- 1 Winter garden with his own hands
- 1.0.1 varieties of greenhouses
- 1.0.2 Proper location of the greenhouses
- 1.0.3 Winter garden with his own hands
Winter garden with his own hands
Many owners of private houses on the dream of having their sites greenhouse. This agronomic building owners will provide your family with fresh herbs and some types of vegetables in the late spring or early summer. Well, some of the design of greenhouses that involve heating and lighting systems, are used to grow crops all year round.
Winter garden with his own hands
Toeplitz their arms can be built of wood and brick in a complex with metal elements, having a frame structure, for example made of light metal pipes.
In implementing the ideas in the first place determined by the place where it will be installed a greenhouse. Of its area is directly dependent on the size of the future structure.
Next, you need to decide when this building will be used &# 8212; Only in the spring or during the whole year. If you select the "winter" option, then you should know that the building will be much more expensive, as the materials for it will take longer and will also be necessary to carry out the lighting, heating, plumbing and ventilation.
Then, select the material of manufacture and the type of construction of the greenhouse. To focus on one of them, some of the most frequently used options will be considered.
varieties of greenhouses
The construction of greenhouses, in principle, is not very complicated, so it can build any site owner alone. To do this, you need only prepare the material and tools. Greenhouses can be divided by type, starting from different criteria &# 8212; This manufacturing material, shape structure, fixed or time it will be.
The coating material greenhouses
To cover greenhouses used several different types of materials. They must be transparent, may be favorable to the growth of plants shades. For example, polycarbonate, which has become particularly popular in recent years, sometimes choose not only transparent colorless, but yellow or green.
Polycarbonate coating greenish
Often to cover the walls and roof of the greenhouse glass is used. It is in its structural composition and the transparency is excellent for this room, but to set the glazing must create a highly reliable solid frame structure, as this material has a considerable weight. Capital winter sometimes erect greenhouses of metal-plastic frames and double glazing, but this cost structure is extremely expensive.
Traditionally, glass is widely used for creating transparent walls and roof
Another embodiment, which is most frequently used for covering greenhouses is a polyethylene film. It can be used for pulling on the frame, constructed of any material, since it has a very small mass. Recently went on sale a special reinforced film, which is more durable and easier to fix it to the frame crate.
Greenhouse film with reinforcement
To determine the choice of material, you need to carefully examine its performance, which are presented in the following table:
|Fastening and weight||It has a low weight, and in certain constructions can be used without additional frame elements, and also without the base.||Glass has the biggest weight in comparison with other coating materials, and by selecting it, will need to consider a reliable framework established by the foundation.||Polyethylene has a very small mass, but requires a special attachment. |
If the material is not reinforced, it is fixed to the frame through a special rack and further fixed ropes stretched thin.
|Durability||Polycarbonate as greenhouse coverings can last 18 ÷ 25 s, depending on its quality. |
This material is flexible and has sufficient rigidity to be self-supporting construction element.
Mounted on the frame, it is not deformed and does not bias.
|Glass can last for a long time, since it is not influenced by UV rays and moisture. |
On the other hand, glass is brittle and inflexible material, therefore does not tolerate mechanical stress, heavy loads and deformation of the frame structure.
|Polyethylene has the lowest service life compared to other coating materials, as affected by UV light, which is gradually destroyed. |
Furthermore, it can not be called and stable to temperature.
|soundproofing||Polycarbonate well suppresses wind noise and rain, because of their structure.||If the material assembly is executed poorly, during strong wind gusts air can penetrate inside, and glass to issue ringing.||The film does not protect the greenhouse from the noise, and if the wind is very strong, then the material will be greatly rustling in the wind.|
|Appearance||Polycarbonate structure gives an aesthetic appearance and can make a real gem of a conventional greenhouse area.||Properly installed glass greenhouse will give a neat appearance.||The film looks neat and is transparent, only the first season of its use, and that - not always. |
Then, under the influence of the sun, temperature extremes and wind, it becomes turbid and loses its aesthetic appearance and light transmission.
|Security||Polycarbonate has high strength exceeding that of glass, about 200 times, and the easier it is about 15 times. |
In the fall of the material is not fragile and can not injure by fragments which are in or near the greenhouse people.
|Poorly installed glass - extremely dangerous working inside for the people. |
In addition, if the pieces fall to the ground a greenhouse, it is possible to seriously hurt in the subsequent conduct of cultivation.
Therefore, if it is planned to install the glass, it is recommended to entrust the installation of professional craftsmen.
|Perfectly safe for people and for soil of the greenhouse.|
|Care||For this material is easy to care - it is enough to wash with water, setting a strong pressure in the hose. |
However, it should be noted that the dust on the surface of the polycarbonate is almost invisible, so the greenhouse does not have to be washed frequently.
|On the glass there are traces of drops of rain, and well retained the dust. |
To get rid of the dirt on the surface, you need to make a lot of physical effort.
Especially uncomfortable and dangerous to perform cleaning activities on the greenhouse roof.
|Polyethylene film do not wash, since after wet cleaning on it remain divorces, and it becomes cloudy, making it difficult to complete the penetration of light inside. |
The only way out is very dirty, - complete replacement of the film.
|microclimate created||Polycarbonate can reliably be insulated greenhouse and protect plants from wind. |
Evaporation deposited on the inner surfaces, drain them into the soil.
In addition, the material is not only perfectly passes light, but also makes it more soft and diffused.
The heat generated by soil and plants, is securely stored inside the building, which creates a greenhouse effect.
|Glass is not able to create a high thermal insulation, if it is not made of metal construction with double-glazed windows. |
Material perfectly passes light, but does not dissipate it, and sometimes focuses on specific a bed, which is very harmful to the plant leaves.
|Dense new plastic film is able to create a high thermal insulation, but this season, under the influence of temperature, sun and wind, it becomes thinner and loses its original qualities. |
Therefore, the recommended coating films change every year.
After weighing all the "pros" and "cons" of materials, as well as taking into account the construction of the planned buildings, it will be possible to choose the type of coverage.
construction of greenhouses
Greenhouses have different designs - this can be a large room, or just a big box, covered with glazed frame. Used as construction, half of its height leaving the ground. Opt for one of the species will be possible only after the owner will understand the features of each.
- The simplest greenhouse construction, which can be constructed from readily available materials, includes a conventional box size, e.g., 2000 × 1500 mm, assembled from planks and mounted on a favorable portion of territory. For a greenhouse roof as often use old glazed frame.
One of the simplest structures with wooden frames
Such greenhouses are usually used for growing seedlings or greenery from early spring until late autumn.
- Another embodiment in a simple and accessible is the simple construction of the greenhouse frame structure made of reinforced plastic or polypropylene pipes, fittings, and sometimes even of thick steel wire, covered with plastic wrap.
Lightweight tubular frame covered with plastic wrap
If the greenhouses are selected plastic pipes, the carcass of them under the power to make even the female hands, as this material is easy enough to bend and keep their shape well.
A similar version of the greenhouse can be used during the spring-summer season, starting with spring and ending in late autumn. Ease of construction is that the seeds are planted under a film, such as tomatoes, after the emergence and strengthening of, the seedlings can not be transplanted. It simply thinned, and in establishing stability in the street and a comfortable temperature for the plants, with the design release film, opening the free flow of air and sunlight. In very hot weather, to the newly created frame can be quickly thrown over a special mesh that creates a penumbra, but allows light to penetrate right to the plants.
- A more sophisticated design, which is collected from the wooden beams and adhesive qualities the film can also be used throughout the spring-summer season. The dimensions of this greenhouse can be different - they range from how much to plant seedlings is planned, with a view to ensuring the convenience of working gardener.
Also fairly simple design, with hinged, openable as required ramps
In this design, be sure to provide an articulated lifting roof to access the plants to sunlight and air. It - also the seasonal variation of the structure, and it is advisable to use it only for the cultivation of seedlings, as in stable summer temperatures vegetables and herbs recommended to grow still in the open field.
Video: homemade greenhouse on a wooden frame film-coated
- If required to grow a small amount of green or seedling, it is possible to manufacture a greenhouse of metal barrels in which slits are made in the form of windows. As the roof in this design uses plastic transparencies - it at any time can be removed by opening access to the air, and close to the cool night-season did not cause damage to plants if necessary.
Simple compact greenhouse can be made from unnecessary metal cask
- A more sophisticated greenhouse construction in which it is already possible to set a moderate heating and start using it has a very early spring. It consists of a wooden or metal-frame. It has a full room, and it not only plants, but also the gardener will be protected from wind and cold temperatures. This greenhouse can be covered with a very thick plastic wrap or cellular polycarbonate. Creating the design of the pipes, it must be remembered that it has received enough light and strong winds could move it, damaging the seedlings, so its reference to the place you need to drive into the ground metal corners or fittings.
An interesting solution &# 8212; greenhouse frame is welded from very low cost of polypropylene pipes and accessories.
- Capital structure greenhouses equipped with heating and irrigation, can be used throughout the year. To a greenhouse to work effectively, it is usually made of reinforced plastic or aluminum construction and glass, which set the foundation.
This greenhouse &# 8212; already present capital structure
For easier maintenance heating and water delivery to the premises greenhouses, quite often, these designs is attached to the south wall of the house. In this case, the structure will serve as a kind of a winter garden that will delight owners not only fresh vegetables and herbs, but also ornamental plants color in every season.
Sometimes the greenhouse is attached to the south side of the house, and they become real &# 171; winter gardens&# 187;
- Another version of the winter greenhouse, whose design helps save on heating - this room it takes to half their height in the ground. This building, due to its high energy-saving qualities, often referred to as "greenhouse-thermos." To achieve the desired effect, for this greenhouse digs a pit, extending deep into the ground for 1600 ÷ 2000 mm. Additionally, above-ground height of erected walls 500 ÷ 700 mm, and then the entire structure is covered with the frame made of timber or metal brackets.
Recessed greenhouse thermos
Work on the construction of the structure is quite laborious and long, but in the course of its operation will be enough to save his system of heating. One of the important moments in the construction of greenhouses, a thermos is improvement, not only heating, but also effective ventilation.
Form greenhouse roof
Another criterion by which the greenhouse is divided, is the shape of the roof. From this it depends largely on the insolation, ie the qualitative premises lighting, and hence the creation of optimal conditions for growing plants.
- gable roof
Greenhouses with a gable roof can often be found on suburban areas, as it is this form contributes to efficient lighting on top of the room. Provided the correct location of the greenhouse, the sun will be a whole day from sunrise to sunset to "work", promoting the growth of plants.
&# 171; Classic&# 187; option &# 8212; gable roof
Therefore, such a structure quite often is used to provide winter greenhouses options, as at this time of year the plants are deficient in the sunlight.
- arched design
Arched structure made of metal pipes or metal elements. The first is usually covered with plastic wrap, and the second option is most often has a coating of polycarbonate. Metal structures can be purchased off the shelf, and they will only have to collect at the site. But the frame of metal pipes quite easily make yourself.
The special properties of polycarbonate allow you to create an arched structure
The convenience of such a greenhouse is not only its maximum illumination, but that on the arcuate roof not accumulate snow mass and the water, which means that the coating will not be susceptible to deformation due to the large load. Again, no need to climb to an altitude that remove snow from its surface.
Shed construction is most often placed on greenhouse-thermos or a building adjacent to one of the walls of the house or a high fence.
One ramp formed in an arcuate configuration
Shed can be straight or arcuate design, and depending on their shape selected coating material. For example, direct roof may be coated with any of the above transparent materials, and to generally used roof poluarochnyh polycarbonate panel.
bias level pent roof must provide free converging precipitation
If built lean-to greenhouse with a flat roof, it is important to choose the correct angle of inclination of its plane, or on the surface of the snow will linger, giving the design of high load.
Proper location of the greenhouses
To the sun throughout the day lit greenhouse, it is necessary to find the right place, because the yield of plants depends directly on the amount of sunlight received by them. Therefore, this structure is typically installed in an open space. If you are installing a greenhouse with a pent roof, it should turn the transparent side to the south.
Proper positioning of the greenhouse relative to the path of the daily movement of the sun
This takes into account the course of the sun, which runs its own "day's journey" from east to west with a maximum lifting point on the horizon to the south.
In addition, you need to install a greenhouse so that it is not in the shade of trees.
The figure shows three options which may occur during installation of greenhouses. Here you can see that it is necessary to take into account, in addition to the direction of travel of the sun.
Different, right and wrong greenhouses location
- The first option to install the most successful, because the greenhouse is open to light from all sides, and on the windward side (arrow "A") is protected by a living green fence that closes the building from blowing off in windy weather.
- Second Embodiment arrangement fails primarily in that the greenhouse is in the airflow path that will be formed when a strong wind in a kind of "wind tunnel" between two buildings or between the building and hedges (arrow "B"). Secondly, it is undesirable to establish a structure very close to other plants growing in the area, since for them it is very uncomfortable to be looked after.
- The third option can be called a failure, because the greenhouse is set under the tree, which will create a shadow that will reduce the sunlight to the plants in the greenhouse. In addition, when a strong wind fell from the branch of a tree can seriously damage the finish or the frame of the greenhouse.
Winter garden with his own hands
Drawing up a greenhouse project
If the greenhouse will be built on their own, after the choice of its model, and determine the optimal location for the installation, you can proceed to the compilation of the structure of the drawing. It is necessary to ensure that when you purchase the material is not to miss any of the necessary parts and to determine the required dimensions at once.
The most important task &# 8212; to properly design the structure of its greenhouses
The drawing will not only help with the purchase of material, but also during the production of billets, and build them into the overall design. The project is best done with reference to the site of the greenhouse in the area where you plan to install it, then it will be possible to assess all the factors that may adversely affect its operation and provide for their elimination.
Workload do not necessarily strictly in compliance with all rules of drawing, draw enough greenhouse by hand, calculate its size and affix them in the picture.
The marking on the ground
The marking area is required for major building greenhouses, as under it will build the foundation necessary. Especially, this process will need to spend, if selected for installation greenhouse thermos. The layout is carried out using the pegs and ropes. First determine the point from which will be carried markings peg is driven into it.
Layout area under greenhouse
Further, using the building area or a geodesic instrument, determine the direction of both sides of the greenhouse, which should form a right angle. Regarding the conduct of the angle, and the other points are determined greenhouse location.
Foundation pit and foundation construction
View of the excavation will depend on the kind of greenhouse selected for installation.
Strip foundation for capital greenhouses
When choosing capital greenhouses, strip foundation set mostly for her.
One of the most common options for &# 171; serious&# 187; greenhouses &# 8212; strip foundation
- Under it by marking-pit dug trench having a depth and a width of 300 mm.
- Since the walls of the greenhouse are not as severe as that of residential buildings, the foundation depth of 300 mm is sufficient to withstand a relatively small load.
- Above the ground base may be raised to a height of 200 to 500 mm, depending on whether the foundation wall will fulfill the function or they are built of brick.
- At the finished trench stacked and compacted sand airbag 50 ÷ 70 mm thick, the top layer has the same thickness poured distributed gravel.
- Along the trench fixed timbering from boards and beams, which laid roofing material, which will be an excellent waterproofing for the foundations.
- The next step formwork is filled with concrete, it was partitioned, and then pierce the bayonet shovel and gently tapped on the formwork, to remove air from the solution.
- If the frame is made of metal corner or he will need to secure the wooden bars, sometimes support posts or corner segments can be directly imbedded in the foundation.
The basis for the greenhouse-thermos
For greenhouse-thermos need to dig a trench deep enough, and if you plan to make a large area of agro-technical construction, will have to use specialized equipment, such as the work by hand takes a lot of time.
In order to maintain the required temperature parameters, must be indoor greenhouses have several thermometers that measure the temperature of both the air and soil. A thermostatic units electric heaters will be responsive to changing conditions in the automatic mode.
In addition, the need to create an optimal level of moisture for the plants, which should be of air of about 50 ÷ 60%, and the soil 65 ÷ 80%, taking into account the specific requirements of crops. To measure the humidity level using a special device - hygrometer.
Since greenhouse thermos used all year round, without artificial lighting in it simply can not do.
Capital will require an all-season greenhouse and sophisticated lighting systems
Optimal light fixtures for premises having a sufficiently large area, will be LED lighting. They are not only able to create an almost daily light intensity, but also help save a large sum, as they have a minimum of energy consumption. This kind of durable equipment, safe to use and has a very reasonable cost, which quickly pays for itself.
Such lamps are produced in different versions, but in order to achieve the maximum result of lighting, they recommended to attach the highest point of the ceiling of the greenhouse. In this case, each of the units will cover the maximum possible area of the light.
Used for lighting and conventional lighting, which necessarily need to close the shades. They are usually mounted on portions of joints of walls and roofs.
To plants covered the required number of hours per day, that is to simulate daylight, often use automatic light adjustment system with a built-in timer.
Electronic control unit with timer allow artificially maintained in a greenhouse &# 171; day&# 187; and &# 171; night&# 187;
On this device, set deadlines switching of lighting and turn it off. Thanks to this plant at any time of the year will receive the necessary amount of light for them, and the owner of a lot of greenhouses will save on electricity.
To build a winter version of the greenhouses need to make a lot of complex calculations that determine not only the amount of material, but also the overall costs to be produced. Yes, this is not an easy task, but for people who dream of cultivating various plants all year round, winter greenhouse is a favorite, and its owner can always boast of vegetables grown on their own regardless of the current season.