibly as soon as the flooring and roofing. After that it is possible, it is not afraid of the vagaries of weather, without haste, to keep the insulation, working from the bottom, in a safe and comfortable environment, sitting on the attic ceiling.

However, often there are situations when a process becomes the only possible one. A typical example - two-layer insulation with the removal of the second layer on the outside of the truss system. And this case is not a rarity - such a scheme minimizes the number of thermal bridges, and in addition, to save storage space in the attic close. A typical example is shown in scheme below:

Scheme double layer roof insulation with the removal of the second layer on the outside of the truss system

Scheme double layer roof insulation with the removal of the second layer on the outside of the truss system

With this approach, work will be conducted in the following order:

The first step on the rafters (Pos. 3) the vapor barrier film (pos. 1) is fixed by the attic. It is usually lay horizontal stripes, moving gradually from top to bottom, with obligatory observance webs overlap at least 100 ÷ 150 mm, and sealing these overlaps construction waterproof tape. Be sure all the sealed space contiguity film coating to other surfaces - walls, floors, pipes, etc.

Often at this stage carry out the inner lining (pos. 2) garret (attic). The diagram is shown there is a slight inaccuracy - not recommended to press the skin directly to the vapor barrier, as this may cause the accumulation of moisture in the narrow, unventilated gap. Wiser to fill the rafters slats thickness at least 10 ÷ 20 mm or mount kontrobreshetku the same thickness, with a pitch depending on the fabric. You can then easily sheathe the interior.

All further work has to be carried out from above.

Between trusses on roofed vapor barrier, insulation plates stacked material (pos. 4), the maximum tightly without leaving any gaps. By design, the thickness must be equal to the height of the rafter beams. For example, the stacked mineral wool slabs 150 mm thick, and calculations indicate that in order to secure insulation layer needs to 200 mm. Hence, we will add another layer of 50 mm at the top.

To this end, perpendicular to the rafters they stuffed bars batten (item 5). Desired height (in our case - 50 mm). The step between the bars should provide tight installation of insulating plates (6 pos.) - this was already mentioned above. Moreover, trying to spread the plate so as to overlap the insulation joints of the first row - are minimized so cold bridges.

Flooring waterproofing membrane diffusion

Flooring waterproofing membrane diffusion

The next step is laid waterproofing water vapor permeable membrane (pos. 7). It is attached to the stapler staples wooden parts. Lay it horizontal stripes, moving from eaves to the ridge. Thus, each top web is located on the bottom, allowing water flow down if necessary. Wherein the overlap should be at least 100 ÷ 150 mm (often coated on the membrane cloths overlap line). Be sure to pay attention to the "working" side of the membrane &# 8212; this can not be wrong. As sheathing membrane is further fixed kontrbrusyami (Pos. 8) are essentially the same and create a ventilation gap between the membrane and the roof. Its height should be at least 50 mm.

Atop mounted kontrbrusev lath (Pos. 9) with parameters depending on the selected roofing. And the last step is, in fact, a roof deck.

By the way, high-quality membranes are quite capable to become a reliable temporary protection thermal insulation system, ie bad weather are not fatal.

But - completely opposite situation, when the second insulation layer attached on the inside:

Thermal insulation is also a two-layer, but the second layer is fixed by the attic

Thermal insulation is also a two-layer, but the second layer is fixed by the attic

With such an approach would probably be more profitable to start with fixing waterproofing and crates, perhaps - and immediately mount and roofing. Then move to the attic and continue to work there, in sequence: warming - a base layer under the second sheathing layer, providing a second insulation layer, a vapor barrier cover, or counter-lathing under a covering and, finally, a covering material selected from within skates.

When a single-layer insulation both possible execution sequence of insulating, waterproofing and roofing.

Important nuances provide roof ventilation

As already mentioned, in order that moisture can evaporate into atmosphere freely between the vapor-permeable membrane and the roof covering in any case must remain lumen at least 50 mm. However, in some cases, it is not enough. There are three possibilities:

  • When using qualitative Superdiffuzionnaya membrane with vapor permeability over 1200 g / m² (some may even be up to 4 - 5 thousands of grams of) clearance between it and the layer of insulation is not required - Moisture can find a free outlet.
  • If the applied diffusion membrane "thinner" quality, a water vapor permeability of less than 1000 g / m², the insulation between them and another mandatory ventilation gap, at least a 20 ÷ 40 mm. It is possible to provide an increase in the height of the rafter beams or enhance its strap desired height.

When attaching the membrane to the rafters in such a situation, it should not stretch - it should sag somewhat to the temperature decreases has not occurred gap material (shown in the illustration, the right fragment).

Providing sagging membrane (left) and a simple jig for restricting landing insulation block.

Providing sagging membrane (left) and a simple jig for restricting landing insulation block.

And how to ensure that the when laying insulating panels between the rafters from below to provide the necessary clearance on them? This apparatus solved some simple conductor (shown - right fragment). At the height of boring stuffed small cloves, between which is stretched in the perpendicular and diagonal directions scaffold. Incidentally, the same manner can be solved and the problem below when such temporary fixation insulating block due to the low steepness of the slope or insufficiently tight fit to the rafters they strive to fall down.

  • Finally, the third case, when due to lack of the possibility of acquiring diffuse underroof membranes have to perform waterproofing of the film material without having vapor-permeable properties.

In this case, as provided by the presence of two air gaps, but their height has to be increased to 60 ÷ 80 mm. By the way this campaign is often practiced when to increase the bearing capacity of the timber used by the rafters high altitude, far exceeding the required insulation thickness. The use of expensive diffusion membranes in such a situation looks unprofitable.

In any scheme must be provided for the free movement of air from the eaves to the ridge. At eaves are provided for venting gap roof space, which can then be closed, for example, perforated sheet set soffits. At the top, the ridge must also be a free outlet for the air flow. This is ensured by a design of the skate, or installing special ventilation windows-caps.

There should be free movement of air for ventilation. Below the eaves can be closed with perforated soffits

There should be free movement of air for ventilation. Below the eaves can be closed with perforated soffits

If the scheme involves two ventilation lumen, above and below the membrane, for the bottom stream it is also necessary to consider the way free exit. If you are using expensive superdiffuzionnaya membrane, it is - does not matter. In any other case, the ridge portion must be done sectional width of at least 20 mm.

Try to avoid the most common mistakes!

It makes sense to list the most common mistakes made by beginners at warming rays of the roof.

  • Unjustified saving on heating materials. Proposed above calculation shows the minimum permissible thickness, which always have to lead to standard sizes only in a big way. Lack of insulation - is the inevitable energy losses.
  • Insufficient attention to the difficult sections of the roof, for example, the junction of the rafters with mauerlat. In these areas often are not filled with insulation cavities that are not that "bridges" and the very real "highways" cold.
  • If rigid insulation (Styrofoam) - gapping panels to wooden structures and to each other. All clearances must be caulked or fragments of material or filled with foam, not to leave even a small slit. Better use and konopatku, and foam.
  • Use for roof system and unseasoned wood crates. Lumber must undergo a drying process, and the acceptable level of moisture in them &# 8212; not more than 20%. It makes sense after the acquisition of the material to give it an opportunity to further dry out, providing the necessary conditions for this. In this case, it is strictly prohibited to close the pile with plastic wrap.
  • Insufficient thickness of air gaps. Disruption of normal ventilation always leads to the accumulation of moisture is extremely dangerous for the roof structure.
Do not forget about the breather membrane rupture in the ridge!

Do not forget about the breather membrane rupture in the ridge!

  • Ignoring the requirements to provide a gap in the waterproofing layer in the ridge area. As a result of this omission at the top is inevitably formed a "wet dome", which will give rise to rotting wood on that important area of ​​the rafter system.
  • And finally, one should never lose sight of the fact that the attic insulated on similar technology, using an internal vapor barrier, it turns into a kind of "thermos". In order not to turn it into a real "greenhouse", have to be provided effective ventilation, natural or even forced.

At the end of the article - a small video tutorial on insulation pitched roof

Video: insulation materials on the inside of the roof "Ursa"

Hip roof truss system

Hip roof truss system

Conventional gable roofs of some owners of suburban housing seems too banal and uninteresting, and they begin to search for more original versions. Among these include a hip design, it is extremely interesting looking outwardly as if descended from the illustrations for a textbook on the history and the book of fairy tales.

Hip roof truss system

Hip roof truss system

Despite its apparent simplicity, truss system hip roof is one of the most difficult in the construction. To undertake the construction of such facilities on their own, having no experience of such work - it will be very risky. However, for those who wish to stop the choice on this construction, it will be useful to obtain information on the structure of the system, its main components, for the basic calculation. It is in this context that this publication will be built. We hope that it will help to understand the nuances of the hipped roof system, a realistic assessment of its complexity and the possibility of self-assembly.

What is a hip truss system?

In fact, the hip roof is geometrically represents the "classic" pyramid, that is a figure with a polygon at the base and faces are isosceles triangles, converging in a single peak.

In a particular construction of the pyramid is most often used with a base in the form of a quadrangle, although extensions (turrets, bay windows, etc.) or light garden buildings (gazebos) practiced the construction of more complex structures in which at the bottom may lie right or six- octagon (sometimes even more).

Hip roof is not always rectangular in plan - it can rely on six, eight or even more angles

Hip roof is not always rectangular in plan - it can rely on six, eight or even more angles

Yet on the hipped hipped roof emphasis will be placed in this publication. Here, too, variations are possible. "Classic" is considered a pyramidal structure resting on the base of-squared, with the apex located on a perpendicular passing through the point of intersection of the diagonals of the base. In this case, all four ramp will be completely congruent triangles arranged at the same angle of inclination.

Pyramid with a square at the base.

Pyramid with a square at the base.

The figure shows a diagram of a pyramid with a square base - namely it and will be considered in future. By this drawing I will have no time to go back on the course of the exposition.

It is possible to use a hip circuit and a rectangular building, which is longer than the width. However, in practice it is used infrequently - due to unnecessary complications and calculations, and installation. With such an embodiment, ramps, resting on the shorter wall, are longer and have a smaller angle of inclination to the horizontal, i.e. external loads and already count them individually. For a rectangular base which is more suitable hipped roof - it is very similar to a tent, but it is better adapted to such conditions.

best fit hipped rafter system for the rectangular building, which is akin to a tent, but still has a ridged horizontal run

best fit hipped rafter system for the rectangular building, which is akin to a tent, but still has a ridged horizontal run

Hipped roof form gives a lot of important advantages:

Hip roof - it is not only the outer of the original building, but also a lot of other important advantages

Hip roof - it is not only the outer of the original building, but also a lot of other important advantages

  • House with a roof is very advantageous stands out from the standard bi-roofs with their original appeal.
  • According to its aerodynamic qualities, ie ability to withstand wind load, especially when squally gusts or even a hurricane, it is among the pitched roofs, probably has no equal. And minimized the lifting component of wind load - the efforts of trying to rip up the roof.
  • The unique pyramid shape provides even distribution of all internal and external loads on the roof system and the building in general.
  • With proper insulation of the roof ramps, such a roof - the best solution in terms of energy saving.
  • The optimal choice of the slope of the roof ramps will not be any problems and with snow drifts.
The desire to combine a hip system and attic - doable, but seriously complicates the entire roof structure.

The desire to combine a hip system and attic - doable, but seriously complicates the entire roof structure.

The disadvantage, in addition to a certain complexity of construction, you can call it that four identical ramp serious "eat" the volume of the attic, which complicates the organization in the "habitable" it square. To create a residential attic, we have dramatically increased the slope of the roof and to resort to the "sidebar" additional windows and superstructures. It is clear that the brothers themselves for the calculation and construction of such a complex structure - simply meaningless, since it requires highly professional architectural design and installation.

Basic elements hipped roof system

Consider the basic structure of the roof system tent roof. To do this, first we take a purely abstract house whose walls form a square, and will try to try to him a roof.

So it will look like

So it will look like "classic" hip roof on an abstract taken from the walls of the house in the shape of a square

In the context of this article, we are not particularly interested in the roof and walls. Hide them from view, to remain "one on one" since, in fact, the very construction of roof system. Well, then consider it in detail.

Base unit and main elements of a roof truss system hipped

Base unit and main elements of a roof truss system hipped

The walls are hidden from view, but by a mauerlat (pos. 1). This is - a powerful beam, which belt is mounted on the upper end of the wall - that it will abut all rafters. In contrast, for example, a gable roof, mauerlat in this case should be carefully closed frame rigidly connected - this depends directly on the strength and stability of the entire truss structure.

From mauerlat angles upwards towards the center, to the ridge assembly (3 pos.) Converge ribs pyramid - their role operate nakosnye rafters (2 pos.). This - the longest and most loaded with all the other rafters, and are usually used for the manufacture of the most "powerful" timber &# 8212; this will be explained below. In the figure, the pyramids they correspond to the intervals [SC], [HF], [CC] and [KD]. Length naslonnogo rafters on the same lines as indicated by Ld.

From the center of each side of the ridge to the same node are central rafters (Pos. 4). They determine the height of the isosceles triangle of each ramp. In the drawing - is, for example, the interval [CI] (the length of the rafters - Lts). In geometry to refer to the element of the pyramid have a separate name - apothem.

Finally, from each nakosnoy rafter on both sides to extend mauerlat shortened rafters or narozhniki (pos. 5) provided with a certain step. Their number will depend on the overall dimensions of the entire system.

Incidentally, often in order not to "overload" the compounds ridged node refuse installation of central trusses and narozhniki mounted only by placing them symmetrically with apothem.

This diagram shows a variant in which all without exception rafters ranging from nakosnyh and ending with the shortest narozhnikom, formed with a projection beyond mauerlat - to produce the desired eaves. But in the future, all calculations will be performed for the "pure" length - from ridge to bridle mauerlat and elongation value will be calculated separately, depending on the planned width of the eaves and the steepness of the slope angle.

The principal difference in the formation of the eaves on the left - the rafters themselves extend beyond the walls, to the right - they are increasing filly

The principal difference in the formation of the eaves on the left - the rafters themselves extend beyond the walls, to the right - they are increasing filly

Very often, and receives - a powerful rafter beams terminates at mauerlat and Cornice light buildup length provided by special items - fillies of thinner boards. This makes it possible to achieve considerable savings in lumber.

In the diagram, one of the easiest circuits when nakosnye rafters made of hanging scheme has been brought, and fully balanced. Let's face it - this is very rare in reality. In practice, one has to resort to the installation of additional, reinforcing elements, which provide strength and stability of structure truss system.

Firstly, the rafters can be installed on naslonnoy system, that is, relying on the central rack. Reception can also abut on the inner wall of the capital (if available), or laid on the center sill - a powerful beam, resting on the opposite exterior walls of the building.

Variant fastening naslonnyh nakosnyh trusses on the center rack (headstock)

Variant fastening naslonnyh nakosnyh trusses on the center rack (headstock)

1 - nakosnye rafters;

2 - central column (headstock);

3 - Tightening (girders).

Incidentally, in the construction of lightweight structures, such as gazebos, sometimes pillar located throughout the height of the foundation (the floor) and to the ridge site and serves as the subject of "interior".

Another option - a base for the rack are horizontal tightening (beams) connecting opposite rafters. This tightening may be placed at the bottom, closer to mauerlat, or about the middle of the height of the "pyramid". Sometimes these beams serve as a basis for filing the roof attic.

The center stack is based on the intersection of puffs

The center stack is based on the intersection of puffs

The figure shows an example where nakosnye rafters (Pos. 1) diagonally connected puffs (Pos. 5). At the intersection of puffs mounted central support (pos. 4). All rafters, including central (pos. 2) connected to the support (headstock), thereby forming a ridge assembly (pos. 3).

Often the center stack is not used at all. On the roofs of small rigidity is ensured simply and reliable bonding central nakosnyh trusses on mauerlat and ridge node. The ridge rafters fit together gashes at a certain angle, and then this compound is enhanced metal loser. Another option - use a central element insert, which carries the rafters.

On the ridge axis of the assembly is placed insert to which are fixed all the rafters.

On the ridge axis of the assembly is placed insert to which are fixed all the rafters.

But when long lengths of rafter foot sometimes - and narozhnikov, they still require strengthening. To this end, additional components of the system can be used.

Variant structural reinforcement hipped roof

Variant structural reinforcement hipped roof

This illustration shows one of the variants. In the center of a square formed mauerlat (pos. 1) is embedded groundsel (pos. 2). As in the usual way - set nakosnye (3 pos.) And central (item 4). Rafters and narozhniki (5 Pos.).

Bottom nakosnyh rafters reinforced cranial bars (item 6). - they are used for more robust support for the installed narozhnikov.

And central legs, and narozhniki associated with opposite symmetrically arranged their details using cable ties (pos. 7). Tightening of the lower row, in order to avoid the center deflection, based on the sill, and themselves at the same time serve as a support for the upper row, perpendicular to them.

From ties to each of the central rafter and narozhnikam go uprights (pos. 8).

Instead of vertical columns (or together with them) can be employed struts - supporting elements disposed at an angle to the horizontal. This is useful when you need to shift the main burden on any one center point (ie, sill or capital jumper inside the building), and not to distribute it by tightening. The struts are usually placed at an angle of 45 ÷ 60 °. They are used especially if the rafters are longer than 4.5 meters. These additional points of support can reduce the cross-section of the timber coming for manufacturing trusses, that is, and to facilitate and reduce the cost of the entire system design.

Connection nodes and struts Lezhnyov

Connection nodes and struts Lezhnyov

The illustration shows two variants. Left - combination in which to sleepers (1 pos.) And fixed stand (2 pos.) And struts (3 pos.). In the right figure - have done without the rack, and groundsel abut only two strut, stretching up to the symmetrical rafters.

The diagram also shows the connection elements, - metal nageli (4 pos.) And steel brackets (5 Pos.).

As already mentioned, the longest and have the most concentrated loads are nakosnye (diagonal) rafters. Not only that, they are usually thicker than the other - often they have to further prop to prevent deflection or twisting. This may be used such as struts extending from the central Lezhnyov, or a special system node called truss support.

Trussed rafters support nakosnogo

Trussed rafters support nakosnogo

This node represents the truss beams (Pos. 9) which cuts at the corner in mauerlat, and from which upwardly leaves column (pos. 10), propping nakosnuyu rafter foot. Sometimes, on the roofs of large size, it is necessary to establish a Sprengel and trussed farm, that is, to strengthen the vertical struts rack.

The usual truss assembly (left) and reinforced truss truss (right)

The usual truss assembly (left) and reinforced truss truss (right)

There are other mounting options and strengthening truss system hip roof - many use their own masters, tried and tested and proven techniques for years. But the basic principle is still retained in this, as was shown above.

Now it is necessary to consider a set of questions related to the linear dimensions of the structure of main parts, with the required cross-section for the manufacture of lumber, other geometric parameters generated by the system. In short, you need to immerse yourself in the calculations.

Carrying out basic calculations truss system hip roof

Conducting calculations suggested hosts will be defined in advance with the main characteristics of the future roof and the necessary amount of material. Calculations should be performed in a specific sequence, since most of the parameters are closely linked, and can be said to derive one from the other.

The height of the "pyramid", and the slope angle rays planned roofing hip roof

This group is highlighted in the first place. Pepechislennye characteristics are closely linked to each other and will be decisive for the remaining calculations.

Why do I need to know in advance the slope of the ramps? Yes, if only because each owner beforehand sees the roof of his future home, "dressed" in a particular roof covering, which is greater than he liked. And when choosing a coating, you want - do not want to, and have to comply with certain requirements - each material has its own limits on the scope of the minimum pitch.

The fact that the slope depends on the height of the "tent" of the top (and vice versa), probably do not have to explain &# 8212; with increasing one parameter is increasing and a second. But the relationship is - not linear and tangential. Referring to Scheme Drawing "pyramid".

The height of the ridge is designated node H - a segment [KF]. The very top in horizontal projection lies exactly in the middle of any side of a square forming the base. It turns right-angled triangle KFE, cathetus [FE] which is known - is a half width (length) of the building [AB]. The angle of slope of the roof - α. It is easy to identify and the height of:

H = 0.5 × [AB] × tgα

This calculation will be easier to produce with the help of built-in calculator:

Calculator relationship height hip roof apex angle and the steepness of the roof

 Enter the requested value and press "Calculate the height of the vertex hipped roofs H"The length (width) of the house, metersThe planned inclination angle of slope of the roof α (degrees)

The calculator allows you to solve both "direct" and "reverse" problem. For example, if the originally planned node ridge height defined (e.g., for arrangement of a garret), then sequentially varying the angle of inclination, it can find the optimum for the height of a predetermined value.

And when both values ​​are known, nothing can be defined and put a roof covering. The following table shows the minimum value of the slope angles for different types of roofs. Given that some sources say the slope of the ramp is not measured in degrees and in percentage or ratios (ratio of height to the base of the triangle), these figures are given too.

Minimum slope slope roofing krovliTip
degreesproportional
ratio
interest
91: 6.615%Roll roofing bituminous coatings, mastic pasted on hot method, not less than two layers.
Certain types of corrugated board - in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the material.
101: 617%Slate wave asbestos cement, reinforced profile.
Evroshifer - ondulin, with solid crate.
11 ÷ 12 °1: 520%Tile bituminous soft.
141: 425%Slate asbestos cement flat reinforced profile.
All types of corrugated board or metal, without any restrictions.
161: 3.529%Roofing sheet metal, with a rebate
18 ÷ 19 °1: 333%All types of asbestos-cement slate wave, without limitation,
26 ÷ 27 °1: 250%Piece roofing covering - ceramic, cement, polymer concrete tiles, slate tiles
39 °1: 1.2580%Natural coverage - chips, shingles, shingles, reed roof.

There is a nuance - important when choosing a roofing. The fact that the triangular shape of the ramps are more prone or MMA, or a soft roll materials. It's not the performance characteristics, corny - to save the purchased coverage. When cutting sheet materials (corrugated board, Slate, Ondulin, metal) too much excess will go to gouge (as waste). However, the case of the owners - the cost sheet materials are often much lower, and that their use may still be fully justified.

The length of the central and nakosnyh rafters

If you determine the height of the top, ie the ridge site, it will not be difficult to find a "working length" rafters, that is, from the top to the junction with mauerlat

To begin with - the central rafters.

At first, determine the length of the central rafters

At first, determine the length of the central rafters

We have already mentioned that the central leg is sometimes not used - instead of them with a small running start from the middle symmetrically mounted a pair of short-narozhnikov rafters. Nevertheless, even in this case, the resulting calculation value is useful to us - and to determine the length of the most narozhnikov, and for the calculation of the total roof area.

Again attention to the diagrams shown in the beginning of the publication. Central rafter essentially geometrically represents the height of the triangular ramp (apofemu pyramid), and is the hypotenuse [KE] angled triangle KFE. The legs are known to us - it is half the width (length) of the building [AB]and has calculated the height H. Nothing prevents to apply the Pythagorean theorem

the length (width) of the house, metersa calculation for a rafter? - central rafter - nakosnoe rafter

The calculation was made, but it takes into account only &# 171; working&# 187; the length of the rafters. If the rafters will be used also for the formation of the eaves, they need a certain amount of elongation ΔL. And it is, again, will be different for the rafters, walking along the ramp (the central leg and narozhnikov - for them it is the same), and for the diagonal, nakosnyh.

If the form eaves assumed by setting fillies, the calculation required to determine their &# 171; working&# 187; length.

Scheme determining elongation rafters (or length grasshopper) for eaves formation

Scheme determining elongation rafters (or length grasshopper) for eaves formation

The formula is simple - we know the planned width of the eaves G and the slope angle of slope α. Elongation is equal to:

ΔL = G / cosα

This extension will be the same for all central rafters and for all narozhnikov. For diagonal (nakosnyh) rafters it a few more - but all this is taken into account in the underlying calculator:

Calculator determining elongation trusses (grasshoppers working length) to form a roof eave

 Enter the requested data and press "Calculate elongation rafters (filly working length)"The planned width of the eaves G, mslope angle of slope α, degreesFor what stopilnoy foot forward? - central rafter or narozhniki - nakosnoe rafter

The total length of billets, which will be used for the manufacture of rafters (if they form the eaves), it is easy to calculate by simply summing L + ΔL.

The load that falls on the roof structure, the material for making rafters and pitch their installation

With a length of the central and nakosnyh rafters undecided. Now you need to figure out what section to be sawn, going on their manufacturing. This option will depend on the load flowing in the rafter system.

Loads can be divided into several categories:

  • Static constant load caused by the mass of the truss system, lathing, roofing, insulation, internal binder skates.
  • Live loads, the most prominent of which are snow (mass possible in the area of ​​snow drifts) and wind, also taking into account the climatic conditions of the region and the peculiarities of the structure of the arrangement.
  • Temporary dynamic load force majeure nature, disaster - hurricane winds, abnormal snowfall or rainfall, seismic shocks and other phenomena. Predict all of this - it is impossible, so the design must have a sufficient reserve of strength.
  • In addition, it is necessary to take into account the possible need to stay on the roof of the person - for construction or repairs, snow clearing, etc.

Rafters in order and needed to falling out onto the roof load is evenly distributed as possible on them. Clearly, the more often they are installed, the lower the proportion of the load will fall on each meter.

With this in mind, one can calculate the cross section of the material, which will, with the necessary reserve strength sufficient to design the supporting elements of the system passed all possible tests.

The cross-section will depend on the circumstances of one another by - span length. Simply put - it is the distance between two points of the carrier element support. Thus, the rafter can rest only in the ridge and mauerlat node, that is, it will be the maximum span, or have additional reinforcement in the form of attendants (racks) or braces - this is not in vain mentioned above.

If the calculated distributed load per linear meter of the rafters, and to know the distance between the planned support points (span length), it is easy to define the desired cross section timber (boards, beams) that will be sufficient for such a system. You can use the following table:

The calculated value of the distributed load per meter rafter, kg / mOptimalnoe section beams, boards or logs for the production rafters
75100125150175Board or barLog
- or timber board thickness, mmDiameter, mm
405060708090100
trusses span length between the points of support m- the height of the board or beam, mm
4.543.532.5180170160150140130120120
54.543.53200190180170160150140140
5.554.543.5-210200190180170160160
65.554.54--220210200190180180
6.565.554.5---230220210200200
-6.565.55----240230220220

Explanation for use of the table:

For example, calculations show that per meter truss legs have a load of 150 kg, and rafter itself will have a free span at its longest portion (e.g., between the strut and mauerlat) - 4.5 meters. According to these data go to the left side of the table and find the intersection of these cell parameters. From this line, but on the right side of the table, you can write down all the valid values ​​beam cross-section (or the diameter of the log), which will meet the requirements to ensure the necessary strength. In this example, boards or beams 60 × 220 70 × 210 80 × 200 90 × 190, 100 × 180 or 180 mm diameter logs.

Now we have to figure out how to determine the load distribution. Settlement procedure itself - is complex, and there is hardly any sense to bring cumbersome formulas that can only scare off some readers. Instead, it will offer more convenient algorithm tied to the calculator, which already takes into account all the basic relationships and dependencies, and only need to correctly enter the required values.

Calculator for determining a distributed load on the rafters

So, to calculate the calculator asks for the following information:

  • The steepness of the slope of the roof - this is directly dependent on the level of wind and snow loads. Obviously, the steeper the slope of the family, the less significance will be snow load, but the more "sail", ie the wind effects. The value of the angle of the roof slope we already know.
  • Type planned roofing. Various materials are seriously different and its own weight, and the degree of vacuum crates under them.
  • The next item is required to account for snow load. The country is divided into zones according to the probabilistic volumes of snowfall, according to the long-term meteorological observations. The values ​​programmed into the calculator, and the user can only determine the number of the zone on the attached map-scheme:
Distribution of the Russian Federation in the area on the level of snow load

Distribution of the Russian Federation in the area on the level of snow load

  • Next - wind load. To start follows a similar procedure to identify the zone number for your region on the map diagram, located below:
Distribution of the Russian Federation at the level of the zone of influence of the wind.

Distribution of the Russian Federation at the level of the zone of influence of the wind.

  • To account for the impact of the wind only numbers geographically areas - is not enough. Must be properly attributed to its structure and the corresponding zone, depending on the characteristics of a particular construction site.

In the calculator will be given quite exhaustive signs of zoning ( "A", "B" or "B"), but it is necessary to take into account one more nuance. The fact that these obstacles to the wind can be taken into account if they are located within a circle with a radius equal to 30 ×h, Where h - a planned height of the building being erected in the ridge (the top of the "tent"). For example, home to 6 meters in height are taken into account those natural or artificial barriers to the wind, which are at a distance of no more than 180 meters.

  • Finally, and she has already mentioned the building height h - it is also the initial value necessary for the calculation of the wind action.
  • The last point is the preposition to make the planned installation step rafters on the slope. It is clear that the more often they are installed, the lower the value of the distributed load, but "carried away", probably also should not, as too small a step would lead to complication and weighting of the system itself. Hence, by varying the value setting step, the user may try to select the best option, and then at the table to determine the desired cross section of lumber for this case. Several options will give a detailed picture, and you can take this or that decision.

Now you can go directly to the calculations:

 Enter the requested data and press "Calculate distribution of load on the rafters"The angle of slope of the roof, degreesSpecify the selected type of roofingAsbestos cement slate conventional ProfileAsbestos-cement roofing reinforcement profilePulp bituminous sheets ( "Euroslate", "ondulin")Roofing iron (galvanized steel)soft tileMetal, corrugatedceramic tileTile Cement-basedThe resin-sand tileRoof - roofing material on the asphalt mastic in two layersDefine the map diagram and specify the level of the snow load zone in their regionIIIIIIIVVVIVIIIdentify on the map and enter the zone in their region at the level of wind pressureIaIIIIIIIVVVIVIISpecify the location of the building zone Zone "A" - Open terrain (steppes, deserts), the windswept coast of large natural water bodies. Zone "B" - Crossed, wooded terrain with natural obstacles for the wind or with artificial plantings, up to 10 meters, the territory of the villages and small towns. Zone "B" - dense urban areas with tall artificial barriers for wind of 25 meters or more.Specify the height of the roof ridge above the ground- no more than 5 meters- from 5 to 10 meters- from 11 to 20 meters- more than 20 meters The following will be prompted for the intended installation step rafters. By changing this parameter, you can optimize the value of the distributed load on the raftersStep installation rafters, meters

The value obtained when the input to the table sections must be driven to the nearest up upwards.

This algorithm enables us to calculate the beam cross-section for the central rafters. Truncated rafters (narozhniki) can also be made of the same material. But for nakosnyh, the longest rafters requires a slightly different approach. Therefore, to ensure ensure their strength, it is very often do so: they are made from the same timber as the central rafters, but pairing it sraschivaya twice.

Glued half board nakosnyh rafters hip roof

Glued half board nakosnyh rafters hip roof

Moreover, as already mentioned, for mounting truncated trusses (narozhnikov) on the bottom leg nakosnoy recommended to fix cranial bars.

Compound nakosnogo rafters with narozhnikami

Compound nakosnogo rafters with narozhnikami

1 - nakosnoe rafter of dual boards.

2 - the cranial bars.

3 - shorter rafters (narozhniki).

Attaching the cranial bars simultaneously plays another role - it gives a kind of rafter T-bar, which is much better, and resists bending and torsional loading.

Length narozhnikov

With the manufacture of material rafters truncated-narozhnikov defined, now left to deal with the workpiece length.

Here, of course, also possible to connect trigonometry and the Pythagorean theorem, but there's an easier way.

Form a triangle - like, and it can be used.

Form a triangle - like, and it can be used.

We know the value of d - is half the width or length of the building. Lts - previously the length of the central rafters was calculated. So, the reduction in the length of shortened trusses Δl is proportional to the distance Δd from the central rafter (axial line slope) until a specific narozhnika:

Δd / d = Δl / Lts

Further calculation is converted into simple arithmetic for primary school. However, for those who do not like to mess with the calculations - calculator for calculating length narozhnikov:

A calculator for calculating the length of shortened trusses (narozhnikov)

 Enter the requested data and press "Calculate the length narozhnika"The length (width) of the building, d, mCalculated length of the central rafters, Lts, mThe distance from the central rafter (axial line slope) until narozhnika, Δd, m

narozhnika length is calculated without taking into account the eaves. If it is required to extend this purpose, then how to make additional calculations - already described above.

The total area of ​​the roof

It remains unclear is another important point - is the total area of ​​the resulting roof. And yet, this option is very important to know at the stage at the stage of designing and carrying out preparatory work - from it begins to "dance" when determining the required amount of roofing material with all accessories, sheets of plywood for continuous batten, isolating film, diffusion membranes, a heater, etc.

In the case of "classical" symmetrical hipped roof, no problems - she has four completely identical triangular ramp, and triangle area defined very simply. However, it is necessary to take into account some of the nuances.

Baseline data for determining the area of ​​one tent roof slope

Baseline data for determining the area of ​​one tent roof slope

Since in most cases, forms a roof eaves, it should also be taken into account when calculating the area.

The area of ​​a triangle is equal to:

S = 0.5 × A × h

Where A - base, and h - height. In our case, all the data is already known.

Note the diagram:

base of the triangle in this case would be not only the width of the house D, but the width of the eaves G from both sides, that is: D + 2 × G

The height of the triangular ramp will then previously calculated the length of the central rafter Lts plus its elongation at the eaves ΔL.

As a result, the area of ​​the ramp is equal to:

Sc = 0,5 × (D + 2 × G) × (Lts + ΔL)

And now it remains only to multiply it all on 4 - the number of rays:

Sc = 2 × (D + 2 ×G) × (Lts + ΔL)

All this is taken into account in the underlying calculator:

Calculator for hip roof area

 Enter the requested value and press "Calculate the area of ​​the hip roof"The length (width) D home metersThe width of the eaves of the wall, G, mThe calculated length of the central rafters, Lts, mThe calculated elongation of the rafters at the eaves, ΔL, meters

So, it was considered truss system "classic" hip roof with four identical ramps. Of course, with the increase in the number of "faces of the pyramid" design is complicated, but the basic principle underlying the calculations do not change, as the basis for any slope all the early remains an isosceles triangle.

As you can see, the calculations are not so complex, which, however, can not be said about the installation - there can not do without the turned carpentry skills. And if the desire to build a self-hipped roof was missing, it is necessary, at least, enlist the help of experienced colleagues who have previously engaged in installation of roof systems.

And at the end of the publication - a small video clip in which the layout of a classic hipped hipped roof demonstrates in detail:

Video: the basic elements of a hipped roof system - on a breadboard

Decorating the house foundation steel sheets

Decorating the house foundation steel sheets

The foundation of any house is located in the most demanding conditions. Carry the weight of the entire house and transfer the load to the ground - it is not an easy task. And at the same time still need to be under the ground to resist the various forces of nature, periodically amplified and subside. But this people is not enough, because they require a foundation that he did not miss the water and let the heat leak from the basements. It would seem that the beauty is simply no time to think, but projecting above ground part of the foundation - basement, falls under the gaze of the owners, and they begin to think more about it and finish what have every right.

Finishing options, there are many base. This and finishing natural and artificial stone, tiles, facing bricks, PVC panels, siding and other materials. Of course, most homeowners try to choose a material that is durable, aesthetic, durable and inexpensive. Seemingly mutually exclusive properties are listed, however, it is not so. Finish basement trapezoidal sheet at home - it is an option that requires close attention.

Decorating the house foundation steel sheets

Decorating the house foundation steel sheets

The more profitable finishing trapezoidal sheet foundation

Finishing cap trapezoidal sheet appeared relatively recently, so probably most difficult to accept the use of this material for such purposes. Trapezoidal sheet or corrugated board has long existed, but used to see him as the roofing of some production facilities, warehouses, hangars. In the particular construction it is rarely used. Perhaps this perception is because before decking is a sheet of galvanized steel extremely gray, which gives rigidity to a certain profile - hence the name. Then steel sheets painted with different colors, and such compositions and such technologies that decades decking keeps its color, being exposed daily to the sun, rain and temperature changes. This determined its widespread use in private housing: as roofing, fences and finishing cap.

What are the advantages of finishing trapezoidal sheet foundations of houses?

  • Decking has sufficient strength under the condition of good frame structures.
  • The service life of high-quality corrugated board is tens of years. Many sources on the Internet very safely say that profiled on the base is at least 50 years. To this can be treated with irony, since the conditions sheeting operation, used as facing cap is very tight. But even if the service life of 20-25 years will be - it will be a very good result.
  • Ease of installation makes it possible to finish sheeting basement house in a very short time. And it is quite possible to do yourself.
  • Decking is ideal for the decoration of houses on the pile caps and columnar foundations. Previously, "chicken legs" hidden behind brick walls, under which it was necessary to do your groundwork, and now you can only build a lightweight frame, and which strengthen the steel sheet.
Previously, columnar or pile foundation trimmed brick. It is beautiful, but expensive and troublesome

Previously, columnar or pile foundation trimmed brick. It is beautiful, but expensive and troublesome

  • Making sheets of corrugated board is not limited to different colors. Printech Coating Offset on galvanized sheet allow you to make corrugated board, imitating brickwork, natural stone, various precious woods. It provides unlimited possibilities for the visual design of the cap.
  • Decking is very easy to cut and handle simple tool available to any handyman.
  • To design corners, ends, junctions trapezoidal sheet in the sale is a wide range of additional elements, and fasteners, and you can pick them up in the same color and pattern.
  • Bent under the plinth is very easy to make insulation, and do it in a modern way, without wet processes and ventilated gap. And also very easy to arrange the ventilation in the lower part in the space between the ground and the house when the pile or pier foundation.
  • Decking has a reasonable cost. Finishing cap trapezoidal sheet is much cheaper than natural or artificial stone.

The weak point of profiled sheet steel is its low resistance to corrosion in the event of damage to the protective coating. Particular attention should be paid to the ends after cutting. This operation should be done just the right tool, and after cutting the ends necessarily treated with anti-corrosion compositions or tint.

What profiled choose for lining plinth houses

Profiled produced in a very wide range, and this applies not only colors or kinds, patterning, and its other characteristics, which greatly affect the scope and price. Consider what types of sheeting exist, and it is necessary to estimate for some indicators.

types of corrugated board

All the necessary information about Bent is in its labeling and in the first it is the letter, which speaks volumes about the destination.

  • "H" letter &# 8212; It means that it is profiled carrier, which features increased stiffness. This is achieved by a high wave height, the presence of additional stiffeners, and 0.7 mm thick and up to 1 mm. Such profiled advisable to use in roof structures, ceilings, and permanent formwork. As foundation plinth facing profiled such use is impractical due to its high cost and excessive strength.
Bearing decking is widely used to create floors

Bearing decking is widely used to create floors

  • The letter "C" &# 8212; It says that the profiled sheet is designed for walls. Such a profiled sheet thickness may start at 0.4 mm, wave height and much smaller than the carrier. These sheets are characterized by high flexibility and absolutely not suitable for roofing. But when facing a solid reason as well as the construction of a good frame and the right attaching to it a decking it may well be used for cladding the base and for the fences. And the price compared with Bent type "H" also please the homeowner.
  • "NS" letters in marking sheeting mean that such sheets can be used for roofing and cladding. As well as this type of sheeting is often used for the construction of fences, facings of doors and gates, creating a roof structures. The thickness of such sheets of the sheet may be from 0.4 to 0.8 mm and a profile height of 13 mm to 44 mm. This profiled occupies an intermediate position both in its strength characteristics, and price between the "H" and "C".

By letter followed by a number that indicates the height of the "wave" (Profile) sheeting, which is usually measured in millimeters. It is evident that the greater the height of the wave, the more rigid will have a trapezoidal sheet. For lining plinth "chase" for the value of this index is not necessary at all. In principle, for this purpose it is quite suitable even profiled with a minimum profile height - 8 mm.

The following figure reports the thickness of the metal used for the production of corrugated board. For finishing basements and do not take profiled thickness of 0.6 mm, as the high load-bearing capacity in the event that absolutely do not need. Much cheaper to strengthen the lining frame than acquire proflist 0.8-1 mm. But this figure can be written at the end of the marking. Later, we'll look at the examples.

The following figure which shows the width of the sheet of corrugated board in millimeters, but not geometric and mounting. Cases that the profiled metal sheets never assembled butt, and overlap only, i.e. the width of the portion is hidden by another sheet. It is for the mounting width and make the necessary calculations. Generally used as the blank sheet rolls already painted galvanized steel standard width of 1250 mm for the manufacture of steel sheet which is subjected to cold rolling using special equipment. Depending on the height profile, a repetition frequency, and presence of additional stiffeners final assembly of profiled sheet width may be from 600 mm to 1150 mm.

The last digit indicates the length of the sheet in millimeters. Very often it is neglected, and acquire the sheet, which is on sale, and very vain. If you select the wrong length can be a lot of waste, which then have nowhere to use it. Here is an example. The height of the cap is 800 mm, and were purchased profiled sheet 2000 mm long. Profiled practically always mounted on the cap so that the orientation was vertical its waves, it turns out that the sheet can be cut from two blanks of 800 mm and 400 mm still remains that in order to use the liner is no longer possible. That is why the length of paper to choose. In the example, it is desirable to acquire sheet 2500 mm long. Then it turns out that from it we can get three billets of 800 mm and 100 mm still remain on the curvature of the cut, which is necessary to compensate for the differential level of the cap, because not always the house stands on a perfectly level surface. But each case is different and unique, so must first go to the calculation, and then purchase the required length of profiled sheet.

And what if there is no sale of corrugated sheets required and convenient length? This situation is also a very good yield. The fact is that in every region, every major city in Russia is bound to have companies that manufacture corrugated board in place. This material is very disadvantageous to buy the same place and produce a steel sheet. And more profitable for the producer and for the consumer to buy raw materials in the form of a roll of sheet steel, which is already marked and all protective and decorative coatings, as impart the desired profile is already in place - on the special equipment of cold rolled products. At the same equipment with a special knife, a guillotine cutting blade is at the desired size sheets. And the quality of the cut is, which is not repeated in any tool.

The highest cut quality produce guillotine shears, which are always on the lines for the production of corrugated board

The highest cut quality produce guillotine shears, which are always on the lines for the production of corrugated board

Modern equipment for the production of corrugated board may cut into the canvas to any length, and for this it is not necessary to change the rolling machine profiling rollers or conduct any other complex operations, but only change the settings for the guillotine - how often do cut. Manufacturers typically indicate that any length of the sheet, e.g., 0.5 to 11 or 12 meters by 0.5 meters. And this service should be used carefully. You just have to be ordered from the nearest producer of quality trapezoidal sheet convenient length. Most often, any problems with that any do not arise, because the customer immediately pays all he needed and the finished product do not have to lie for a long time in warehouses or points of sale, awaiting their implementation.

Here is an example of marking sheeting: S20-1150-0,5. This steel sheet with a wall profile height of 20 mm, mounting 1150 mm width and 0.5 mm thickness. If the marking is presented in a way - S20-0,5-1150-2000 &# 8212; , It means the same corrugated board, but contains the first thickness, and at the end also contains the length of the sheet 2000 mm or 2 meters.

Another example of the marking of corrugated board: NS44-1000-0,7. This universal trapezoidal sheet with a profile height of 44 mm, mounting width of 1000 mm and 0.7 mm thick metal. For facing a base profiled apply impractical because its strength is excessive and the price is much higher than in the previous examples.

Types of coatings anticorrosive and decorative sheeting

Of course, he profiled steel sheet in the "naked" form is never used. Thin metal without any protection very quickly eat corrosion. Therefore, sheets to protect from it first of all a layer of zinc. Why Zinc?

  • The zinc coating is easy to apply to the steel sheet, this can be done by electrochemical method, gas thermal spray, hot or cold process mechanically. Some of the methods can be applied only in the workplace, while others are already in operation.
  • The applied zinc coating protects the steel substrate mechanically, i.e. prevents the penetration of oxygen and water, which process is started and iron corrosion.
  • In the presence of moisture, any two metals form a so-called galvanic couple. And in this pair will actively break down the metal, which is more active. In a pair of zinc and iron is more active zinc, which is an anode and that he takes on "strike" to save his "mate" - the basis of steel. And even superficial injuries do not interfere with zinc to carry out their "mission."
  • A thinner compared with iron zinc layer will still corrode much slower, since the contact with oxygen, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide it forms very resistant to any chemical compounds of natural factors &# 8212; 2ZnCO₃Zn (OH) ₂. They form a film on the surface which protects both the steel substrate and the zinc layer.
Physico-chemical processes occurring on galvanized steel

Physico-chemical processes occurring on galvanized steel

It turns out that the zinc coating does not completely eliminate corrosion of steel substrates process, and it only delays the definite time. Iron is safe when zinc is still present, but as soon as his mission will be accomplished, and it is completely exhausted, it will actively corrode iron. It is therefore very important indicator is the thickness of the zinc layer. In good floorings it must be 25-40 microns, corresponding to an exemplary flow rate of 275 g / m² of zinc (total both sides). However, such a corrugated board will be much more expensive, as zinc - it is a very expensive metal. Therefore, manufacturers make thinner layer of zinc - about 180 g / m², but using also other protective and decorative coatings. Another way to save zinc - a protection sheet composition of zinc and aluminum - so-called alyumootsinkovka. The protective properties of the coating is less, but the price also.

The question may arise - how to control the thickness of the zinc layer in Bent. The answer is - the buyer will not be able in any way to check it personally. Only the documents that must accompany each shipment profilistov you can see information about the thickness of the zinc layer or zinc consumption per square meter. Therefore, it is necessary to trust only the good manufacturers and retailers who have an impeccable reputation. And the only thing that can and should be checked - it is stated in the documents of the sheet thickness. This is easily done with a micrometer.

Good salespeople are always provide a micrometer to check the declared trapezoidal sheet thickness

Good salespeople are always provide a micrometer to check the declared trapezoidal sheet thickness

Very great importance is the quality of the steel sheet already deposited protective and decorative coatings, supplied in roll form, from which then make profiled. It has excellent quality raw materials from Japan and South Korea as well as Germany and the Czech Republic. Manufacturers of Russia, Ukraine, Poland and Turkey also offer good raw material for the production of corrugated board, but to the quality of raw materials from China from time to time issues arise. According to specialists, are relevant to the profiled sheet metal quality from China is a lottery - lucky or not. Therefore, even paying more, better choose the corrugated board, the foundation of which is a metal known manufacturers.

Decking from China are not always characterized by good quality

Decking from China are not always characterized by good quality

As topcoat corrugated board, which in addition to protective and decorative operate another function, various polymers and compositions thereof.

  • Coatings Polyester the most common and cheapest. Chemists these compounds also known polyesters. Known natural polyesters, which served as the prototype of synthetic. It - tree resin, amber and other materials. For coating profnastira, of course, a synthetic polyester, colored in different colors. Such coatings resistant to weathering, are well tolerated temperature changes, perfectly protect the metal from corrosion, but only if the integrity of the layer, which, unfortunately, are very easily damaged due to the traditional thin layer approximately 25 microns. If apply it thicker, the coating will be easy to disintegrate by mechanical action. The service life of profiled sheet of polyester is about 25 years, but it all depends on the literacy of installation and operating conditions.
  • Coatings of brushed polyester It stands apart from the ordinary, which is peculiar luster. Apply a matte polyester thicker layer that extends the life of profiled sheet. Look such coatings is much better, because it does not give glare. Mimic the texture of natural materials: brick, wood, stone, &# 8212; best is a matte polyester and non-glossy.
Decking with a matte finish looks better than with a glossy

Decking with a matte finish looks better than with a glossy

  • Coatings of pura (Pural) - a modern form of protective and decorative coatings, developed by Finnish experts from the company Ruukki. The basis of this material is based on two very well-known polymer: polyurethane and polyamide. Their composition is in the correct ratio gives excellent strength, resistance to UV radiation and temperature extremes. coated steel sheet from the Puranas recommended for use in roofs and wall decoration of homes built in areas with harsh climatic conditions, as well as on the coast. The coating thickness is only 50 microns already provides excellent protection sheeting. A thicker coating is inappropriate for economic reasons, as Pyral greatly affects the price.
  • The coatings of plastisol - also known are compositions of polyvinylchloride (PVC), and various plasticizers easy application and adhesion. Plastisol is applied sufficiently thickly about 200 microns, which provides maximum mechanical strength, resistance to chemical and atmospheric agents, low temperatures. Coatings of plastisol can give a relief surface that mimics wood, leather and other materials, which gives unlimited possibilities for decorating. However, high temperatures not transfer plastisol. Coatings made of it under the influence of high temperatures quickly fade and degrade. Therefore, the dark colors and warm climate this wonderful cover just contraindicated.
Coating of plastisol on closer Li bark resembles the texture of the skin

Coating of plastisol on closer Li bark resembles the texture of the skin

  • Coatings of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF /PVDF) - one of the most effective coatings, which in Soviet times was called Teflon-2. PVDF is a complex composition consisting essentially of polyvinyl fluoride (about 80%) and acrylic (20%). This composition gives the best protection against various chemical, thermal and natural influences. He plays several plastisol for mechanical stability, but in the complex, on a combination of protective and decorative qualities of PVDF has no equal. The service life of such a coating on the promises of the manufacturer is at least 40 years.

Special attention, especially for the finishing of the plinth, deserve covering sheeting "Printech» (Printech), which simulate different materials: wood, brick and natural stone. To finish base coat is best suited for natural stone that looks so good, that even a short distance it is difficult to determine, it is only printed on the metal Offset beautiful picture. The technology of drawing on galvanized steel sheets developed and successfully implemented in the production of world-renowned experts from the company's South Korean Dongbu Steel. Now such equipment is already bought and adopting of metal producers in other countries, including in Russia. Therefore, decking with a pattern already fell, and in the future in a competitive environment will become cheaper again.

Structure of profiled sheet with printed image

Structure of profiled sheet with printed image

Structure of profiled sheet, imitating natural materials, is shown below. The film with the image occupies only 3 microns in thickness, and in other layers of a corrugated board does not differ from polyester or PVDF. More resistant and durable is PVDF, we recommend to him to favor.

Properties or pokazateliPoliesterMatovy poliesterPuralPlastizolPVDF (PVDF)
The physical properties of the polymer coating
The nominal coating thickness, micron25355020027
The thickness of the polymer coating metal, micron1923thirty19220
Primer Thickness, microns6122087
Maximum Operating Temperature, ° C909010070110
SurfacesmoothThe reliefsmoothThe reliefsmooth
Service life, years20-3030-4040-5030-5030-40
Evaluation of stability of polymer coatings (on a scale)
Resistance to UV radiation33415
Resistance to mechanical stress23453
Resistance to chemicals23445
Resistance to aggressive climatic conditions23445
Corrosion resistance34554

Decking can be painted in a variety of colors. Typically, the sample is taken German color standard RAL, in which each color has its own unique numeric code. This allows very accurate pick fixture color corrugated board, as well as various additional elements. The designers knew to RAL color code, will be able to harmoniously combine the color of the base and other architectural elements of the house. The color scale RAL Desin currently represented in 1625 of colors. Of course, in the production of corrugated board are used, not all, but it is theoretically possible. The main colors are shown in the figure.

Small samples of the flowers, in which can be painted steel sheet

Small samples of the flowers, in which can be painted steel sheet

Decking with printed pattern on Printech technology also has a sufficient range of textures samples that will satisfy most needs. With an increasing number of profiled sheet production by this technology will respectively increase and range. Modern equipment offset printing on metal, you can print anything. To configure print the desired pattern of high enough quality photograph taken by a digital camera.

Enter the base height in centimeters (if the cap has a variable height, enter the highest)Select a specific brand of corrugated cladding base from the list of proposed Profiled S8-1150 Profiled S10-1100 Profiled S20-1100 Profiled S21-1000Enter the length in meters of acquired sheets of corrugated board

Calculator gives approximate values, as it does not take into account the uneven terrain, and thus the variable height of the plinth. Also in this calculator can not calculate the efficiency of profiled sheet cutting - so as to leave a minimum amount of waste. Our readers, we wish to say that even the most experienced designers often count the number of required material manually, making drawings on graph paper. The software does not always "trying to" save the material and does not take into account the human factor.

basement finishing technology trapezoidal sheet

After the necessary calculations, the purchase of necessary materials and training necessary tool can proceed directly to the installation of profiled sheet on the foundation of the house. We briefly describe this process in the form of a table.

IzobrazhenieOpisanie process
1Work on finishing the cap should be made only after the house organized a blind area. This is described in detail in the relevant article of our portal.
2If serving on the ground the foundation honor - the basement, waterproofing is not done, the surface must be free of all foreign objects, climbing plants, sag solution contaminants. Waterproofing make any appropriate method for the specific conditions. This is described in detail in the article on our website.
3Produced cap marking surface. The position of the carrier frame profiles. They should be spaced not more than 600 mm apart. Also, profiles must surround the window or door openings (if any), located near the building corners. Step between the brackets should be 800-1000 mm, they should not be located closer than 100 mm to the corners of the building. The layout is most convenient to conduct laser builder of planes, through which held vertical and horizontal lines, and the distance measured with a tape measure.
4Perforating drill with corresponding fastening dowel diameter holes are drilled in the previously marked locations. The depth of the holes should be 10 mm longer than the length of the dowel. If the cap is made of brick, the drill holes in the masonry joints is not allowed.
5Hole after drilling blown rubber blower to remove dust from them, and then made mounting brackets through paronitovye gasket. The bracket with a gasket put to a mounting hole in the wall anchor is then inserted and twisted into it (or clogged) a respective screw. Similarly, all other installed mounting brackets throughout the base plane.
6If the cap wall has irregularities, it is advisable to apply the composite brackets, with the movable part. After mounting bracket can be aligned in the same plane by moving and fixing the moving part.
7To align initially with laser builder planes exhibited two upper outer arm, and then the cord is tensioned between them. On it are set in the same plane all brackets, lying between the extreme top.
8Setting the lower bracket in the same plane with the tops is done by means of a plumb line which is suspended to the upper bracket. Plumb exhibited extreme left and right bottom brackets in one plane with the top. Correction of the position of the slide the rest of the brackets being exactly the same as for verhnih- cord stretched between the extremes.
9Once all brackets are in place, is made installation of insulation. As it can act basaltic mineral wool slabs or extruded polystyrene (Epps). Installation of insulation should start from the bottom up from one of the edges of the cap. After fitting in place a heater construction are cut with a knife gap for the brackets.
10Insulation is placed on the brackets and attached to the wall socle poppet dowels - at least 5 to 1 plate. Dowel drilled holes of appropriate diameter. Dowel should extend into the wall to a depth of at least 50 mm.
elevenBelleville dowels are placed on the four corners and one in the middle. The distance from the heater to the edges of the hole centers of plate dowels must be at least 50 mm.
12If on top of the insulation will be installed wind and moisture membranes (which is necessary for mineral wool), the pre-heater is mounted on the two Belleville dowels and the remaining three are already installed together with the membrane. If two layers of insulation to be applied, then the Belleville dowels are distributed between the layers and the membrane as shown in the figure: the lower layer of insulation - the left image, the top layer - the image from the center of a wind and moisture membranes - right image.
13If the heater is used Epps, its pre-mounted on the wall of the cap by means of foam, and then still fixed poppet dowels 5 per one sheet. Wind and moisture proof membrane for Epps optionally used, since this material does not substantially absorb moisture.
14Wind and moisture membranes rolled horizontally on a base and fixed to the insulant by means of disc dowels. Places joints are made with overlapping at least 10 cm and glued double-sided construction adhesive tape.
15Mounted mounting profiles selected. To do this, they first cut to the desired size, an example of the place and mounted with screws or metal, or rivets, which is preferable. Thus on each bracket profile secured at least two rivets.
16If the distance between the guide profiles equal to the width of insulation panels, it is permitted to install them already after the frame is mounted. In this case, a heater is placed into the gap between the profiles and fixed in the same way - 5 of disc dowels on one plate.
17If there is a need for joining profiles, it is never done on the brackets! For this first one is mounted and the other profiles on their arms, and at the joint to leave a gap of 3-5 mm. Further mounted on a joint mounting plate, which has 4 holes - two for each of abutting profiles. Planck applied to the site of the joint, an electric four holes drilled and riveted to the strap joint.
18If the house is on level ground and the height of the cap around the perimeter of the same, the installation is best to start with an initial strips, which give an aesthetic and plinth finished appearance. Planck is mounted to the lower profile using roofing screws or rivets in increments of 600-800 mm. initial gap between the strip and the plane of the blind area to do 20-40 mm.
19If on the base of the trapezoidal sheet complex additional elements will be used, which we have previously indicated in the table, their installation is done before the sheet is to be mounted. It will be appreciated that complex additional elements that are used for installation of siding, can only be used with trapezoidal sheet C8 or C10. Experts recommend at trim cap using simple additional elements, which are mounted after being mounted profiled. When the correct color of additional elements and fasteners they are practically invisible.
20Mounting trapezoidal sheet starts from one of the bottom corners. Pre-metered profiled sheet the desired size and then cut off the sheet using the selected tool. We remind readers that we recommend Nibblers Electroscissors.
21End of the sheet of corrugated board, which was subjected to cutting, after the removal of burrs is best to paint from an aerosol can repair paint, color matched.
22Installation should start from one of the corners. Initially fixed lower corner on one roofing screw, then the sheet is aligned by means of a spirit level on a vertical and fixed permanently to the guide profiles with screws. Fixing is done through a single wave in the lower part, which is adjacent to the profile.
23When attaching roofing screws with boring tip drill stake the place desirable. If it is made of profiled sheet in the preliminary drilling, the drill diameter should be 0,3-0,5 mm greater than the diameter of the roofing screws. Screws screwed strictly perpendicular to the surface of profiled sheet with such a force that there is a tight fit to the profile sheet. Thus it is necessary to make sure that the seal of EPDM is compressed, but not squeezed out from under the metal washer.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERACut, colored with the cut end and mounted the next sheet of corrugated board onto the base. Each subsequent trapezoidal sheet should overlap the previous one by one corrugation. Bonding sheets together is done only after the steel sheet is set. As the fastener is preferable to use rivets which are set in increments of no more than 500 mm. but, in any case, at each junction should be at least 3 rivets.
25After you have installed all the corrugated sheets to the basement at home, made the installation of additional elements: inside and outside corners, finishing strips (if necessary), eaves and low tides. Mounting of additional elements to the professional flooring is done by rivets or screws roof, and the walls - an appropriate rawlplugs.
26If you need additional elements are not commercially available, they can manufacture and install a master tinsmith. To do this, buy a roll sheet steel the desired color.
27If there is a need to make the ventilation holes in the wall socket (e.g., when the pile foundation), the profiled sheet after installation recesses made Nibbing Electroscissors screws and mounted on plastic grilles.

conclusion

Finishing the basement of the house trapezoidal sheet deservedly gaining popularity among developers. Besides the fact that this kind of finish is widely used in new buildings, it can be used where it is necessary to have enough structure served as the lead in aesthetic appearance. Availability and a wide range of corrugated board, long service life, ease of work can help owners do it all yourself and save a considerable amount on this, which can be spent on other purposes.

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