- 1 A pump for increasing the pressure of water
- 1.0.1 The main thing - to understand the reasons for the weak water pressure
- 1.0.2 What can be done?
A pump for increasing the pressure of water
You open the tap - water and it implies a sluggish stream. Wash hands or rinse dishes, with grief in half, still missing, but take a full shower - no longer works. Even worse is the case with a complex electrical household appliances - a gas water heater does not start and displays on the washing machine or dishwasher displayed notorious «Error».
A pump for increasing the pressure of water
The situation is very sad, but, unfortunately, quite common. To a large extent it faced by residents of urban high-rise buildings - in the peak hours of water pumping pressure in the water on the upper floors plummets. But in no way immune to similar and homeowners "on the ground" connected to the city water supply networks - we have to admit that the quality of public utilities service is often very far from acceptable performance. So, you need to take any action.
It would seem - Output obvious. You must install the pump to increase water pressure, and the problem go away by itself. However, such a measure is often a "partial solutions", that is, it does not remove the issue entirely. And in some cases, installing just like the pump altogether and becomes a waste of money, since it requires more in-depth, systematic approach.
The main thing - to understand the reasons for the weak water pressure
The technical documentation of pumping equipment in the articles so the descriptions on this subject, on the scales of the instrument can be used different units of pressure in the water. To immediately make this issue clear, give a small plate, which will help navigate the future:
|Technical 1 atmosphere (atm)||0.98||1||10||98.07|
|1 meter water column||0.098||0.1||1||9.8|
|1 kilopascal (kPa)||0.01||0.0102||0.102||1|
Too high accuracy at the household level, we do not need, therefore, to assess their conditions, with quite acceptable error level, you can do a rough equation:
1 bar ≈ 1 atm ≈ 10 m of water. Art. ≈ 100 ≈ 0.1 kPa MPa
So, what kind of pressure is considered normal to tap your home network?
In accordance with current regulations, the end consumer water to be supplied under pressure of about 4 bar. With such a head of work will be provided by virtually all existing plumbing and appliances - from conventional taps and cisterns to hydromassage showers or baths.
However, in practice such a smooth pressure is extremely rare. Moreover, variations in a smaller or larger side are quite significant. And that, and other phenomena can seriously affect the correct operation of the domestic water supply system. Thus, when the threshold is exceeded in 6 ÷ 7 bar possible occurrence depressurisation pipe joints, to stop and regulating valve. When the race to 10 bar there is a high probability of more serious accidents.
But with increased pressure to deal, in principle, is simple - just install at the entrance to a house or apartment a special device, reducer, which will equalize the pressure in the domestic water supply wiring and eliminate water hammer phenomenon. With proper choice of gear setting or at all points of the draw will be maintained optimal water pressure.
Gearboxes for stabilization of high pressure water
Much sharper problem is, if observed systematic lack of water pressure in the system. And here is where to start is to try to figure out what is the cause of this phenomenon. But for this it is necessary first of all to have a clear idea of how much pressure in your local home plumbing, whether it varies depending on the time of day or point of the draw, how things are, for example, from the neighbors on the landing, and the riser - the top and bottom . This information is largely able to clarify the picture.
The easiest way, of course, the pressure is measured by a conventional gauge. It is worth such a device is not so expensive, and it makes sense to install it permanently at the entrance to an apartment or house. Even better - mounted on the input mesh strainer wash water treatment with integrated pressure gauge - solved two problems. It will be only for a certain period regularly shoot and record testimonies about four times a knock - in the peak hours of consumption in the evening and in the morning, in the "normal" day and night mode. Then it will be possible to conduct a preliminary analysis of the situation.
Pressure gauge mounted on the washing filter mesh mechanical treatment
You can have the farm or rent at a friend's portable pressure gauge. Its easy to temporarily connect, for example, using a flexible liner to the water outlets of mixers or even directly to a spout, permitting a threaded connection.
You can make a homemade and simple gauge that despite the primitive structure, nevertheless able to give very accurate results.
For the manufacture of such a device will require a transparent plastic tube about 2,000 mm. Its diameter is large does not matter - the main thing that it was convenient to perform with tight = its connection with the union, which will be wound, for example, instead of the tap spout-chopper attachment.
Simple but very accurate method of determining the water pressure
Tube before measurement is connected to the tap (in principle, it could be any other water outlet) and positioned vertically. Produced water short run, and then achieve such a position that the liquid level was at approximately the same horizontal line with the connection point to the part of the crane there was an air layer (shown in Scheme - left fragment). In this position, the measured height of the air tube portion (ho).
Then, the upper hole logging tightly closed stopper to prevent venting. Crane opened to full. Water, squeezing the air column to rise. When the situation stabilizes, a minute or two, will measure the height of the column of air pilot (he).
With these two values, it is easy to calculate the pressure according to the following formula:
PB = rho × (ho / he)
PB - pressure in the water at this point.
rho - initial pressure in the tube. There will not be a big mistake to take him by the atmospheric, ie, 1.0332 al.
ho and he - air column height values obtained by experiment
Calculator experimental determination of the pressure in the water
Enter the results of the two measurements and get the resultatmosphericho - height of the air column before the opening tap, mmhe - the height of the column of air with the tap fully open, mm
If measurements are carried out at several points, and indications are obtained different, it's a sure sign that a possible cause of failure of pressure on this or that or the sanitary household appliance defect lies in the innermost wiring plumbing. It is possible that the old pipes overhaul overgrown rust or limescale and no additional equipment will not change the situation - will have to change the pipe layout.
Require such plumbing normal pressure &# 8212; simply naive
The cause of the pressure drop may be a long time do not change or filters clears - and the implementation of appropriate prevention time is getting to the field.
The reason may be hidden and have not served filters
Readings should be compared with similar parameters in neighboring apartments located on the same level - they should be approximately equal. Sometimes it helps to identify the problem, which lies in the water supply riser.
It would be nice to find out the situation in the neighboring apartments vertically - as far as the problem of low blood pressure affects them. With increasing height the pressure floor (in meters water column) must decrease roughly by the amount of excess.
And finally, if, of course, be possible, it is desirable to know the pressure to "lounger" at home, that is, on collectors in the basement, which are connected to the risers on the entrances. It is possible that the utility meet their obligations, and the water pressure is applied to the risers normal.
So scope of the problem is localized - often "instigator" of all the trouble becomes living below on the same riser landlord, who in making repairs in your bathroom Sause pipe diameter for one reason or another - "it is cheaper," "so comfortable and beautiful" "so suggested an experienced plumber" or even "I do all right, and the rest I do not care." Here, you will either negotiate for good, or take administrative measures across the public service.
If the collector and houses little pressure - should "seek the truth" in the public utilities as well as the quality of the service provided does not meet the requirements. Is it possible to achieve anything - still a big question, as you can hear a lot of reasons: from requiring replacement of the main pipelines to impossible now to install new pumps to replace outdated.
What can be done?
If all the "administrative plan" steps taken have yielded no results, and to ensure the correct operation of sanitary ware and household appliances is not enough pressure, it is necessary to take measures technological orientation. Here we have the need to install or that additional equipment. But, again, to say that the pump to increase water pressure will be a panacea - it would be naive.
Such a measure will be effective only when the water comes almost always fail, but it is not enough pressure to operate the appliances. For example, the owner of a private house, connected to the highway, where the pressure is constantly observed no higher than 1 - 1.5 bar, it will be able to install the pump at the entrance to the house, or even in front of the draw-off point, requiring higher levels. To some extent this is permissible and in urban high-rise buildings, but again - with a stable supply of water, but with a "deficit" of pressure.
A pump for increasing the pressure set before the gas heater
If the "failures" of the pressure reach that on the upper floors is often observed complete loss of water from the taps, raising the pump itself does not justify. First, he needs to "lean" on the minimum allowable for this model the pressure in the pipe to output the desired value, and from the void he can not create anything. Secondly, increasing the pressure, the pump is required to create a certain vacuum behind. When pressure failure open at any floor bottom valve into a "hole" through which air can be sucked. The pump will start trying to pump air, and in the best case, if it is equipped with protection against dry running, it will simply be permanently shut down, but if not - if not quickly burn out. And thirdly, somehow improve the situation in his apartment, the owner of the pump unintentionally worsen the situation in the neighboring.
What's the solution? There are several, but not all will be easy to implement.
1. Set the pump station operating in automatic mode, it is desirable - with a diaphragm pump storage tank maximum possible volume. The main element of such a station - a self-priming centrifugal pump type, i.e. capable of independently, even if the "zero" input pressure to raise the water from a certain depth (e.g., the basement collector or autonomous source) and create very substantial pressure on the outlet.
The required pressure provides a compact pumping station
Incoming pressure is usually set in the relay station, ensure that the pump motor only when the pressure is lowered in the home (the housing) plumbing below a set level. Storage tank will create a reserve supply of water, which will also be under pressure and consumed in those cases where the water supply line is temporarily interrupted.
Thus, the pumping station and water raises up, and creates the necessary system pressure and ensures certain reserve of water. The greater the volume of the storage tank, the pump is switched on less often.
The greater the volume of the storage tank, the less will be activated pump
The solution is excellent, it can be said &# 8212; optimal for private households, but in a multi-storey building with him may have many difficulties. If the pressure in the riser weak, suffer from it many residents of the upper floors. If they will be out of the situation in this way, the in-house rivalries flare up now for "jet", as the total number of incoming water is still all to be insufficient. Again the same situation as mentioned above - sucking water from the pipes lead to airing with all its consequences. Inevitable in this vone scandals and proceedings, "denunciations" against each other in the operating agency, or in the "Vodokanal". And installation of such a station without the knowledge of public utilities may well result in a fine decent, as the equipment introduces an imbalance in the overall operation of water supply system of the house.
There is another limitation: self-priming pumps are usually limited in depth (in the case of high-rise building - height) of water lift - about 7 ÷ 8 meters. That is, for the first and second floor - suitable, the third - already at a stretch and higher - is unlikely to cope.
2. Set in his home volumetric pressureless tank, so that it is constantly replenished during the hours of the normal water supply, even with low pressure. The simplest float valve will not allow the overflow tank.
If such a capacity for at least 200 ÷ 500 liters will be possible to install at the height of the ceiling, the water out of it will be either by gravity flow to the taps, to whom it is already possible to install conventional compact booster pumps, or will be able to mount the common outlet from the tank boost pump, power and performance which would be enough for all consumer devices. As an option - the compact pump station with a small amount of pressure accumulator, which has to be supplied from the storage tank. In this case, the reservoir can not raise up, and to find the most convenient place for the conditions to him.
The main obstacle to the realization of such a project - the tightness of the standard urban apartments: to establish even the largest capacity is simply nowhere. Again, such a solution seems optimal for a private developer.
However, it is possible that will be able to cooperate with their neighbors, which also has a similar problem to establish a collective storage tank large capacity, for example, in the attic of the house. The scheme will be the same - each apartment water flows by gravity, and then the owners are free to decide at what point they need to install step-up pump.
A possible solution to the problem &# 8212; with the installation of a collective storage tank
3. The third option also implies co-operation - is installed on the funds collected powerful pumping station with impressive storage tank and the accumulator to the power and performance of the equipment enough for the entire riser. So, in the basement can be a significant depressurized and pressurized water supply, and all tenants equally will receive it in the right quantity and with the required pressure.
The next important criterion - it is a question of performance of the pumping station. Its capacity should be enough to ensure a sufficient flow even during peak home consumption, to the almost incredible situation where simultaneously includes all points of demand.
There is a special method of calculation, which is based on the fact that each point has its own water consumption average consumption of water, as measured, for example, in liters per second.
|Faucet in the bathroom sink||0.1|
|Faucet on the kitchen sink||0.15|
|Mixer bath shower||0.25|
|hydromassage shower or bath||0.3|
|Crane (¾") For household purposes (irrigation, pomyvka car cleaning, etc.).||0.3|
There is a special formula, which not only gives the total value of consumption, but also takes into account the probability parameters - corrects the number of delivery points.
Lead the entire formula entirely, probably does not make sense, because the calculator is placed below, in which all relations have already been laid, and the calculation will not be difficult.
A calculator for calculating the required capacity of the pumping station
Enter the requested information, and click "Evaluate performance pumping station" Specify the presence and the number of points of water consumptionkitchen sink no one twowashbasin no one two threebath with mixer tap and shower no one two bath with hydro-massage (Jacuzzi)shower no ordinary with hydromassageWC with cistern no one twobidet no one twowashing machine - machine no oneDishwasher no oneeconomic crane no one twoTotal, total water consumption points, n:ten thousand10000
And finally, a brief overview of the popular models of compact pumping stations for the home plumbing system.
|"Jumbo JEELEX 70/50 H 50 N '||Pumping station of the well-known Russian manufacturer. |
Power - 1.1 kW.
Material - stainless steel.
Membrane accumulator 50 liters.
Pressure gauge, pressure switch, thermal protection and "dry run."
Weight - 19.3 kg.
|50 meters (5 bar) |
4,2 m³ / h
|«Grundfos Hydrojet JP 24 June"||Automatic pump «Grundfos» Company Station (Denmark). |
Power - 1.4 kW.
Accumulator 24 l.
Components - pressure gauge, pressure switch, check valve, overheating protection and "dry-running".
Weight - 20.7 kg.
|48 meters (4,8 bar) |
4.5 m³ / hour
|«HAMMER NST1000A»||High-quality pump station in China. |
Power - 900 Watts.
Steel case with corrosion-resistant coating.
pump working chamber material - stainless steel.
Accumulator 24 l.
Pressure gauge, with automatic pressure switch built filter coarse water purification.
Weight - 16 kg.
|Meter 42 (4,2 bar) |
3.6 m³ / hour
|«GARDENA 5000/5 eco inox»||Modern automatic pumping station original layout. |
1.2 kW. "Eco-mode" ensures minimum power consumption.
Integrated pressure gauge, a check valve, strainer water purification.
All the degrees of protection.
Storage tank na24 liters.
Weight - 17 kg.
|50 meters (5 bar) |
4.5 m³ / hour