- 1 Plinth brick on strip foundations
- 1.1 Materials for the construction of a brick plinth
- 1.2 Features of arrangement of the brick plinth
Plinth brick on strip foundations
Cap - is, in fact, is the visible part of the building, which is based on a foundation, and is a kind of transition from the base to the walls of the house. It is obvious that in addition to the bearing capacity, ie the capacity of the strength of the pledged withstand the entire load of the structures located above the plinth must endure, and all external influences, as it is located in the heart, perhaps, vulnerable place. In this regard, any material of which will be built this part of the building, requires a special approach in the selection, the effective protection of the operation.
Plinth brick on strip foundations
Ground Belt can be erected in reinforced concrete, rubble, building blocks or bricks - all of these options require some effort. Plinth brick on strip foundations in the construction of a private house quite often selected from those considerations that such material has ecological purity (made from natural ingredients), are available, including - price, simplicity, or rather - it is clear of construction, low thermal conductivity and good strength characteristics (of course, when selecting a quality bricks).
To brick plinth on a reinforced concrete base it was reliable and will last for many years without requiring any repair work on its construction have to perform in compliance with a number of rules. And to begin with, a brick can be used for these purposes.
Materials for the construction of a brick plinth
Which brick is needed for the cap?
If you plan to lift the cap belt use brick, then the first thing you need to do - is to choose the "right" and the high-quality material, as not everyone is suitable for display of this part of the structure.
Brick is manufactured from different raw materials and different technologies, so the product may vary destination. Some samples are suitable for interior walls, exterior walls for the other, the third - for furnaces and fireplaces, and a fourth - solely as a cladding finish and so on.
Very correct forms, pleasant colors, tempting price - but still sand-lime brick is not suitable for the base!
- Sand-lime brick is not commonly used in the construction of the cap, as the products do not have sufficient strength simply because of the specific manufacturing and materials used for this technology.
Sand-lime brick is widely used for the construction of external and internal walls and partitions, but it is suitable for the cap is bad, because it does not is resistant to moisture. And all sorts of things, but the moisture in the basement area always in abundance.
- Ceramic brick can be called the most suitable material, not only for the construction of the cap, but also for the construction or lining the external walls of the house. In the industrial scale production for a number of species, e.g., building (ordinary) bricks for walls and cladding, which is well suited for decorative cap and facade surfaces located above.
Such bricks are made from specially selected clays and quartz sand, and in the process of high temperature calcination it receives the necessary strength and protection from moisture.
For laying the cap is optimal red ceramic brick high strength grade - no less M150
&# 8212; Red brick M-150 has a relatively high strength and a very reasonable price. However, there is a drawback - the porous structure of such a product is easy to absorb moisture. Therefore unprotected brick quickly becomes wet and freezes at low temperatures and can give a crack, causing the supporting structure will be weakened. Such products can withstand 55 ÷ 60 cycles of winter. So that after construction of the house to retain the material in the quality condition required (in addition to the waterproofing and thermal insulation) to provide a protective finish basement walls - resistant cement plaster or facing tiles.
&# 8212; A red brick M-250 is more reliable, since the plastic used for manufacturing the variety of clay, which have the necessary quality after firing properly conducted, and the stability of finished articles to external aggressive influences - incomparably higher and the cap may even not require a protective cladding. Typically, such a brick masonry performed "under unravel." Such material is recommended to be used for the construction of basements of buildings in regions with high humidity.
The marking indicates the strength of the product - it is for her brick is chosen for a particular application. Specifically, the numerical figure indicates the permissible load, which is able to withstand without failure brick (expressed in kilograms per square centimeter).
For example, a brick having the designation M-100, designed for the construction of internal or external walls of the small one-story houses, but it is not suitable for multi-storey designs or ground belt. For these purposes, mostly used products, labeled M-200 and M-300, since such products are designed for high load and expressed resistance to moisture.
Also brand strength, frost resistance varies brick mark. It is denoted by the symbol F literal and numeric indicator, indicating the guaranteed number of deep-frozen and thaw cycles that sustain material without losing its characteristics. Naturally, for the cap rate is higher than this - the better.
Different ceramic bricks for its size and structural construction.
Linear parameters of ordinary ceramic bricks used for masonry plinth
According to the geometrical dimensions of a brick is divided into an ordinary single, one and a half and double - line parameters are shown in the illustration. (A case in point is not a question of facing bricks - there is plenty of variety of domestic and international standards, as well as all non-standard options).
Furthermore, ceramic brick is divided into solid and hollow (void).
&# 8212; Brick material has a continuous structure, i.e. and enhanced overall density, which entails an increase in its thermal conductivity. It is characterized by high strength, used for the construction of load-bearing structures at home, including the base, and internal walls and partitions, but laying out of it will require a more thorough insulation of walls.
&# 8212; Called hollow articles having in its structure a different number of non-through or through holes of a rectangular or round shape. This type of brick has a lower thermal conductivity, it is therefore often used for the construction of exterior walls. In addition, the overall density of the material - is much lower, thus reducing the weight of the building structures to facilitate the task of transporting and laying.
Hollow ceramic bricks may be suitable for the construction of the cap small one-storey houses. But for higher buildings make better use of full-bodied products, since they have a higher resistance to high loads.
By the way, you should always get acquainted with the technical characteristics of the purchased bricks. Hollow products also are different - the percentage of "emptiness" in them can vary from 12 ÷ 13% and 40-50%, respectively, and a very wide range of load capacity indices. That is, should choose the "golden mean" to be able to "preferences" from the reduced weight and thermal conductivity of the cap, but at the same time - without losing the necessary compression strength indicator.
Calculating the number of bricks
When planning the construction of the cap, taking into account the need of its thickness, length and height, usually made of brick and the calculation of the amount that would be required for these purposes. It is clear that such calculations it is advisable to carry out in advance to enable the data to build up a budget and find out the amount required for the purchase of building materials.
To pre-purchase the required number of bricks for the base, you need to perform some simple calculations
The thickness and height of the base is usually a multiple of the linear dimensions of bricks. In the calculations must take into account not only the above mentioned parameters but also the thickness of joints between bricks, masonry, which usually amounts to 10 mm. That is, to calculate the number of bricks in view of the joints should be the length, width and height of the product to add more and the thickness of the seam. As a result, for example, the following dimensions are obtained single common brick: 260 × 130 × 75 mm (here also includes the thickness of the reinforcing grid, if used).
A few words on the thickness of the cap. When masonry usually use concepts related to the multiplicity of whole bricks or halves "in a half-brick", "in brick", "half-brick", etc. Knowing the linear parameters bricks, adding thereto a thickness joints, it is easy to obtain "clean" the thickness of masonry. However, it is well demonstrated with dimensioned, in the illustration below.
The thickness of the masonry
a - "in a half-brick." (Not commonly used in practice in the construction of caps in a half-brick masonry - as too thin and fragile). The thickness (hereinafter - without external finishing) - 120 mm
b - "in brick". Thickness - 250 mm.
at - "half-brick". Thickness - 380 mm.
g - "two bricks." Thickness - 510 mm.
d - "2.5 bricks". Thickness - 640 mm.
Since there are other standard sizes ordinary brick (except for single - one and a half or double - height), the calculation of the required number can be made only after the type of the purchased material is determined.
In the table below shows the average number calculation brick on one square meter of masonry:
|- excluding seams||- taking into account the seams|
|"In a brick"||250||Single||128||102|
|"In two bricks"||510||Single||256||204|
|"In two and a half brick"||640||Single||317||255|
Most often, the calculations are made individually for each specific construction, taking into account all the parameters listed above. It is recommended to add bricks after counting to the result of a particular stock, from 5 to 15%, depending on the builder's skill and the quality of the purchased material. Such a measure is usually undertaken with any building material: the stock never places, but the shortage in the most unwanted time - will slow down the work process.
Facilitate the task of the reader - is located below a handy online calculator that quickly and accurately carry out the necessary calculations.
A calculator for calculating the number of bricks for the construction of the cap"Calculate the number of bricks"The total length of the capThe number of external corners capThe number of internal angles capThe thickness of the brickwork plinthlaying section height H, mWhich brick would be used?Taking into account the necessary reserve?
Several explanations for the calculations:
- The length of the cap indicates the total (including - and with internal jumpers if they are laid out with bricks). The length of the base perimeter of the building is taken on the outside.
- The number of external and internal corners of the cap is required to make the necessary adjustments in the calculation of the total volume of the brickwork. In the input field outside corners are also added sections abutting or crossing masonry walls.
- Calculation is performed based on the selected type of brick with the seam thickness of 10 mm.
- Given the opportunity to select the percentage of "reserve" of material.
A solution of base for masonry
The most important role for the strength of the walls of the cap plays a masonry mortar preparation, since it determines the reliability of a bonding between the bricks in the brickwork. Masters recommend the use of Portland cement 300, 400 or 500, fine sand and lime for making solution. Sometimes in its composition is added to a small amount of clay. Masonry mortar should be homogeneous and ductile, and to achieve such properties, the sand used to make a working composition, it is imperative to sift through a close-meshed sieve construction.
The most important condition of durability and strength of the brick base is qualitative mortar
The solution is mixed by using mixer construction or special nozzles, mounted on an electric drill.
An important point in the preparation of masonry mortar is a soil moisture at the construction site. A solution when determining marks usually follow the rule that a quality laying all its components should be approximately the same branded strength. However, practice has proved that under favorable conditions to the building brick base is sufficient masonry mortar M-75 or M-100.
Table proportions of cement-sand mortar (cement: sand), suitable for laying a foundation plinth and on wet ground:
|PC-300||1: 5||1: 4||1: 3||1: 4||-|
|PC-400||1: 6||1: 5.5||1: 4.5||1: 3||1: 2.5|
|PC-500||1: 7||1: 6||1: 5.5||1: 2.5||1: 3|
Table proportions of cement mortar (cement: lime: sand), suitable for construction of foundations, plinths malovlazhnogo on the ground:
|PC-300||1: 0.6: 6||1: 0.3: 4||1: 0.2: 3.5||1: 0.1: 2.5||-|
|PC-400||1: 0.9: 8||1: 5,5: 5||1: 4: 4.5||1: 0.2: 3||1: 0.1: 2.5|
|PC-500||-||1: 0.8: 7||1: 0.5: 5.5||1: 0.3: 4||1: 0.2: 3|
Features of arrangement of the brick plinth
Some initial recommendations
Before proceeding to the masonry work is necessary to get acquainted with some nuances of planning and execution:
The width of the base depends on the characteristics of the material and the construction of the walls of the future house
- If the one-zone as a building brick material is chosen, the first step is to determine the thickness of this part of the structure. This parameter will depend on the material from which the walls are erected, and overall dimensions of the structure. For example, the wall thickness for the wooden brick cap should be at least 250 ÷ 300 mm, i.e. in one or half brick, and for building brick &# 8212; 500 or more millimeters, that is, two bricks and more.
Masonry plinth must be "clipped" by the foundation and waterproofing tapes, and from the walls erected on it
- Masonry plinth necessarily produced on the waterproofing layer stacked on the surface of the tape base - it protects brick by capillary penetration of soil moisture. As a waterproofing material most commonly used roofing material quality, but sometimes it is replaced lubricative compositions based on bitumen, which are applied in a layer of 1,5 ÷ 2 mm thick. But the web material in two layers - it will be much safer (and easier).
- Brick lay flat, that is, on the bed, so that each successive top row of masonry joints overlap the bottom row. Masonry made of stretched along the wall socket cord. In addition, control of the evenness of each row necessarily made by means of a spirit level.
- From whatever material may subsequently erected a building wall, brick plinth may be different from their thickness. There are several options:
Variants of the relationship of thickness of the base and erected on its base wall
a - Cap (. Item 1) can be wider than the wall of the building (item 2.), And stage act outside of its borders.
b - Wall and skirting board are of equal thickness.
at - "sink" cap, which minimal thickness of the wall thickness.
Depending on the option chosen will depend on the design of the metal outflow (Pos. 3) which is installed between the cap and wall, and the cap serves to protect against direct water flowing down from above.
Masonry brick plinth
After compulsory sheathing and fixing on the surface of the waterproofing tape base material can pass to the markup socle masonry.
Mandatory requirement - a reliable waterproofing the surface of the foundation tape before laying the brick plinth
The marking process must occur an additional check of the diagonals of the foundation - they are measured with a tape measure and should have the same length, otherwise the erected structure can get skewed. If it turns out that the diagonals are not the same size, you have to straighten them precisely using the base of masonry, and it should be noted that this would be not so easy.
Be sure to once again promerte diagonal foundation - still have a chance to correct the earlier mistake masonry plinth
This will have on the horizontal surface of the foundation to mark up masonry basement belt extinct location of its diagonals, from the outside corners of bases located on one side. These points it is necessary to note, using an ordinary chalk, and then connect them with lines. As a ruler, you can use a flat rail or marker coated cord.
Many artists begin laying the cap is its corners, thereby simplifying the process of removing a further perfectly flat wall.
By selecting this option masonry, the first row starts with formation of one of the corners, which is completely the first row is output only to the adjacent corner, where also a high accuracy rotation is marked 90 degrees. Further, outlined in this way and the remaining corners (exact sounding diagonals between them). Well, and then will rise consistently full wall, located between the corners.
To masonry had no tilt forward or to the side, is laid out on the corners, starting from the first row defining a horizontal direction and are installed securely fastened perfectly plumb vertical metal corners. This auxiliary device is usually given by the height of the plinth of the future, and they are done marking levels of each of the series for the seam between them.
Auxiliary uprights at the corners of base significantly simplify the process level masonry brick walls
These landmarks significantly simplify the laying process, especially those masters, which have no more experience in the trade. According to the markings on the opposite corners of the tensioned cord, with a guide to who will be laying bricks. After a series of readiness lined, cord rises to the next mark, showing the height of the next series - and so on until the top of the cap wall. Such devices, incidentally, will help to control the thickness of joints between rows. But be that as it may, the use of such "small machines" does not relieve the master duty to monitor each row of masonry building level.
After one wall of the cap is ready, the vertical area with one of the corners of finished construction is removed and rearranged to the one that is located diagonally from it, and a laying process is continued. And so on, until all the walls are tiled.
A few words must be said about how laid brick, depending on wall thickness and dressing him in the corners of the structure.
Laid Brick at the first row can be laid along the line of the foundation, or across, ie a spoon or poking out. The second variant is selected if the wall will have a thickness in one or half a brick. (The names of the parties bricks shown in the figure above).The thickness of the masonry brick plinthType of ceramic brickstype of insulation
- First of all, it is necessary to identify and bring in the value of the normalized input for the thermal resistance of the region. You can do this by using the attached card. Caution - for the calculation of the value is required to take a "wall" (figures are given purple numbers).
Map to determine the normalized value of heat transfer resistance
- The total thermal conductivity of the cap depends on its thickness and the type of brick (the degree of "emptiness"). These data must be specified in the corresponding entry fields.
- Finally, we must choose a heater that thermal insulation will be carried out. Each material has its own thermal characteristics, and they are already included in the calculation program.
Note - appears in the list of heaters and even mineral wool. Do not be surprised - there is a special grade of high density of basalt wool, which are ideally suited for thermal insulation of foundations, floors on the ground, foundation and exterior load-bearing walls.
- The resulting value will be given in millimeters, and it is then necessary to bring to the standard thicknesses of insulation produced (natural, rounded up).
Construction of the blind area
Blind area around the base is an indispensable element design and is intended, inter alia, to protect the base and foundation by atmospheric moisture and melt and drain the rainwater. Otmostka should have a width exceeding the projecting overhang of at least 200 mm and mounted with a gradient from home.
It equips after the construction and waterproofing of the cap, but if it is planned to warming (very welcome), this process is made more often at the same time warming the cap - it is very important to achieve a dense joining horizontal and vertical layer of thermal insulation.
Ideally, the insulation cap and the blind area should be carried out simultaneously, as is, in fact, one system
Blind area can be made of different materials, but most often it is made of reinforced concrete. If desired, or if required by the exterior facade, later made her finish with decorative stone or tiles. This process is carried out simultaneously with or after the cladding cap.
Variety of options for effective and beautiful pavings
Blind area, as though it may seem strange, is a fairly complex structure, and to carry out its installation correctly, it is necessary to obtain complete information about the materials for manufacturing process and everything. All these moments in great detail, with all the nuances, described in the article of our portal "How do blind area around the house".
Finishing brick plinth
Finishing cap (unless, of course, do not leave it simply in the form of masonry "under unravel"), as well as the adjacent blind area is not only a decorative element of the facade appearance, but also a defensive measure. Therefore, the process of selecting and installing decorative trim should be taken very seriously.
The choice of decorative finishes for the basement of the house on the market of building materials - is simply huge!
Today, in the construction market there is no shortage of cladding materials. They can choose to suit every taste and color, including - based design in one ensemble with the façade walls and roof of the house. Therefore, to achieve harmony facade decoration, most often it is carried out after the completion of construction of the house.
For facing the cap must choose durable and moisture-resistant materials that are not afraid of changes in temperature, such as a natural or high-quality artificial stone, ceramic tiles for external works or facing brick. Besides them, often sufficiently to insulated brick wall plaster layer is applied (which briefly mentioned above) which closes the top decorative plaster manufactured in a wide variety of embossed patterns. Even the creative owners are quite capable to come up with interesting reliefs for the decoration of his home base.
"Well maintained "plinth - a pledge respectable form of the whole building
Since this stage of the work and materials intended for it, it's hard to tell in "nutshell", it is better to refer to the article, is completely dedicated to the issues of registration of the basement of the house. This publication is called "How to decorate the plinth &# 8212; a variety of options ".
Despite the fact that you can find detailed instructions for the construction of various works and decoration of buildings of brick in this article and on our website, they can not help, if not at least a little experience with this material. In such a situation, it is best to practice before laying and try to lay out, e.g., the small wall beds. If there is no certainty - will nevertheless trust this process to professional builders as "jokes" with the construction of the cap - does not.
Finally the publication - illustrative example of the construction of the brick base strip foundation on the basis of: