- 1 How to choose a pump station
- 1.0.1 What is the pumping station
- 1.0.2 The choice of the pumping station
- 184.108.40.206 The maximum depth of water intake
- 220.127.116.11 Generated water pressure pump station
- 18.104.22.168 The performance of the pumping station
- 22.214.171.124 Power supply and pumping equipment power consumption
- 126.96.36.199 The volume of pumped storage tank
- 188.8.131.52 Design features
- 1.0.3 An overview of household pumping stations models
How to choose a pump station
One of the major problems facing any owner of the property, is to supply their possessions water for food, hygiene and household needs. Great success has always considered the existence of an autonomous source having a desired performance (debit) and characterized necessary water quality. It remains to arrange rise relevant amounts, if necessary - specific water treatment (filtration and after-treatment), and then - the distribution of the water consumption points ensuring adequate pressure for the correct operation of plumbing fixtures and appliances.
Approaches to solving this issue a lot - it is possible to pick up the necessary set of modern pumping equipment, storage tanks, automatic control devices. But consider yourself compatibility of the instruments, to ensure their desired interaction, consistency in work, calculate and mount a single system that will meet all the requirements - a problem of a very high level of complexity. That's why, if you allow the specific characteristics of the source and location of the house, many owners prefer to buy ready-made solution immediately - a pumping station.
How to choose a pump station
This publication will address a number of issues, one way or another related to the main problem in the headline - how to choose a pump station. Incidentally, the contents of the article is likely to be interesting to be useful to know, and some apartment owners - those who for some reason the pressure in the water pipes is not sufficient or is not stable - a pumping station capable of, and in such circumstances come to the rescue, providing the required system pressure required to operate household appliances - instantaneous water heaters, washing machines, dishwashers, showers, etc.
What is the pumping station
Thus, as mentioned above, the full range of tasks comprises providing a diversion of water from the source to the desired volume, its transportation to places of consumption taking proper pressure software. Get acquainted with a variety of pumping equipment for external sources, with its design, principles of operation, installation regulations, laying roads, insulation, etc., you can on the pages of our site, so return to this theme does not make sense.
How to ensure your own home water?
The problem of creating an autonomous water supply system a country house in the pages of the portal paid a lot of attention. So, are discussed in detail questions digging wells and equipment, drilling. Special publications will help determine the Choosing the right pump for well or a pump for watering the garden.
To solve the question of water supply directly from the draw-off points in several ways:
- The pump is turned on immediately when necessary water supply, i.e. directly &# 8212; from source to consumer. This scheme - one of the easiest in the organization, but also the most imperfect. It completely depends on the parameters of the pumping equipment, and most importantly - on the availability of power at the time of the water intake.
In addition, the automation of such a system, ie the installation of the flow sensor, the pump is started at Buda any opening of any kind was at the tap - no matter whether you want to take a shower, put washing, rinse the plate or even score a glass of water. Agree that at such frequent switching on and off any pumping equipment is unlikely to last for long.
This approach may well be feasible for example, watering the garden, or to provide water to a very small country house where only come home from time to time.
- The pump pumps water into a holding tank at the top of the house. Thus, there is always a certain margin, reducing dependence on the stability of the home side power supply.
It is possible, but not without drawbacks decision &# 8212; a spacious free-flow tank
Such a system is easier to be automated - you can set the float switch, which will control the start and stop the pump when the tank water level desired and to the extent it is consumed.
However, here are seen serious deficiencies. Firstly, for the installation of the storage tank is necessary to provide sufficient space in the upper part of the house. If it falls into the attic (and most often the case), you will have to do more and high-quality thermal insulation capacity. Secondly, such a drive usually has a very impressive size.
Placing this container in the attic would require additional efforts in its insulation
And third, the usual gravitational pressure of the water from the tank may not be sufficient for normal operation of home appliances. This means that the need to install another pump - for increasing the pressure, as shown in the above scheme. Agree that the installation of two pumps is not entirely and not always convenient, increases the overall complexity and vulnerability of the whole system.
- Finally, a third approach - the pump, a surface or submersible (deep) pumps water into the membrane type accumulator (1 pos.).
Optimal solution &# 8212; Diaphragm pump storage reservoir
Not only that, it creates the required supply of water - it also is at the correct pressure, so as to ensure the functioning of all available in the house plumbing and appliances. The system is controlled by a pressure relay (in this figure - 2 pos.) - it is intended to stop the pump at the time when the storage tank upper limit of the working pressure is reached. As the consumption of the water pressure decreases, and when it falls to the lower threshold (which is still somewhat higher than the pressure required for correct operation of home appliances), the pump will again be turned on to compensate for consumed inventory. Thus, pressure is constantly maintained at a desired operating range in membrane tank.
It is obvious that this scheme is the most convenient to use, optimal from the point of view of making economical use of electricity and the mortgaged resource pumping equipment. Such a system can be assembled from the individual components - the pump gidroakkumulyatornogo tank automation unit with a pressure switch. But very often it makes sense to prefer a ready technological solution - a special unit, which are arranged all the necessary elements of the system. It is this kind of equipment is called pumping stations.
Est circuit pump station shown in the figure below:
Schematic diagram of the pumping station apparatus
Structurally, the pumping station consists of the following elements:
water from a well or borehole provides a surface pump (1 pos.) of a particular type - the varieties will be mentioned below. To the water supply is laid intake hose (tube) (pos. 2) for which the termination is required to set the strainer (pos. 3) that does not allow ingress of suspended solids unacceptable size, and the check valve (pos. 4), preventing the dripping water down at pump off position.
Issuing under pressure from a pump water passes through another check valve (Pos. 5) and the splitter (pos. 6). With this "crosspiece" membrane bound accumulating tank (pos. 7), flexible hoses (Pos. 8) to the barometric switch (Pos. 9). Relay monitors the pressure level in the system, providing for timely triggering of the transmission power of 220 V (pos. 10) to the pumping installation. Through a pipe (. Key 11) is the water supply with the necessary pressure to the point of consumption: faucets in the kitchen, the bathroom, the sink ( "a" and "b"), showers ( "in"), the toilet tank toilet ( "Mr. "), washing and dishwasher (" d "and" e "), household tap - for irrigation of cleaning, car washing, etc. ( "G").
Features of the construction of pumping stations
The layout of the individual elements may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and depending on the model series. For example, barometric switches (pressure switches) may not have flexibles and simply be "planted" in the tube or on membrane tank. Nevertheless, the concept of this will not change significantly.
Externally stations arrangement can vary quite significantly, but it is only at first glance
There are quite significant differences and type of pump.
- Very often used conventional surface pumps are self-priming type. It - reliable and easy-to-install units that do not require complex assembly operations. They are characterized by a fairly high level of productivity are able to provide a good pressure, undemanding to clean water and airing. The disadvantage - low height lifting water from a well - typically in the range of 6 meters, in combination with a rather high noise level. So it is better for them to provide a separate room.
The pump has a built-in ejector
- Some self-priming pumps are equipped with built-in ejector - a special device that allows to significantly increase the intake of water from the depth of the well or wells. up to 10 - 15 meters ,. However, for this you have to "pay" even more noise and some decrease in overall efficiency - the energy spent on water recirculation loop ejector.
- If the water depth at the location of the source is significant, the only alternative to the use of becomes pumping station with external ejector.
External ejector allows water intake with a much more considerable depths
Loop of the movement of water sharply increases the suction pump characteristics, arranged on the intake and through an additional hose, lowered into the water and connected to the ejection nozzle.
Scheme recirculating water movement through the outer ejector
This connection allows to lift water from considerable depths (up to 40 - 45 meters) and pass it over long distances through pipes from a remote source. The external arrangement of the ejector unit reduces noise of the pump station. There are, of course, a drawback - such equipment is characterized by high energy consumption due to reduced efficiency.
- For shallow sources, up to 8 - 10 meters, are perfect for pumping stations with multi-unit type. The level of noise created quite low, so they do not become a source of irritation even when installed in a residential part of the house or in the kitchen. And wherein the pressure and pump capacity reach very high values. However, the design complexity and determines a much higher price than conventional self-priming plants.
Multistage pump has several successive working chambers
Multistage pumps may be immediately distinguished by the size of the working chamber - it has a markedly elongated cylindrical shape, as it has several impellers.
- Another possible variation pumps installed at pumping stations of - vortex. The special design of the working chamber and the shape of the wheel create turbulent water flow, wherein a high pressure, however, by reducing the device performance (compared with other types). Sampling depth is small - typically in the range 6 ÷ 7 meters.
For shallow sources is quite suitable vortex-type pump
These pumping stations of are useful for small houses with shallow source location - here they displayed "in full glory" its efficiency and quiet operation. Another common sphere of use - this as a pump to increase the pressure in the tap intrahouse system if need arises (e.g., a weak pressure from the central water line).
The following figure shows a typical layout of a pumping station in the water system of a private house.
Place the pump station in the water system of a private house
Add the pumping station can be in the back room of an apartment house, in a dedicated room, for example, in the basement or a basement. With fixed installations, it is important to pay attention to the laying of the pipeline from the well to the house (shown by the orange arrow) at a depth below the freezing of the soil and its high-quality thermal insulation.
Subtleties of laying water pipeline from the well to the house
Not only the right to install pumping equipment - is extremely important to correctly lay a water main from the water source to the apartment building. These issues are also reflected in the pages of our portal. Special article dedicated to the laying of water pipes from the well to the building. The same visitors who live in cold climates, it may be useful information water pipe heating.
Note the number of letter symbols of the arrow shown in the diagram. This quantity that will be needed in future for determining the required parameters of the pumping station - water depth fence, the height of the pressure generated by it, the system performance.
The choice of the pumping station
With some pumping station selection parameters reader already examined above. In particular, it was the type of pump and related factors - noise, cost. And now look at a few basic operational characteristics that are sure to take into account when purchasing a pump equipment.
The maximum depth of water intake
Selection of pumping stations for this parameter should be based on the actual characteristics of the water source and its distance from the place of installation equipment.
The fundamental is the distance along the height of the water surface in the well to the pump axis (shown in Scheme red arrows and the letter G). For a point of reference accepted to take the dynamic level of the well, that is, at constant average water intake for at least 24 ÷ 48 hours. The static level, which reaches the water from the well when in the last one or two days there were no selection can give a significant error in the calculations.
The values of dynamic and static power level everyone should know the owner. They are determined empirically by conducting measurement for a sufficiently long period. From these figures, by the way, and the debit of the well depends a lot (well), it will also become one of the key criteria for the selection of pumping equipment.
If the water source is located in the immediate vicinity, only a few meters from the pumping station, this value G may be enough. Of course, the pump runs at maximum capacity, you should add about 10 - 15% of the stock, the more so because the water is still and overcome the resistance of the check valve. But if you laid still considerable horizontal section (on the scheme - blue arrows and the letter L), then it should be taken into account and it - there will also be losses due to hydraulic resistance of the pipe.
In the case where the pipe is laid diameter of 1 inch, it is possible to proceed from the relation 1 = 10 meter vertical meter horizontal pipe laying. Generally household pumping station and equipped with a corresponding nozzle of such diameter. But if laid ¾ inch pipe, it is wise to take the ratio of 1: 7. Use smaller diameter pipe hardly anyone comes to mind - it is absolutely unreasonable.
And has a value pipe manufacturing material - a steel flow resistance substantially greater than the plastic.
Generated water pressure pump station
The pump station is designed to provide the required water pressure at any point of consumption, up to the most remote, given its characteristics, that is the minimum necessary for correct operation of the pressure. If it is simply a mixer, and there will be enough 1 ÷ 1.5 atmospheres (respectively, 10 ÷ 15 meters of water column). But for some devices, for example, a shower, hot tub, instantaneous water heater or other household appliances needed and more. This option must be indicated in the product specifications.
Necessarily taken into consideration the difference of heights of the pumping station arrangement and the draw-off point (the diagram - green arrows and the letter N), the length of the horizontal sections of the inner water network, the material and diameter of the pipes.
Below is a calculator which will avoid the complex calculations. Just enter the requested value - and get a result.
Calculator for calculating a desired pressure generated by the pumping station
Enter the requested value and press "calculate"the height difference between the point of installation the pumping station and the highest point of water consumption Parameters conduit from the pumping station to the farthest point of water use (horizontal portions of the pipe diameter greater than 1 inch in calculation is not accepted) PIPE Ø 1"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance PIPE ¾"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance PIPE ½"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance The pressure required for correct operation of the installed home appliances, based on the nameplate parameters (default, without use of machinery - 1.5 atmosphere)necessary pressure, atmospheres (bar)translated into meters
Directly created by the pressure of the operating range and the associated accumulation of membrane tank. The documentation of some models it is specified by two values - upper and lower boundary of the barometric trigger relays. Produced model in which the adjustment of water pressures in the system can be carried out within a certain range and independently. As a rule, for visual control of the pumping station is equipped with barometer.
The performance of the pumping station
The next important parameter - how the pumping station will be able to cope with the flow of water. Considered here can be different, for example, starting from the average daily consumption for each family member. However, it seems more correct calculation of peak consumption, which provides water supply to all delivery points in that unlikely, but still possible situation when they are used simultaneously.
Come here can be of average consumption for each point. Approximate values are shown in Table (expressed in liters per second).
|Faucet in the bathroom sink||0.1|
|Faucet on the kitchen sink||0.15|
|Mixer bath shower||0.25|
|hydromassage shower or bath||0.3|
|Crane (¾") For household purposes (irrigation, pomyvka car cleaning, etc.).||0.3|
Suffice it to sum the values for all available in the building of delivery points, to take into account the correction factor for their number and converted to liters per minute or per hour (typically just such parameters are specified in passports pumping equipment).
Qmax = ΣQ (1 ÷x) × Kx
Qmax - peak consumption.
ΣQ (1 ÷ x) - the amount of water flow of all points of water pumping from 1 before x.
It should correctly be that resulting value is indicative. It does not exceed actual debit of the well (well) to prevent the airing of pumping equipment or shallowing and siltation of water sources. If the actual flow rate must be smaller (in terms of source parameters) all the same in the selection should be based on it. Well, the house will have to solve the problem of consumption of any "administrative" measures to eliminate the possibility of simultaneous opening of draw-points.
Power supply and pumping equipment power consumption
These selection criteria are important not just in terms of the operation of the pumping station itself, how to position the gasket corresponding to the power supply line for her.
The vast majority of household pumping stations equipped with electric drives, operating from a single-phase AC 220 V. It is very rare, but still there are stations with three-phase motors (380 V) - are powerful machines designed for long-lasting and high-efficiency work to ensure the water of a large house or a whole standpipe in the stairwell of apartment buildings.
Power domestic pump stations normally lies in the range from 500 to 2000 watts. Accordingly, the wire size will be selected feed line, the type of circuit breaker, and the safety device (RCD).
As a rule, modern pump stations are equipped with their own systems and emergency shutdown - from overheating, "dry" stroke (in the absence of water in the source or in the intake sleeve), short-circuit or breakdown to earth, voltage surges, etc.
The volume of pumped storage tank
The greater the volume of the membrane tank, the less will be included powerplant, and the longer the pumping station itself. However, the increase in volume is always accompanied by the growth of the size and weight of the unit (not always have enough space for the installation), and an increase in the cost of the station. So, we need some kind of "golden mean".
- The most popular, according to sales statistics, are the pumping station with a tank capacity of 24 liters - it is enough to supply water to the holiday home or the organization of autonomous water supply for the needs of 1-2 people.
most &# 171; the running&# 187; are pumping station with a relatively small 24-liter tank membrane
- For a family of 3 ÷ 5 people, provided the permanent use is usually sufficient accumulator 50 liters &# 8212; the engine will not turn on too often, and in addition creates quite an impressive supply of water, which will be able to help out in case of sudden power failure.
- If the house is home to 6 or more people, then of course you need to think about a bigger accumulator - about 100 liters.
By the way, in some branded showrooms, working with branded products, practiced pumping station equipment storage vessel by the customer, based on the specific needs.
If you see the catalog of pumping stations, offered for sale, you can find installation and very small membrane tanks - sometimes the volume is only 2 liters. It is understood that seriously considered such as accumulator capacity at least naive - it serves rather to maintain the desired system pressure, water hammer smoothing. But the frequency of pump start-up in this tank is very high, and the apparent advantages in the cost of the station will be totally justified - long the pump will hardly serve.
- Differ pumping station and construction of the body material.
&# 8212; Pumps with cast iron body has a relatively low noise level and very reasonable price.
If you choose a model with cast-iron pump casing, note the presence of an internal anti-corrosion coating
The drawback - it is a great mass of the product. Furthermore, although the cast iron has good corrosion resistance in water, particularly in prolonged contact without moving, can be formed rusty plaque. Manufacturers are trying to solve this problem by applying a special protective coating on the inner walls. When choosing a pump station with a cast iron housing that aspect should be paid attention to.
&# 8212; stainless steel case, do not give a rusty sludge and significantly lighter in weight.
The housing is made of stainless steel
However, there are also a significant disadvantage - these pumping stations are the most "noisy" at work. In addition, their cost is much higher than that of devices with cast iron housings.
&# 8212; All more and more popular model, made of a special durable plastic.
Quality modern polymers are practically not inferior in strength steel and cast iron
They are, in fact, combine the advantages of both of the above type - have a low noise level and an absolutely inert with respect to water - does not change its composition. Many pumping stations in plastic have an additional anti-vibration protection.
- When buying you should pay attention to the presence and placement of mounting brackets (stands), the method of mounting the station on the mounting platform to the desired location.
- Important degree of protection of the enclosure against dust and water splashes. The higher the IP index, the better the station. The best choice would be the acquisition setup class not lower than IP54 - is almost complete protection of the electrical parts of the pump from dust and splash water.
- Conveniently will complement an integral filter for water - it is completely eliminate wear or failure of the pump due to possible contact with the working chamber of suspended solids from the source. However, nothing prevents install a strainer in the inlet and independently.
Do not forget the water purification system from an external source!
Water from an independent source is often far from health standards. Setting a mechanical filter before the pump station only warn its breakdown, but does not solve the issue of water quality. what are coarse filters and fine water, how and where they are encouraged to install - read the special publication of our portal.
- And, finally, if the pumping station, according to the owners, should have some mobility - planned its move from place to place as needed, it is worth paying attention to the product mass, equipping it with a carrying handle and usability fast setup and transfer to the "stowed position."
Perhaps we should evaluate the convenience and move the pump as necessary
An overview of household pumping stations models
Of course, the most important criterion for the choice of pumping equipment should be considered as the rating of the manufacturer. Such a purchase can not be called cheap, it is a few years ahead, and give money for no one knows the product is not quite reasonable with vague warranty.
Of domestic brands can safely recommend the pumping of "JEELEX" station - they are perfectly adapted exactly to the Russian conditions. It has a good reputation for setting marks "Vortex" and "Zubr" - is also Russian developments, however, mainly to let at the production facilities in neighboring China. However, the Chinese assembly practice and many European manufacturers.
"Heavyweight" in the field are always considered the German company pumping equipment - «Wilo SE», «Gardena», «Grundfos», «Metabo», «Kärcher». High demand for high-quality reliable pumping station of Italian companies - «Marina», «Pedrollo», «Ergus».
When you select a particular manufacturer never harm will clarify in the region organized by the service, whether there are specialized centers, where you can get technical support. It's a shame would be if purchased pumping station in your area will be regarded as "exotic", and even the trifling any spare part will have to be ordered from a great distance.
|"SVD-Caliber 410/2"||Station water supply of domestic production. |
Cast iron housing, without ejector.
Power - 410 watts.
Tank capacity - total 2 liters, which greatly narrows the scope of application station.
Dimensions 330 × 260 × 340 mm.
Weight 12.3 kg.
35 m of water. Art.,
30 l / min.
|«Quattro Elementi Automatico 601"||Inexpensive pump station of the middle class. |
Defence from "dry run" It is not provided.
Built-in pressure gauge.
Storage tank of 20 liters.
Power - 600 Watts.
Weight - 12 kg.
|8 m |
35 m of water. Art.,
2800 l / h
|"Jumbo JEELEX 60/35 P-24 4021"||One of the most popular models of the Russian manufacturer "JEELEX". |
Plastic enclosure, built-in pressure gauge.
Protection against dry running there, but provides the opportunity to install it.
Membrane tank - 24 liters.
Pump power - 600 watts.
Dimensions 540 × 280 × 530 mm.
Weight - 12.7 kg.
35 m of water. Art.,
60 l / min.
|«Metabo HWW 3300/25 G»||Cast iron housing. |
Built-in pressure gauge.
The compact layout of the station.
Convenient stand for mounting on the ground.
Tank - 24 liters.
Power - 900 Watts.
Weight - 19 kg.
|8.5 m, |
45 m of water. Art.,
3300 l / h
|«Gardena 4000/5 Comfort ECO»||Modern pumping station superior service. |
Plastic housing, a low noise level.
Easy to use control panel with mode switch and pressure gauge.
Integrated water purification filter.
Tank - 24 liters.
Weight - 13.7 kg.
Protection against "dry run."
Engine Power - 850 watts.
|8 m |
45 m of water. Art.,
3500 l / h
|«Karcher BPP 4500/50 1.645-291»||The original model made firm "karherovskom" style, with a very compact layout. |
Plastic housing, an integrated pressure gauge.
Additional adjustment frequency switching station.
Storage tank of 18 liters.
Power - 1200 Watts.
Dimensions 495 × 283 × 550 mm, weight - 17 kg.
|8 m |
50 m of water. Art.,
75 l / min.
|«Marina APM100 / 25"||Pump station fixed installation with an external ejector, allowing to make selection of with considerable water depth. |
Cast iron housing.
Membrane tank - 25 liters.
Drive Power - 1100 watts.
The increased diameter of the suction and output pipes (1¼ inches).
Weight - 24 kg.
35 m of water. Art.,
2,400 liters / hr
|«Grundfos Hydrojet JP 5/60»||Automatic lifting station with built-in ejector. |
The housing and the impeller blades - stainless steel.
Volume pumped storage tank of 60 liters.
Power - just 775 watts.
Weight - 23.2 kg.
|8 m |
40 m of water. Art.,
3000 l / h
And at the end of the publication - a useful video information, which will also help determine the choice of the pumping station for the home: