- 1 Thermostat for heating radiator
- 1.1 A few words on justification of the need for temperature control
- 1.2 On what principle is based the work of the thermostat for the heating radiator
- 1.3 automatic temperature control for heating the battery device
Thermostat for heating radiator
In a well-planned, efficiently assembled and correctly adjusted the heating system should work so that even in the most adverse of weather conditions days, the heat generated would be sufficient to maintain optimal indoor climate, but at the same time - the thermal energy is not thrown away for nothing when the need its amount is reduced. Puzzling boasting some owners, who say that they are so good heating, they are even in the most severe frosts do not cover the vents - the rooms are so hot. Meanwhile - a typical example is absolutely efficient use of energy (and ultimately - money), and brag there certainly is nothing. And if to this we add more and walking from room to room drafts is not particularly healthy - and the picture is completely bleak.
Thermostat for heating radiator
The problem is solved quite simply - need to set the thermostat for heating radiator. This very compact and, in principle, an inexpensive device will help to maintain the desired temperature in the room, regardless of the weather outside and the time of day, and such adjustment will be carried out automatically, without constant human intervention. Install the thermostat should be able to any host that has the basic skills in the sanitary installation. Is low cost, a couple of hours - and in your home comes a pleasant climate, it starts counting the savings in energy.
A few words on justification of the need for temperature control
When designing the heating system from the boiler and finishing devices heat (radiators or convectors), experts come from a number of evaluation criteria, taking into account the specifics of the construction in the region, especially the location of the building on the ground, the nuances of its design, the layout as a whole house, and each of rooms separately. The result of these calculations become the value of thermal power boiler and radiator layout of the rooms.
Try to make the calculations yourself
Thermal Such calculations can be carried out in-house, on a somewhat simplified, but highly accurate algorithm. The procedure of calculation and convenient online calculator placed in the annex to this publication.
It should be understood correctly - these calculations give a result with a fair operating margin, that is designed for the most unfavorable conditions, to the lowest temperatures outside.
But just think, "Epiphany frosts" how long can stand on the street? - usually the peak winter chill falls on tenday - another. All the rest of the time is much warmer in the winter and often comes to Revelation thaws. An even greater contrast estimated output and actual demand in her show "off-season" - late autumn and early spring.
Winter can be and such. Accordingly, the need for the thermal power of the heating system - is significantly reduced
Further, even during the day, at night and daytime, the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations can be measured at ten or more degrees. Not be discounted and the sun. Although it is considered to be the winter "cold", its rays on the premises, south-facing, on a clear day can make a very tangible adjustments to the room climate - may become too hot in it. Open wide for this reason that the vents do not solve the problem, but rather bring more negative than good.
Even on a cold day bright winter sun is capable of very significantly influence the temperature in the rooms
Existing central heating systems are characterized by high inertia, and with good intentions simply are not able to respond flexibly to changes in these current conditions. In addition, the city houses the old buildings, these systems once projected under current standards then. It is understood that the established uniform heating, and no one dared to think not about any other than standard wooden, window frames. Modern life has made its own adjustments here. Very often, homeowners change their old batteries to advanced devices with greater heat dissipation. In droves installed double-glazed windows that along with the reduction of heat loss at the same time "clog" the room, blocking the natural path of air intake from the outside. All this also leads to some of the excess heat entering the room.
So, we have to take the matter into their own hands thermoregulation.
Excessive heat with ventilation and failure is usually accompanied by high humidity. Well, it is - a direct path to the defeat of the walls of pathogenic microflora
Somewhat easier in this regard, the owners of private houses with autonomous heating system - to respond to changes in external parameters is much easier, especially if equipped with modern equipment, is equipped with corresponding automation. But they have the problem may lie in a different plane.
For example, in a room on the north side of the building may not be felt daily fluctuations in temperature, as opposed to the south. In some rooms the owners prefer to install a custom mode, for example, in the bedroom poprohladnee, warmer in the nursery. Separate utility premises, such as storage products, large and heating is not required, and is temporarily unused room is generally desirable to conserve heat transfer to the minimum consumption.
In any of the shown situations it is desirable to have a device which would maintain a certain temperature stable in a particular room, regardless of changing conditions. It is obvious that he must "supervise" the work of heat exchange equipment, bringing in "real time" necessary adjustments to the transmitted power. It is this role and will perform thermostats for heating radiator.
On what principle is based the work of the thermostat for the heating radiator
Of the fluid that circulates in the circuits of heating systems (in most cases this water is used), it is no wonder given the name "heat transfer fluid" - the term is almost certainly describes its function. Having a high heat capacity, the liquid is able to accumulate in the boiler transmitted her equipment heat capacity and transfer it to the heat exchange points - radiators or convectors. A quantity of heat carried by the water depends on the temperature of its heating and volume per unit time flowing through the heat exchange device.
Begs some obvious solutions adjust heating radiators level.
- For example, it is possible to vary the temperature of the coolant - this is known as a quality adjustment. There are similar systems, but they are more expensive, more difficult to install, and so the user often does not choose in their favor. Typically, in such schemes implemented mix with the principle of the return flow of cooled coolant back into the feed stream.
By the way, the change in temperature on the boiler heating - it is also a quality adjustment, but it will apply to all initial heat exchange devices, and in this case we are more interested in the possibility of fine tuning to a specific battery.
- The second option - change the amount of coolant flowing through the radiator, that is, adjust the intensity of its flow. This method is called quantitative adjustment. It is much easier to organize, and that it was the basis of most running thermostatic controls for radiators.
It should not be assumed that such a regulation is some kind of new development - the same way you adjust the daily quantity of water flow, a rotating flywheel tap. And in the heating principle of this control heating radiators used for a long time. Proof of this - antique iron battery, age of one hundred years or more - as a rule, each of them can be seen the characteristic crane to change the water flow rate through the radiator.
This, of course, "remake" made the image and likeness of antique radiators, for precisely these or very similar cranes quantitative adjustment of the heating was characterized by the battery of the early twentieth century.
By the way, this method of adjustment is often used owners of houses and apartments, and in the present. Not getting apparent, possibly expensive, automatic temperature control, they set up at the entrance to the battery ordinary tap that and change the intensity of the coolant flow. Well, it can also be considered as a solution, but that's just all the adjustments will have to do yourself, that is, some flexibility in space heating systems can not speak - it will all depend on the efficiency of manual changes carried out.
By the way, it is appropriate to make one important remark. If for some reason the owners think that this method of controlling the heating temperature for them - quite enough, at least, it is necessary to establish a high quality faucet. For example, many use for this ball valves, which are recommended to be put on the entrance and exit. It is correct to understand that the function of shut-off devices - battery blackout in cases where it has to be temporarily taken out of the operating mode, for example, for repair or replacement. But the design of ball valves does not provide intermediate positions for accurate adjustment of - coolant flow very quickly "eat" or the spherical valve itself or its surrounding polymer saddle-seal.
Ball valves at the inlet and the outlet of the radiator - locking instead adjustment elements, and apply them to change the heating temperature of - undesirable. This is not a categorical prohibition, but to listen to it is worth
And if we decided to save and limit setting for adjusting the conventional sanitary tap, then put the valve. He will last longer, and the accuracy of the settings therethrough coolant flow - will be significantly higher. By the way, most of the temperature-control systems work on the principle of the valve tap - to progressively move the pistons, at the end of which the valve is located.
Plumbing valve - in principle, it can well play the role of the battery temperature control, but the level of comfort of this approach, of course, is low
Thus, the quantitative adjustment of the principle can be implemented without the purchase of additional thermostat, but the convenience of this approach - is very questionable. The owner of a house or apartment may have to "monitor" the change in the external parameters and change the position of the valve in a timely way or the other, to ensure the stability of the temperature in the room. Much more convenient to entrust this automation to the unit itself has changed the coolant flow rate through the radiator.
With such a task successfully cope compact regulators with thermostatic head. They were patented in Denmark back in the fifties of the last century, and the company has mastered serial production DANFOSS first. The products of this brand and today remains at the peak of popularity, is considered one of the recognized "trendsetter" in the field of automatic control systems for heating equipment. By the way, two DANFOSS production line launched on the territory of Russia.
The range of these thermostats - is very wide. But the fundamental differences in the models of different brands - not very much.
automatic temperature control for heating the battery device
Standard Set the thermostat to radiator
Let's first take a look at a typical set of thermostatic control for heating radiator, and then look at the device its main units.
Very often thermostats for radiators offered for sale it is in the configuration
1 - a metal thermal valve, the work that is similar to the operation of the valve tap. As a rule, for the convenience of such a valve assembly once the cap is equipped with gaykoy- "American."
2 - a protective cap that protects an adjusting part with a projecting valve stem in the transport position or to a thermal head unit. Very often such a cap can serve as the adjusting flywheel that changes in the manual operation of the valve setting. But that being said, the "light-version", which can be justified only in extreme cases, for example, to purchase a thermal head. In any case, such use is not regular: it is inconvenient, and not informative, and, moreover, unlikely to last for a long time the plastic cap in a similar role at constant adjustments.
3 - a balancing valve (valve). Placed on the outlet of the radiator, and is used for accurate debugging unit heat exchange with the heating system is started. In principle, it is able to serve and closing device for closing the radiator if necessary removing it (instead of a ball valve). Setting up such a balancing of the crane is usually done with a special key, and then adjust the jack is plugged. By analogy with thermostatic valve, usually comes with a cap nut. By balancing the thermostatic valve has a valve indirect relationship, and thereafter will not be considered in this publication.
4 - thermostatic head, that is the main control element of the whole thermostat. Installed on thermostatic valve, instead of removing the protective cap. It can vary the principle of work and complexity.
The illustration was shown just a sample kit. But it should be properly understood as the valves, and the thermal head can be different configuration and, by the way, sold separately. As a rule, manufacturers of these devices comply with a uniform standard, that is, for example, can be purchased at first valve, and then pick up to him and the thermal head or the required level of automation desired layout execution. All this will be discussed below.
How does he thermostatic?
Consider the circuit shown in typical unit thermo:
So arranged the vast majority of conventional thermostatic valve fitted to radiators
Thermo-valve housing (pos. 1) is made of metal having corrosion resistant properties. This may be brass (typically - coated with a layer of chromium plating or nickel plating) or stainless steel. No attractive price should not encourage the consumer to buy the valve from silumin alloy - these "cheap" can be quite nice in appearance, long life and reliability no different.
The threaded portion at the inlet (pos. 2) serves to "zapakovki" valve to supply pipe. Some models instead of a thread provided a fitting for connection to the respective plastic pipe.
At the opposite end of the valve (outlet) - the male thread portion (item 3). It serves to wrap cap gayki- "American" (item 5) - valve for connection to the radiator. Socket (pos. 4) is screwed into the battery. It turns out the plug connection - if necessary, you can always override the device heat quickly and hold his removal and refitting, without complicated operations. Typically, the union to "American" come complete with thermostatic valve. Moreover, often the fitting itself has a special internal configuration of a so-called aligning nozzle - to normalize (calm) of coolant flow after passing through the valve.
Above the valve housing screwed bush (pos. 6), similar in appearance to an ordinary journal box water supply valve. Passes therethrough translationally movable rod (position 7), and collected within the necessary seals and installed return spring holding rod, when it has no external influence, in the uppermost position.
Bottom rod connected with the poppet valve (Pos. 8) on which a nipple of the sanitary quality rubber (Pos. 9). When lowering rod nipple gradually overlap clearance for passage of the coolant flow (shown by arrows broad pink). In an extreme lower position, when lowering the stem pin fits tightly to the metal valve seat (pos. 10) extending completely burying.
On the threaded portion at the top of the assembly (. Key 11) in the "stowed" position the cap is screwed in the working - coupling a thermal head. However, on many models this thread is not provided, and the installation of the thermal head is expected with the use of special clamps with latches.
A similar principle device common to almost vseem thermostatic valve of this destination. But the design features can still be:
- Thus, the valves can be designed for installation in one-pipe and two-pipe heating system.
&# 8212; For single-pipe systems, where it is extremely important to avoid a too high flow resistance, Valve body with a larger body size due to the extended passage in the valve seat - it is noticeable even visually. Such devices generally have labeling alphabetic character «G» (e.g., RTR-G), and their regular cap - light gray.
External differences valves for one-pipe and two-pipe systems are visible "to the naked eye"
&# 8212; In two-pipe systems, organized on the principle of forced circulation, to the hydraulic resistance requirements - not as categorical, and valves are more compact. For their alphabetical markings are commonly used characters «N» or «D», or in any combination using these letters.
- It is understood that the flaps may be different coupling size - the range includes devices manufactured with threaded connections for ½, ¾ and 1 inch.
- Depending on the specific conditions of application are selected valves completely identical control axle box, but of differing configuration, input and output location. There are models with straight duct, and is - a change of direction on the perpendicular. It is understood that the final selection of the model will depend on the proposed liner pipe to a radiator of heating and its particular type.
Axle box - exactly the same, but the relative position of the valve and of the inlet and outlet pipes - different
In the illustration shown above is an example of a possible mutual position of the same valve part with inlet and outlet nozzles
1 - line valve, such as that shown in the above scheme-section.
2 - vertical angle.
3 - angle horizontal
4 - a three-axis arrangement of the valves and fittings. Such a model is available in two variants - the right and left execution.
- In thermostatic valve for two-pipe systems, there is often a thumbwheel, allowing to perform a preset maximum throughput.
The arrow shows the thumbwheel for presetting valve capacity
Such a feature allows multiple narrow valve operating range is within the required limits. As a result, it reduces unnecessary load on the stem of the thermostatic head, which increases its durability and automatic temperature correction are performed faster and more accurately., the disposable radiatorthe total heat outputcollapsible radiatornumber of sections
Several explanations and recommendations on calculations
The user is prompted to specify the parameters of existing facilities, for which the calculation is performed. Let us explain what they mean:
- The area of the room and the height of the flow determine its volume, that is the basic requirement for thermal energy for its heating.
- The walls in contact with the street, are one way of heat loss and the higher the losses, the greater should be their compensation.
- On the room climate can influence the solar radiation, but this only applies to those rooms, with windows and direct sunlight fall during the day.
- Walls, constantly blown cold winter wind, vystuzhivayutsya much faster, and it can also be taken into account in the calculations.
The previous two paragraphs can not be taken into account when entering data is the difficulty for the user - to leave as it is, by default. But then the program calculates the power based on the most unfavorable conditions for the room location.
- The next point - this account local climatic conditions. You must specify a minimum winter temperature, which is considered to be for your region normal for decades the coldest winter. It is not necessary to remember that once a few years ago were marked by quite abnormal values ...
- Full insulation walls may be considered if it is made based on thermal calculations. Other options rather refer to the average degree of insulation, as all non-insulated house can not be a priori - to live it is impossible.
- To allow for heat loss through floors and ceilings should be pointed out that located above and below the computed location.
- The following paragraphs refer to the entry windows - of their type to the number and size. The program will make the relevant amendments into account.
- If the room has a door to the street (on the cold balcony or other unheated premises), and it regularly throughout the day use, it requires a "makeweight" to the thermal power of radiators.
- The efficiency of the radiator depends on the wiring diagram to the circuit. It should select the intended or available circuit. They are, incidentally, in the proposed list are arranged in order of decreasing effectiveness.
- Finally, the radiator can be positioned open and give maximum heat transfer, or the heat will prevent the spread of these or other interference. You must select an option from the planned drop-down list - the program will make the appropriate correction factor.
And now - ATTENTION!
The following text box prompts you to select the direction calculation.
&# 8212; First option - this is a common need for a specific heat capacity of the room. Such an embodiment is generally selected when it is planned to acquire radiator or convector non-separable structure. The final result is then taken from A - it will be expressed in kilowatts.
&# 8212; The second option - when the known heat capacity of one section of a folding radiator, and the task is determining the amount of these sections. If you choose this direction will be another text box in which to specify the nameplate capacity of one section of the proposed model of a radiator. Accordingly, in the obtained result values taken B, expressed in units.
Calculated by this method is guaranteed to cope with the radiator space heating problem in the most critical conditions. Well, in the normal operation mode, the required (and only!) The amount of heat at the moment will be selected, including using the installed thermostat.