Electric heaters for energy-efficient homes
What could be better if the hosts in bad weather on the street waiting for the coveted home warm? It is possible to stay warm, dry wet things, relax in a comfortable environment, preparing for the next day. That is why taking care of a safe and effective heating of housing are always on the peak of urgency. However, existing or created in the apartment in a private home heating system sometimes, for various reasons, it may be sufficient.
Electric heaters for energy-efficient homes
In the middle of January frosts even working at full capacity heating system sometimes can not cope with the creation of a comfortable environment, take some "gain". Another example - the cold weather was established in September, before the start of the central heating system. Or vice versa, the natural vagaries associated with not wanting to fully come into its own in the spring. And in the summer, it happens that without a source of heat in the house or in the country is becoming very uncomfortable. Run out of one - not the best solution - two days of the heating system. And in all of these or other possible cases reliable helpers are electric heaters for energy-saving houses.
These appliances can differ in principle applicable space heating, size, site installation, according to the degree of mobility (portable or fixed mounting), the level of automation and control, and, of course, on affordability. A unites them - the ability to quickly heat the room to a comfortable temperature and maintain it as long as necessary.
The main varieties of modern electric heaters
Range of modern household electric heaters - a very wide and varied. According to the principle of heat transfer into the room can be divided into several groups.
- Above all, this heating apparatus, in which the main heating is by direct heat transfer from hot surfaces of the device directly to the room air. In short, such electrical heaters according to the principle of operation is almost completely repeated action of conventional water radiators of the heating system.
Some devices use the principle of direct heat
Typical representatives of this group - oil heaters in the different versions. Apart from these, here also may include quartz heating panels and a relatively new hybrid variety of heating appliances - modular battery, which even looks almost no different from conventional modern radiators.
The principle of the direct heat transfer from the heated surfaces of the device - not the most optimal, since the active heat transfer device is limited contact area with the ambient air. To increase the heating efficiency is necessary to resort to high temperatures in contact with the surface air and to increase its area, due to the complex configurations of heat exchange elements of the device.
- Convection heat distribution throughout the room - another principle of transmission power required for heating. It is implemented in devices that that's why got its name - electric convector heater.
Widespread popularity won electric heaters
Heating elements such heaters are hidden inside the casing, a special design which contributes to the creation of powerful natural rising warm air stream. These flows are moving fast towards the space of the room, providing a sufficiently quick and efficient heating of it.
- warm air to the flow direction, you can create and enforce - this principle is implemented in fan heaters and heat guns.
thermal fan &# 8212; Forced heated air moving device
Their distinguishing feature - is a built-in fan, which will also draw power when the appliance.
- Very efficient heat transfer is by means of thermal infrared radiation. Energy in this case extends over a distance of the electromagnetic waves lie in the infrared range (between the red part of the visible spectrum and microwave radiation) which diverge from the rays of the heating elements in a predetermined direction.
High efficiency infrared heaters differ
These waves are not aimed directly warm the air in the room - it is for them "transparent". But falling on any "opaque" barrier to cause heating of its surface, on which has thermal energy is transferred by means of direct heat exchange air.
For the implementation of infra-red heaters can be very diverse - from stationary floor or hanging devices, to mobile, portable small size vehicles. This category can be attributed to a special kind of electric heaters - film infrared system.
The forward direction of the heating technologies &# 8212; film infrared system
It is worth noting that in many heaters during their work combines several energy transfer principles. For example, a powerful oil radiator, in addition to the direct heat exchange, and sends a directional infrared thermal radiation flux, and causes the moving heated air convection. The difference is that the design of a specific instrument, as a rule, "sharpened" the prevalence of a single principle.
Now consider the mentioned types of electric heaters in more detail.
Electric heaters direct heat
Oil heaters - radiators, perhaps, among the most massive radiators. They combined mobile device and high power - the parameters of heating are quite compete with the conventional water radiator heating system and sometimes even surpass them.
The basic structure of the electric oil heater shown in the following scheme:
Typical oil heater
Metallic ribbed body (pos. 1) acts as a large area of the heat exchanger. Usually it is made of steel parts welded connections. The housing is hermetically sealed, and the inside is filled with oil (mineral) which performs the function of the primary coolant. Inside the bottom portion of the housing, substantially over its entire length, an electric heating element - PETN.
Very often the sectional housing has a special configuration that is intended for forming, in addition to direct heating, convection powerful ascending currents - this improves the operational efficiency of the device, particularly at startup in a cold room, which is necessary to heat rapidly.
By itself, the metal case, but still filled with thick oil, it turns quite massive. Either oil cooler provides support legs or that happens much more frequently trolley on wheels, rollers (pos. 2), allowing to move a heavy appliance in the desired location easily.
From the instrument out the power cord with plug for connection to the network (Pos. 3). Usually the housing provides for a special place or coil (pos. 4), where the cord can wind compactly when not in use.
All of the modern oil coolers fitted with controls. Even in the simplest configuration must be switch (sometimes it combines and operation mode switching function) with light indicator device operation (Pos. 5), and a thermostat regulator that can exhibit the desired upper limit of the heating temperature.
To facilitate movement of the electric heater on the premises they are usually equipped with special comfortable handles (pos. 7), which preclude their hands to touch the heating element, which can lead to burns.
Some models of oil heaters do not have a sectional ribbed body, and in the form of a flat panel. But the principle of operation remains the same.
Oil cooler with a flat heat exchanger
Heater, located in the housing, passes heating oil, and then, in turn, accumulates heat, and sends it to the heat transfer elements of the device. Oil as a heat exchanger chosen by chance. It has a high boiling point, which eliminates gassing upon heating. This fluid is much greater than water, heat capacity, that is able to store heat in large volumes. And finally, the oil medium prevents the formation of corrosion processes on metal parts and welded joints inside the radiator.
A power-saving device can be called with a certain degree of conditionality - ku power consumption it relatively high. However, the high heat capacity of the support and having a thermostat-controller contributed to the fact that the heating is not constant, but only as needed. Upon reaching the set temperature device is turned off, and will be able to give off heat is still quite a long time. Some are equipped with oil heaters also a timer that allows you to program the inclusion of heating in a timely manner - for example, at the time of the planned return home from work.
dignity such devices:
- The relatively low price.
- Limit simple operation - does not require any installations or installation work - all on a "set and switched on."
- Mobility - the heater can be adjusted as needed.
- Safety at Work - modern devices are equipped with multiple steps of protection, including providing for the emergency shutdown of the heater in the event of a rollover.
- High inertia heating. From the launch of the device to achieve on its surface heat exchanger housing the desired temperature can take quite a considerable time - sometimes up to half an hour. When you turn off to cool it too will be long enough.
- Bulkiness. Almost all devices of this class have a lot of size and weight. Install the heater in the right place, especially in a small space, it can interfere with the movement of the room, especially in view of reaching for him the power cord.
- Even the most "cute" oil heaters do not always fit into the interior design of the room, standing out from it out of tune "spot".
- The need for special precautions. Heavy angular fixture can cause injury. Furthermore, the surface is heated to very high temperatures, and accidental touching it can end in getting a burn. This is especially important in families where there are children - to leave them unattended in a room where there is a similar device - is strictly forbidden. As a way out - the acquisition of the oil cooler, which is equipped with a full-time guard.
Oil radiator, &# 171; dressed&# 187; shrouded
And anyway, even enforce such heaters for children's rooms - not recommended. Even the presence of the wheels on the device can encourage children to games that can end sadly.
As an example, oil heaters - small "line» «Ballu» mid-range models of well-known manufacturer.
|Device Power, W||1000||750||2000||2200|
|Voltage, W / Hz||220/50||220/50||220/50||220/50|
|Approximate heating area, m²||10||22||25||22|
|Number of stages of heating power||2||2||3||2|
|number of sections||5||7||9||eleven|
|Dimensions, mm (length, width, height)||250 × 120 × 550||330 × 120 × 550||400 × 130 × 580||470 × 130 × 580|
|Average price, RR||1800||3050||3650||3950|
As already mentioned, the use of such heaters have no difficulty. However, it should take into account some special features:
- When you first start gurgling sounds are possible - it is not a disadvantage, and extraneous noise soon to pass, when all the air is completely released from the heated oil. If further exploitation of such displays will not.
- Also, when you first turn it is possible odor. This, too, is a temporary phenomenon - should leave the heater for a few hours in operation, providing good ventilation of the room.
- It is necessary to use only standard instrumentation cord - use extension cords is not recommended.
- Do not install the heater directly under the point of its connection (socket).
- Do not use the heater too small in size rooms, less than 4 square meters.
- The staffing situation of the oil heater - only vertical. Include it in the other position is prohibited.
- Categorically ruled out the use of heaters for drying clothes or clothes with hanging on the heat exchanger section.
Modular electric radiators
These electrical heating devices are virtually indistinguishable in appearance from modern aluminum or bimetallic radiator of classical heating. Moreover, they are, in principle, such a system in miniature.
The modular heater virtually indistinguishable from modern radiators
In short, such heaters combine the heat medium heating the heat exchange function and further by type of conventional radiators.
Modular electric radiator arrangement
Inside the sectional housing is mounted heater - heater the desired power. Heating control installation and the required mode of operation by means of the microprocessor unit (pos. 1) which is equipped with a digital display and a convenient and intuitive touch panel to make preset adjustments or (pos. 3).
The number of sections (. 2 pos) may be different - is defined by the customer, depending on the area of the heated room and the main purpose of the device. The technical and operational characteristics of such a heater and allow its use as a backup or additional source of heat, and as the main heating system.
The height of such modular radiators (H) - 550 mm. For production use standard aluminum section with a center distance of 500 mm. Total length of device depends on the number of installed during assembly of the product sections. The width of one section (Lc) - 80 mm. Width placeable left or right of the control unit (Ly) may be 60 or 80 mm. So to calculate the overall dimensions - were not working.
Important - these modular radiators are completely ready for operation of the device, with balanced performance. Independently change the number of sections - is unacceptable.
The advantages of such electric heaters:
High efficiency. The electronic control system is very sensitive monitors the operating parameters and external temperature display, not allowing the unit to operate "in vain." Combined with the fact that the aluminum sections have excellent heat transfer characteristics, the power consumption for high-quality space heating will be minimal. The conducted tests have shown that this type of heaters consume no more than 30 ÷ 35% of its nominal capacity, is fully coping with the challenge of maintaining a comfortable temperature.
Such heaters can be mounted permanently, in analogy with conventional batteries, or installed on a trolley with wheels - type oil cooler mentioned above. Even when stationary mounting to hold them off and permutation - is not difficult.
The use of non-corrosive materials in the construction of the heater and the heat exchanger sections, as well as special chemically inert coolant to fill them ensures the longevity of the device.
All heaters of this class are equipped with reliable overheat protection system, short circuit breakdown phase the housing, voltage surges, etc. In addition, many set-volatile memory, saves the user settings for normal or accidental loss of the device.
For example - the technical details of the electric heating radiator modular "Optimaks -12C-1.56", shown in the first illustration:
|Thermal power of the appliance||1560 W|
|Mains voltage||220 ~ 240V / 50Hz|
|The range of room temperature control||0 ÷ 40 ° C|
|The maximum temperature of the heating aluminum sections||90 ° C|
|heater type||The tubular heating element in stainless steel housing|
|Number of power levels||7|
|Nominal power consumption||550 W / h|
|The presence of the thermostat||ie, electronic|
|Type controls||sensor, with digital display|
|The number and types of operating modes||7 modes: "Economy," "Rapid heating", "Comfort", "Minimum heating", "Multitarif", "Weekly timer", "Calendar"|
|Heated floor area||to 24 m²|
|installation Methods||floor or wall. Brackets or suspension trolley with wheels are optional|
|The amount of aluminum sections||12|
|Overall dimensions (height, length, depth)||570 × 1035 × 96 mm|
|The term of the manufacturer's warranty||24 months|
Quartz and Ceramic heating panels
The next type of modern electrical appliances alternative auxiliary heating - a flat wall panel with ceramic coating, artificial stone or composite silica.
High heat output at economical expenditure of energy show ceramic or quartz heating panel
The device of different models of such heaters may be some differences, but the basic diagram is one exemplary:
An exemplary diagram of the device and actions ceramic panel
The basis is the metal housing (pos. 1) having a reliable polymer coating. On the reverse side of the body are usually provided mounting holes for mounting brackets for wall panel placement.
Required thermo-padded set screen (pos. 2) showing the flow of heat into the front side of the heater.
The heat source is a resistive heating element (pos. 3). Thermal energy from it is transmitted directly to the outer liner, which is made of massive dense ceramic plate.
In fact, in that the heating device combines all methods of heat transfer. Direct heating of the air from the ceramic surface creates convection currents. A razogretaja plate becomes also a powerful source of thermal infrared radiation, which is felt at a sufficiently large distance.
In some models, for example, heaters St Petersburg brand "TeplEko" instead of ceramic plates used composite material, the basic component of which is a pure quartz sand. Moreover, at the production stage nichrome heating element is completely filled with such a composite with substantially all of the heater is obtained a monolithic structure. This eliminates even the theoretical probability of contact of the heating elements with air or water, which determines the highest resistance to burn.
All heaters of this type is distinguished in the principle of "hot brick" &# 8212; they become powerful battery "healthy" heat of air drying without burning and without dust or oxygen. Charge accumulated heat, heater turns off command thermostatic controls (usually in such systems employ remote wall thermostats), and will be able to give a long time to heat the room without power consumption. This ensures high efficiency of electric heating equipment systems.
The convenience of such devices and the fact that they are highly resistant to humid conditions (if done right on the power connection point). This means that they may well be used, for example, in bathrooms, in the gazebo, etc.
The advantage of these devices becomes their exterior design. They can be made by polished or textured natural stone &# 8212; sandstone, marble, granite, etc. It is possible to buy or order, and other types of finishing - for example, in a different tint, embossed or artistic performance. Usually such panels are used as wall heating appliances, but it is possible to transform them into portable and setting on foot or cart.
One last note. All the calculations are valid and modern heaters prove their effectiveness and energy-saving quality only if provided with reliable insulation property. When another scenario, electric heating devices are capable to ruin their masters because of the high cost of electricity. It is worth thinking in advance!