How to choose a pump for well

How to choose a pump for well

Drilling of the well itself does not mean a complete solution to water problems at home. Even if you are very lucky, and a good artesian well has a certain pressure of water, lifting it to the surface, it obviously will not be enough for the functioning of an autonomous water supply system. Besides the fact that water pressure should provide a fluid passage for all vertical and horizontal portions of the communication, it is necessary to create a reserve required not lower than 2.5 atmospheres to home appliances (heaters, boilers, washing machines, dishwashers, etc. .) to work correctly. Whatever it was, can not do without the pump.

How to choose a pump for well

How to choose a pump for well

Before choosing a pump for the well to get some idea of ​​the diversity of such equipment, its design and operating characteristics, evaluation criteria proposed in the sales model. It's a shame to purchase a pump that is simply not cope with the assigned duties. Probably at least an unpleasant situation will be when purchased is absolutely unnecessary "fancy" model, features that are simply unnecessary. And in fact, and in another case it - wasted money. In short, the need to go to the store with a clear view, which pump is the best in a particular situation.

First, let's find out what are downhole pumps. First of all, they can be divided into two large groups - the surface and drowned.

surface pumps

The very name speaks for itself - this setting is set to pump water out of the well at the surface and connected to the water horizon pipes or flexible hoses.

It would seem that such a scheme a lot more advantages - the mechanisms are always in sight, it is easy to control and periodic maintenance, there is no need to stretch long power cables to the site of water withdrawal, worrying about the quality of the wire insulation. Settings &# 8212; under the supervision of or are located in locked rooms, that is, significantly reduced the probability of theft by hackers.

However, surface installation scheme and carries a lot of shortcomings. First of all, it is much more modest rates of the created water pressure - they are simply not comparable with the same parameters of submersible pumps. In addition, one can not exclude the noise factor - installation of pumping equipment in the house is likely to require a separate room.

What types of pumps can be attributed to the category of surface:

Hand pumps

The mention of all familiar from childhood hand pump column, probably will cause many a smile, and yet they are still actively used and, for sure, they still have a future. Not in all situations, needs a constant supply of water - it is quite possible a single set (eg, shared the point &# 8212; in settlements, horticultural associations, garages, etc.). For such cases, hand pumps are characterized by extreme simplicity and reliability.

Hand column - such pumps still have not lost relevance

hand column &# 8212; such pumps still have not lost relevance

Their working scheme is simple - the piston, a cylinder and two valves, air and water, operating in antiphase. Muscular force through the lever is transmitted to the suction mechanism that allows you to collect the right amount of water.

The scheme and a manual pump operation

The scheme and a manual pump operation

No depending on the source of energy - it is often the only option for watering on the organization of suburban garden plots, which have not yet conducted electricity. It is only necessary to drill is not particularly deep and laborious Abyssinian well. Set a column - and the problem will be solved. Often, such a pump installed in the general electrical system through a tee, can be switched as required - a backup source will always be water in case of problems with the power supply.

Hand wheel can be mounted directly to the well (in the case of Abyssinian well), or have a tube lowered into the aquifer thickness.

Self-priming pumps surface

All the others discussed in this publication pumps are electric. In fairness it should be noted that there are actively used and the pump units with the power plant based on the internal combustion engine, so-called motor pumps, but they are not often expressed domestic use.

Thus, consideration of the family of surface electric pumps, which are designed to take water from the well, we should start with the simplest self-priming system.

Simple superficial self-priming pump

Simple superficial self-priming pump

The housing of such pumps never comes into contact with the external water and does not need special protection, which greatly simplifies the design. Since the source of the water they are connected to sleeves or permanently laid pipes, the prerequisite is the presence of the check valve - with "airing" they simply can not cope with the task.

Cooling system drive on them is not provided, and this is their weak spot - when careless chances of overheating. The design does not have much difficulty, monitoring and control arrangements - only switching on and off the motor. Thus, inevitably require additional equipment for the organization of automatic control system for water system operation.

These pumps do not have high espluatatsionnymi indicators. The average level of water pressure created by them does not usually exceed 8 ÷ 10 meters, which for the organization of the home water supply system will be insufficient. At best, they can be applied to a simple system of domestic water - storage tank with filling, set in the upper part of the building, from which water is supplied to the distribution points of the free-flow, by gravity.

In short, although it is inexpensive, but it is not the best option for residential water at home. Scope of such pumps in a private household, rather temporal organization portion irrigation system from a well or natural reservoir.

Domestic pumping stations

This technique is already much more serious, since it is adapted for the purposes of the organization of independent water supply in a building. Besides self-priming pump station necessarily equipped giroakkumulyatorom - specific membrane tank capacity that will continuously maintain the desired pressure in the domestic water network.

Pumping station has storage tank

Pumping station has storage tank

Accordingly, a general construction of such stations included monitoring and control mechanisms apparatus comprising drive the fall of pressure in the system to replenish the water reserve, and turn off the power when the desired pressure level.

Major problems still remain unsolved - high noise and insufficient pump performance of the station, which does not allow to lift water from considerable depths - the use of limited wall Abyssinian or sand wells up to 10 meters.

Modern pumping stations can be digitally controlled and soundproof

Modern pumping stations can be digitally controlled and soundproof

Available in more advanced models, with fully electronic control and the ability to program certain operating parameters. Such pumping stations may be incorporated into the polymer body, which partly solves the problems of increased noise and vibration.

Pumping station with an ejector (injector)

What to do if you still need to install a surface pump, but the depth of the water intake of 10 to 25 meters? Yield is - in this case to help self-priming pumping station, equipped with an ejector (external) or injected (integrated) mechanism.

Pump station with an external ejector

Pump station with an external ejector

In this case, an additional water circuit is formed with a pipe of smaller section on which a high velocity fluid is pumped into the water intake system. It creates a vacuum in the ejector creates additional pressure in the main suction pipe.

This leads to increased pressure - these settings can already work at considerable depths. However, this leads to an overall reduction of the pump performance because the water is sent back to circulation loop for ejection. But the "golden mean", arranged and created the water column and productivity is still often possible to pick up.

Wiring pumping station with the ejector

Wiring pumping station with the ejector

Another big disadvantage - such pumping stations even more noisy than conventional self-priming, that is sure to require a sound-proofed room.

If this option is not acceptable, nothing else remains but to choose a pump for submersible borehole.

Video: the construction and operation of the pumping station

Submersible pumps

The main feature of these pumps is already stipulated in their name - they are always found in the water column (in the well or in the well) and connected to the water pumping system of pipes and hoses. Power is supplied to them by a long well insulated cable.

A variety of submersible pumps

A variety of submersible pumps

Their installation scheme predetermines kontruktivnye their characteristic features. They always reliable waterproof metal housing by suitable corrosion of alloys with effective waterproofing detachable parts and assemblies. Hooking device is required for fastening tether at which the pump is lowered to the water intake.

The vast majority of pumps is equipped with built-in filters (mesh) is excluded from entering the mechanism and the pipe suspended solids unacceptable for this size of pattern. Many pumps, in addition, also have built-in check valve, which greatly simplifies its installation in home aqueduct. If it is not, it is usually provided by the threaded connection for the installation of the valve device

Standard circuit connecting a submersible pump

Standard circuit connecting a submersible pump

The advantages of submersible pumps a lot. These include:

  • Quiet operation - sound vibrations are damped water layer.
  • Such mechanisms are not afraid of thermal gradients or freezing - in the aquifer well is always maintained virtually the same temperature.
  • However, they are not afraid and overheating - pumped water through them efficiently cools the operating units.
  • Such pumps are much higher and productivity, and created pressure. Some models Pumps (deep) are able to raise the water to a height of 100 meters or more.

Disadvantages of the following:

  • Certain difficulties with the installation of such equipment often require the involvement of specialists.
  • The need to secure high-quality gaskets power lines, sometimes for quite long distances.
  • Difficulties in monitoring the operation of the equipment, with maintenance or repair work requiring each time the pump is removed from the well.

The vast majority submersible pump has a characteristic cylindrical shape, presenting a metal column height from half a meter to 2.5 m. But the principle of action they can vary considerably.

Vibration submersible pumps

Simple in its design, reliable, inexpensive, these pumps have won very wide popularity among owners of country houses. High productivity "brag" they can not, but for home and garden needs it often enough.

Compact and robust vibration pump

Compact and robust vibration pump

The principle of operation is as follows. The electric current passing through the coil windings, causes periodic, with a certain frequency, the attraction of the armature, which is connected through the rod membrane (diaphragm) and the piston. Quick this arrangement reciprocating movements create underpressure in the working cylinder and the water through a system of valves is sucked from the hole in the pump itself and passed through the outlet to the consumption points. No rotating nodes determines a high mechanical reliability of the pump, and electrical simplicity, completely filled waterproof compound, guarantees its long trouble-free and safe operation.

Schematic diagram of the apparatus vibration pumps

Schematic diagram of the apparatus vibration pumps

Some models are vibration pumps are capable of creating a water column of 20 meters and even more. The pump is easy, it is quite possible to drop into the well even on the nylon cord. Energy consumption are minimal. All this &# 8212; expressed advantages of such devices

Disadvantages of such mechanisms are available, and very significant. Such pumps are quite noisy, but the important thing is that they create vibratory waves can lead to destruction of the wellbore with time or erosion of the clay and bottom walls, sufficiently rapid silting aquifer. Apply these pumps are recommended only in sandy wells, with certain precautions in order to prevent excessive turbidity of the water and sand ingress in the intake holes. Ideally, the more they are suitable for all the wells, wearing concrete rings, and the well will be wise to choose another pump action principle.

Video: characteristic vibration pump

Centrifugal submersible pumps

The most common downhole pumps are centrifugal. They are placed inside the cylinder with electric drive. On the rotor axis is set Wing turbine, which rotates in the working chamber, having a peculiar shape "snail" to the feed pipe in the middle and output - at the periphery.

2. Second Embodiment -necessity pressure in the system will be supported solely by the pressure created by the pump.

Under this system, water pump must overcome the water lifting height to highest point of consumption, the resistance of the horizontal sections to the farthest point, and still provide the pressure required for the correct operation of household appliances (washing machine or dishwasher, shower stall, instantaneous water heater, and so on. P.).

The required values ​​for the head of household appliances it is indicated in the passport product. If no complex technology, for the daily use will be sufficient pressure to 1.5 ÷ 2 atmosphere (15 ÷ 20 m water column).

The rest of the calculation methodology is different from the above.

A calculator for calculating the required pump head for the direct supply of water to the consumption points

 Enter the requested value and press "calculate"difference in height between the pump installation point (the dynamic level of the well) and the highest point of water consumption Parameters pipeline from the well to the furthest point of water use (horizontal portions of the pipe diameter greater than 1 inch in calculation is not accepted) PIPE Ø 1"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance PIPE ¾"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance PIPE ½"tube material plastic pipe steel pipethe total length of horizontal portionsresistance The pressure required for correct operation of the installed home appliances, based on the nameplate parameters (default, without use of machinery - 2 atmosphere)necessary pressure, atmospheres (bar)translated into meters

  • Self-priming pumps for surface required parameter - the maximum suction depth. The fact that the pumping unit of this type is able to issue a post 20 &# 8212; 40 meters, it does not at all say that it will be able to lift water from a depth - this option otherwise stated.
  • Pump capacity, i.e. the amount of water which it is able to pump per unit time. The question can be viewed from two perspectives. First of all, the pump must meet the needs of water consumption, based on existing exemplary standards of daily consumption per person. But because during the day water is consumed unevenly, such a calculation is not entirely correct.

For example, based on their approximate consumption of 200 liters per person, for the family of 5 people, it would seem sufficient to 1000 liters per day. If we consider that consumption accounts for about 10 hours a day, it turns out that seems to be quite a pump with a modest capacity of 100 liters per hour.

However, such a calculation is to a certain extent is true, if you are using pumped storage tank. If the water is supplied to the point of consumption directly, it is wise to conduct a calculation based on the actual consumption for each of her at a time, taking into account the probability of peak load, when all or most of the taps will be used at the same time.

An exemplary flow rate at various points given in the table below:

Point vodorazboraSredny consumption
(L / s)
kitchen mixer0.15
Faucet in the bathroom sink0.1
bath mixer 0.25
Shower cubicle0.3
Toilet cistern0.1
Hygienic shower (bidet)0.08
Crane (¾") For household purposes (irrigation, pomyvka car, etc.)0.3

The total consumption value on the points multiplied by the coefficient k, depending on the total number of consumption points, give the desired peak flow rate.

k = 1 / √ (n-1), where n - the number of delivery points.

For the independent calculation is recommended to use a calculator, arranged as follows:

Calculator for calculating a pump performance peak load

 Enter the requested information, and click "calculate" Specify the presence and the number of points of water consumptionkitchen sink no one twowashbasin no one two threebath with mixer tap and shower no one two bath with hydro-massage (Jacuzzi)shower no ordinary with hydromassageWC with cistern no one twobidet no one twowashing machine - machine no oneDishwasher no oneeconomic crane no one twoTotal, total water consumption points, n:ten thousand10000

When selecting a pump performance must take into account another factor - this parameter must not exceed the actual debit of the well. Failure to observe this technique exit faces of failure due to "airing" or suction sediment.

  • The most important value for the downhole pump - its dimensions. The diameter of the cylinder must be smaller than the casing 20 ÷ 30 mm. The height of the pump must comply with its proper location in the aquifer.
Proper positioning a submersible pump in the well layer thickness of the aquifer

Proper positioning a submersible pump in the well layer thickness of the aquifer

Thus, to choose the pump so that it meets the required parameters, and power, and does not exceed the allowable size.

  • The permissible level of contamination. Typically, downhole pumps are designed solely for the pure water, so the maximum number of solid suspensions should not exceed 150 mg / liter.
  • Additional equipment pump. This selection parameter includes the presence of a pump protection system against overheating, automatic shutdown when lowering the minimum water level, built-in filters and check valves, completeness of product required couplings, power cable, other parts and accessories.
  • And the last important factor - the price, which is spread among different pump models can be quite large. However, to get the best quality equipment is still respected brands, which is accompanied by a great warranty period and the possibility of service.

Video: how to approach the selection of pumping equipment